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GRAZ [GRATZ]

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Originally appearing in Volume V12, Page 395 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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GRAZ [GRATZ], the capital of the Austrian duchy and crown-land of Styria, 14o m. S.W. of Vienna by rail. Pop. (1900) 138,370. It is picturesquely situated on both banks of the Mur, just where this river enters a broad and fertile valley, and the beauty of its position has given rise to the punning French description, La Ville des graces sur la riviere de l'amour. The main town lies on the left bank of the river at the foot of the Schloss-berg (1545 ft.) which dominates the town. The beautiful valley traversed by the Mur, known as the Grazer Feld and bounded by the Wildonerberge, extends to the south; to the S.W. rise the Bacher Gebirge and the Koralpen; to the N. the Schockel (4745 ft.), and to the N.W. the Alps of Upper Styria. On the Schlossberg, which can be ascended by a cable tramway, beautiful parks have been laid out, and on its top is the bell-tower, 6o ft. high, and the quaint clock-tower, 52 ft. high, which bears a gigantic clock-dial. At the foot of the Schlossberg is the Stadt-Park. Among the numerous churches of the city the most important is the cathedral of St Aegidius, a Gothic building erected by the emperor Frederick III. in 1450–1462 on the site of a previous church mentioned as early as 1157. It has been several times modified and redecorated, more particularly in 1718. The present copper spire dates from 1863. The interior is richly adorned with stained-glass windows of modern date, costly shrines, paintings and tombs. In the immediate neighbourhood of the cathedral is the mausoleum church erected by the emperor Ferdinand II. Worthy of mention also are the parish church, a Late Gothic building, finished in 1520, and restored in 1875, which possesses an altar piece by Tintoretto; the Augustinian church, appropriated to the service of the university since 1827; of the " fount of tears," and his characteristic melancholy, except in the few hours when it was indeed black, was not a pitiable state; rather, it was one secret of the charm both of the man and of the poet. A very complete bibliography of Gray will be found in Dr. Bradshaw's edition of the poems in the Aldine series. Dodsley published ten of the poems, exclusive of the " Long Story," in 1768. Mason's Life of Gray (1778) included the poems and some hitherto unpublished fragments, with a selection from his letters, much garbled. Mathias in 1814 reprinted Mason's edition and added much from Gray's MS. commentaries together with some more of his translations. The most exhaustive edition of Gray's writings was achieved by the Rev. John Mitford, who first did justice to the correspondence with Wharton and Norton Nicholls (5 vols., Pickering, 1836–1843; correspondence of Gray and Mason, Bentley, 1853) ; see also the edition of the works by Edmund Gosse (4 vols. 1884) ; the Life by the same in Eng. Men of Letters (2nd ed., 1889); some further relics are given in Gray and His Friends by D. C. Tovey (Cambridge, 1890) ; and a new edition of the letters copiously annotated by D. C. Tovey is in the Standard Library (19oo–19o7). Nicholl's Illustrations, vol. vi. p. 805, quoted by Professor Kittredge in the Nation, Sept. 12th, 1900, gives the true story of Gray's migration to Pembroke College. Matthew Arnold's essay on Gray in Ward's English Poets is one of the minor classics of literary criticism. (D. C. To.)
End of Article: GRAZ [GRATZ]
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