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GRAY

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Originally appearing in Volume V12, Page 396 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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GRAY, a town of eastern France, capital of an arrondissement in the department of Haute-Saone, situated on the declivity of a hill on the left bank of the Saone, 36 m. S.W. of Vesoul by the Eastern railway. Pop. (1906) 5742. The streets of the town are narrow and steep, but it possesses broad and beautiful quays and has a busy port. Three bridges, one dating from the 18th century, unite it to suburbs on the right bank of the river, on which is the railway-station from which lines branch off to Auxonne, Dijon, Besancon and Culmont-Chalindrey. The principal buildings are the Gothic church, restored in the style of the Renaissance but with a modern portal, and the hotel de ville, built by the Spaniards in 1568. The latter building has a handsome facade decorated with columns of red granite. Gray is the seat of a subprefect and has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a chamber of commerce, a communal college and a small museum. It has large flour-mills; among the other industries is the manufacture of machinery and iron goods. There is also a considerable transit traffic in goods from the south of France and the colonies, and trade in iron, corn, pro-visions, vegetables, wine, wood, &c., much of which is carried by river. Gray was founded in the 7th century. Its fortifications were destroyed by Louis XIV. During the Franco-German War the small Leech Kirche, an interesting building in Early Gothic style, dating from the r3th century, and the Herz Jesu-Kirche, a building in Early Gothic style, finished in 1891, with a tower 36o ft. high. Of the secular buildings the most important is the Landhaus, where the local diet holds its sittings, erected in the 16th century in the Renaissance style. It possesses an interesting portal and a beautiful arcaded court, and amongst the curiosities preserved here is the Styrian hat. In its neighbourhood is the Zeughaus or arsenal, built in 1644, which contains a very rich collection of weapons of the 15th-17th centuries, and which is maintained exactly in the same condition as it was 250 years ago. The town hall, built in 1807, and rebuilt in 1892 in the German Renaissance style, and the imperial castle, dating from the lrth century, now used as government offices, are also worth notice. At the head of the educational institutions is the university founded in 1586 by the Austrian archduke Charles Francis, and restored in 1817 after an interruption of 45 years. It is now housed in a magnificent building, finished in 1895, and is endowed with numerous scientific laboratories and a rich library. It had in 1901 a teaching staff of 161 professors and lecturers, and 1652 students, including many Italians from the Kustenland and Dalmatia. The Joanneum Museum, founded in 1811 by the archduke John Baptist, has become very rich in many departments, and an additional huge building in the rococo style was erected in 1895 for its accommodation. The technical college, founded in 1814 by the archduke John Baptist, had in 1901 about 400 pupils. An active trade, fostered by abundant railway communications, is combined with manufactures of iron and steel wares, paper, chemicals, vinegar, physical and optical instruments, besides artistic printing and lithography. The extensive workshops of the Southern railway are at Graz, and since the opening of the railway to the rich coal-fields of Koflach the number of industrial establishments has greatly increased. Amongst the numerous interesting places in the neighbourhood are: the Hilmteich, with the Hilmwarte, about roo ft. high; and the Rosenberg (157o ft.), whence the ascent of the Platte (2136 ft.) with extensive view is made. At the foot of the Rosenberg is Maria Griin, with a large sanatorium. All these places are situated to the N. of Graz. On the left bank of the Mur is the pilgrimage church of Maria Trost, built in 1714; on the right bank is the castle of Eggenberg, built in the 17th century. To the S.W. is the Buchkogel (2150 ft.), with a magnificent view, and a little farther south is the watering-place of Tobelbad. History.—Graz may possibly have been a Roman site, but the first mention of it under its present name is in a document of A.D. 881, after which it became the residence of the rulers of the surrounding district, known later as Styria. Its privileges were confirmed by King Rudolph J(. in 1281. Surrounded with walls and fosses in 1435, it was able in 1481 to defend itself against the Hungarians under Matthias Corvinus, and in 1529 and 1532 the Turks attacked it with as little success. As early as 1J30 the Lutheran doctrine was preached in Graz by Seifried and Jacob von Eggenberg, and in 1540 Eggenberg founded the Paradies or Lutheran school, in which Kepler afterwards taught. But the archduke Charles burned 20,000 Protestant books in the square of the present lunatic asylum, and succeeded by his oppressive measures in bringing the city again under the authority of Rome. From the earlier part of the 15th century Graz was the residence of one branch of the family of Habsburg, a branch which succeeded to the imperial throne in 1619 in the person of Ferdinand II. New fortifications were constructed in the end of the 16th century by Franz von Poppendorf, and in 1644 the, town afforded an asylum td the family of Ferdinand III. The French were in possession of the place in 1797 and again in 18o5; and in 1809 Marshal Macdonald having, in accordance with the terms of the peace of Vienna, entered the citadel which he had vainly besieged, blew it all up with the exception of the bell-tower and the citizens' or clock tower. It benefited greatly during the 19th century from the care of the archduke John and received extended civic privileges in 186o. See Ilwof and Peters, Graz, Geschichte and Topographie der Stadt (Graz, 1875) ; G. Fels, Graz and seine Umgebung (Graz, 1898) ; L. Mayer, Die Stadt der Grazien (Graz, 1897), and Hofrichter, ,Ruckblicke in die Vergangenheit von Graz (Graz, 1885). GRAllINI, ANTONIO FRANCESCO (1503-1583), Italian author, was born at Florence on the nand of March 1503, of good family both by his father's and mother's side. Of his youth and education all record appears to be lost, but he probably began early to practise as an apothecary. In 1540 he was one of the founders of the Academy of the Humid (degli Umidi) afterwards called " della Fiorentina," and later took a prominent part in the establishment of the more famous Accademia della trusca. In both societies he was known as Il Lasca or Leuciscus, and this pseudonym is still frequently substituted for his proper name. His temper was what the French happily call a difficult one, and his life was consequently enlivened or disturbed by various literary quarrels. His Humid brethren went so far as to expel him for a time from the society—the chief ground of offence being apparently his ruthless criticism of the " Arameans," a party of the academicians who maintained that the Florentine or Tuscan tongue was derived from the Hebrew, the Chaldee, or some other branch of the Semitic. He was readmitted in 1566, when his friend Salviati was" consul " . of the academy. His death took place on the 18th of February 1583. II Lasca ranks as one of the great masters of Tuscan prose. His style is copious and flexible; abundantly idiomatic, but without any affectation of being so, it carries with it the force and freshness of popular speech, while it lacks not at the same time a flavour of academic culture. His principal works are Le Gene (1756), a collection of stories in the manner of Boccaccio, and a number of prose comedies, La Gelosia (1568), La Spirit ata (1561), I Parent adi, La Arenga, La Sibilla, LaPinzochera, L'Arzigogolo. The stories, though of no special merit as far as the plots are concerned, are told with verve and interest. A number of miscellaneous poems, a few letters and Four Orations to the Cross complete the list of Grazzini's extant works. He also edited the works of Berni, and collected Tutti i trionfi, larri, mascherate, e canti carnascialaschi, andati per Firenze dal tempo del magnifico Lorenzo de' Medici fine all' anno 1559. In 1868 Adarno Rossi published in his Ricerche per le biblioteche di Perugia three " novelle " by Grazzini, from a MS. of the 16th century in the "Comunale" of Perugia: and in 187o a small collection of those poems which have been left unpublished by previous editors appeared at Poggibonsi, Alcune Foesie indite. See Pietro Fanfani's "Vita del Lasca," prefixed to his edition of the Opere di A. Grazzini (Florence, 1857).
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