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GRADUATE (Med. Lat. graduale, to admi...

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Originally appearing in Volume V12, Page 312 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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GRADUATE (Med. Lat. graduale, to admit to an academical degree, gradus), in Great Britain a verb now only used in the academical sense intransitively, i.e. " to take or proceed to a university degree," and figuratively of acquiring knowledge of, or proficiency in, anything. The original transitive sense of " to confer or admit to a degree " is, however, still preserved in America, where the word is, moreover, not strictly confined to university degrees, but is used also of those successfully completing a course of study at any educational establishment. As a substantive, a " graduate " (Med. Lat. graduatus) is one who has taken a degree in a university. Those who have matriculated at a university, but not yet taken a degree, are known as " undergraduates." The word " student," used of undergraduates e.g. in Scottish universities, is never applied generally to those of the English and Irish universities. At Oxford the only " students " are the " senior students " (i.e. fellows) and " junior students " (i.e. undergraduates on the foundation, or " scholars ") of Christ Church. The verb " to graduate " is also used of dividing anything into degrees or parts in accordance with a given scale. For the scientific application see GRADUATION below. It may also mean " to arrange in -gradations " or " to adjust or apportion according to a given scale." Thus by " a graduated income-tax " is meant the system by which the percentage paid differs according to the amount of income on a pre-arranged scale.
End of Article: GRADUATE (Med. Lat. graduale, to admit to an academical degree, gradus)
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