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Originally appearing in Volume V19, Page 958 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND A. Public Observatories. ' Greenwich, royal obs., lat. +51 ° 28' 38.4". Founded in 1675 for the promotion of astronomy and navigation. The obs. have therefore from the first been principally intended to determine the positions of standard stars, the sun and planets, and above all to follow the motion of the moon with as little interruption as possible, both on and outside the meridian. Since 1873 spectroscopic obs. and a daily phot. record of sun-spots have been taken. The eighth satellite of Jupiter was discovered photographically in 1908. The obs. is under the direction of the astronomer-royal; and from the time of its first astronomer, Flamsteed, the institution has always maintained its place in the foremost rank of obs. Thus the obs. of Bradley (ob. 1762) form the foundation of modern stellar astronomy ; but it was especially during the directorship of Airy (1835–1881) that the obs. rose to its present high state of efficiency. There are now two chief assistants, six assistants, and a staff of computers employed. The principal instruments now in use are: a meridian circle by Simms (and Ransomes and May as engineers), erected in 1850, having a circle of 6-ft. diameter and a telescope of 8-in. ap., Lassell's 2-ft. refl., erected 1884; 13-in. phot. ref r. with 10-in. vis. o.g. by Grubb; 28-in. refr. by Grubb; 26-in. phot. refr. by Grubb, with the old 12.8-in. refr. as guiding telescope; 9-in. phot. refr. by Grubb, and 3o-in. s.g. refl. by Common, the last four being on one stand; 8-in. altazimuth by Simms, erected 1896. The 26-in. and the 9-in. were presented by Sir H. Thompson. The standard " motor clock " is the centre of a system of electrically-controlled clocks scattered over the United Kingdom. The magnetic and meteorological department was founded in 1838; it contains a complete set of instruments giving continuous phot. records. The Observations are published with all details from 1750, beginning with 1836 in annual bulky quarto volumes; special results—e.g., Star Catalogues, Reductions of Lunar and Planetary Observations—are published in separate volumes. South Kensington, Solar physics obs., lat. +51° 29' 48.0", long. o h. o m. 41.5 s. W. Founded 1879, under Sir N. Lockyer; 3-ft. refl. and 3o-in. refl. by Common; 10-in. refr. by Cooke, and several siderQstats with attachments for spectroscopic and phot. work. Oxford, Radcliffe obs., lat. +51 ° 45' 35.4 long. o h. 5 m. 2.6 s. W. Founded in 1771 by the Radcliffe trustees. Obs. were regularly made, but none were published until 1839, when systematic obs. were begun with an 8-ft. transit instrument by Bird (1773) and a 6-ft. mural circle by Jones (1836). Heliometer (71 in.) by Repsold (1849); meridian circle by Troughton and Simms, mounted in 1861, formerly belonging to Mr Carrington; to-in. ref r. by Cooke (1887), Grubb refr. with 24-in. phot. and 18-in. vis. o.g. (1902); self-recording meteorological instruments. Besides the annual 8vo vols. of Observations (from 1840), four catalogues of stars have been published. Oxford, univ. obs., lat. +510 45' 34.2", long. o h. 5 m. 0.4 S. W. Finished in 1875; is under the Savilian professor of astronomy; 12i-in. ref r. by Grubb, and a refl. made and presented by Ike La Rue. The former has been used for photometric obs.; the latter for taking lunar photographs, by means of which the late Professor Pritchard investigated the libration of the moon; 13-in. phot. ref r. by Grubb attached to the 12i-in., used for phot. work. Cambridge, lat. +52° 12' 51.6", long. o h. o m. 22.8 s. E. Founded by the univ. senate in 1820. Chiefly devoted to meridian work—up to 187o with a 5-in. transit by Dollond and a mural circle by Jones; a new meridian circle by Simms, of 8-in. ap. and 3-ft. circles, was then erected. The " Northumberland equatorial " was mounted in the " English " fashion in 1838; the o.g. by Cauchoix is of 111-in. ap. R. S. Newall's 25-in. refr. by Cooke, erected 1891, used for spectrographic work; siderostatic refr. with 12-in. o.g. by Cooke, 1898. In 1908 the instruments of Sir W. Huggins' obs. were presented by the Royal Society. Durham, univ. obs., lat. +54° 46' 6.2" long. o h. 6 m. 19.8 s. W. Founded in 1841; small meridian circle by Simms, refr. by Fraunhofer of 61-in. ap., Almucantar of 6-in. ap. by Cooke (1900). Liverpool (Bidston, Birkenhead), lat. +53° 24' 4.8", long. o h. 12 m. 17.3 s. W. Founded in 1838 by the municipal council; transferred in 1856 to the Docks and Harbour Board; moved to Birkenhead in 1867. Specially intended for testing the rates of chronometers under different temperatures. Transit instrument by Troughton and Simms, and an 8-in. refr. by Merz. Kew (Richmond), lat. +51° 28' 6", long. o h. I m. 15.1 s. W. The central meteorological obs. of the United Kingdom, with self-registering meteorological and magnetical instruments. Established' in 1842 under the auspices of the British Association, afterwards transferred to the Royal Society. Since 1900 a department of the National Laboratory. A photoheliograph was employed at De La Rue's expense to take daily sun-pictures from 1863 to 1872. Edinburgh, royal obs., Blackford Hill, lat. +55° 57' 28.0", long. o h. 12 M. 44.2 s. W. Founded in 1811 by subscription; the building on Calton Hill erected in 1818. In 1834 the founders handed over the administration to the government, and in 1846 theownership was similarly transferred. Since 1834 the obs. has been under the direction of the astronc mer-rcyal for Scotland, who is also professor of practical astronomy in the univ. Professor T. Henderson (1833–1845) began extensive meridian obs. of fixed stars with a mural circle of 6-ft. diameter and an 8-ft. transit. A 2-ft. s.g. refl. by Grubb was erected in 1872. New obs. erected on Blackford Hill 1893–1895 for the instruments presented by Lord Crawford; 15-in. refr. by Grubb, transit circle by Simms of 8-in. ap., 12-in. s.g. refl. by Browning, two 6-in. refrs. and a very fine library; also the 2-ft. refl. The old obs. on Calton Hill now belongs to the city and is used for instruction; a 21-in. refr. by Wragge has been erected. Glasgow, univ. obs., lat. +55° 52' 42.8", long. c h. 17 M. Io•6 s. W. Organized in 184o by subscription, aided by subsidies from the univ. and the state. Meridian circle by Ertel of 6-in. ap.; 9-in. refr. by Ccoke, 20-in. s.g. refl. by Grubb with spectrograph. Two catalogues of stars were published by the late director, R. Grant. Dublin, situated about 4 m. N.W. of Dublin at Dunsink, lat. +53° 23' 13.1", long. o h. 25 M. 21.1 s. W. Belongs to the univ. ; erected in 1785; is under the direction of the " Andrews professor of astronomy and royal astrcnomer of Ireland." In 18o8 a reversible meridian circle by Ramsden and Berge of 8-ft. diameter was put up, with which Brinkley observed assiduously till 1827. In 1868 was erected a refr. of I11-in. ap. by Cauchoix (e.g. formerly belonging to and given by Sir J. South), which has been used for researches on stellar parallax. A meridian circle by Pistor and Martins of 6.4-in. ap. was mounted in 1873, and a 15-in. s.g. refl. for phot. work in 1889. Astronomical Observations and Researches made at Dunsink in 4to parts. Armagh, lat. +54° 21 12.7", long. o h. 26 m. 35.4 s. W. Founded and endowed by Archbishop R. Robinson in 1790. Possessed very few instruments until the obs. was enlarged by Archbishop Lord John George Beresford in 1827, when a mural circle and a transit by Jones were provided, with which meridian obs. were made till 1883, published in two star catalogues; 10-in. refr. by Grubb (1885) used for micrometer work. B. Principal Private Observatories in z9o8. Mr W. Coleman's obs., Buckland, Dover, lat. +51° 8' 12", long. o h. 5 m. 11 s. E. Cooke 8-in. refr. used for obs. of double stars. Mr J. Franklin-Adams's obs., Mervel Hill, Hambledon, Surrey, lat. +51° 8' 11.6", long. o h. 2 M. 30-2 s. W. Erected 1903; twin equatorial by Cooke with 12-in. and 6-in. lenses, another with 8-in. and 6-in. lenses, used for phot. survey of the heavens with special reference to the Milky Way. The former instrument was used at the Cape in 1903–1904. Rev. T. E. Espin's obs., Tow Law, Darlington, lat. +54° 43' 30", long. o h. 7 m. 14 S. W. 17i-in. refl. by Calver, used since 1888 for spectroscopy and obs. of double stars. Mr W. H. Maw's ohs., Kensington, lat. +51° 30' 2.8", long. o h. o m. 49.4 s. W., 6-in. refr. by Cooke (1886). Also at Outwood, Surrey, lat. +51° II' 38", long. o h. o m. 23.7 s. W., 8-in. refr. by Cooke (1896), both used on double stars. Sir Wilfrid Peek's obs., Rousdon, Lyme Regis, lat. +5o° 42' 38", long. o h. 11 m. 59.0 s. W. Erected by the late Sir Cuthbert Peek in 1885; 6.4-in. refr. by Merz used for obs. variable stars. Earl of Rosse's obs., Birr Castle, King's county, Ireland, lat. +53° 5' 47", long. o h. 31 M. 40.9 s. W. In 1839 the earl made and mounted a refl. of 3-ft. ap. (remounted as equat. in 1876), and in 1845 he completed the celebrated refl. of 6-ft. ap. and 54-ft. focal length. These instruments, particularly the latter, were used from 1848 to 1878 for ohs. of nebulae, and revealed many new features in these bodies; results published in the Phil. Trans. and collected systematically in the Trans. Roy. Dubl. Soc. (1879–188o). Experiments were made by the present earl tc determine the amount of heat radiated from the moon. Rugby School (Temple Obs.), lat. +52° 22' 7", long. o h. 5 M. 2 s. W. Founded in 1872; 8i-in. refr. by Clark, used for obs. of double stars and of stellar spectra. Stonyhurst College obs., Lancashire, lat. +53° 50' 40", long. o h. 9 M. 52.7 s. W. An 8-in. refr. by Troughton and Simms, mounted in 1867, used for spectroscopic and micrometric obs.; 15-in. Perry memorial refr. by Grubb mounted in 1893, used chiefly for solar work. C. Private Observatories now discontinued. Mr J. G. Barclay's obs., Leyton, Essex, lat. +51° 34' 34", long. o h. o m. 0.9 s. W. In activity from 1862 till 1886, Ic-in. refr. by Cooke; chiefly devoted to double stars. Mr G. Bishop's obs., South Villa, Regent's Park, London, lat. +51° 31' 29.9", long. o h. o m. 37.1 s. W. In activity from 1836 to 1861, then removed to Twickenham, and discontinued in 1874; had a 7-in. refr. by Dollond, with which Mr J. R. Hind discovered ten minor planets and several comets, and constructed maps of stars near the ecliptic. Mr R. C. Carrington's obs., Redhill, lat. +51° 14' 25'3", long. o h. o m. 41.3 s. W. Established in 1854; had a 41-in. refr. and transit circle of 5-in. ap. (now at Radcliffe Ohs.). With the latter a catalogue of the positions of 3735 stars within 9° of the pole, with the former regular obs. of sun-spots, were made from 1853 to 1861. 956 Mr A. A. Common's obs., Ealing, London, W. (1876-1903). 18-in. s.g. refl. erected in 1876, s.g. refl. of 36-in. ap. (mirror by Calver, mounting by the owner), erected in 1879; chiefly used for celestial photography, replaced by a refl. of 5-ft. ap. in 1889. Colonel Cooper's obs., Markree Castle, Co. Sligo, Ireland, lat. +54° Io' 31.8", long. o h. 33 M. 48'4 s. W. Founded by the late E. J. Cooper, who in 1834 erected a refr. of 13.3-in. ap. (o.g. by Cauchoix). This instrument was from 1848 to 1856 used for determining the approximate places of 60,000 stars near the ecliptic. The obs. was restored in 1874, and the refr. was used for double-star obs. till 1883. Earl of Crawford's obs., Dunecht, Aberdeenshire, lat. +57° 9' 36", long. o h. 9 M. 40 s. W. Founded in 1872; 15-10. refr. by Grubb, 12-in. s.g. refl. by Browning, two 6-in. and several smaller refrs. meridian circle by Simms similar to the one at Cambridge, numerous spectroscopes and minor instruments, also a large library and a collection of physical instruments. Chiefly devoted to spectroscopic and cometary obs. Whole equipment presented to Edinburgh obs. in 1888. Mr E. Crossley's obs., Bermerside, Halifax, Yorkshire. Equatorial refr. by Cooke of 9.3 in. ap., erected in 1871, chiefly used for obs. of double stars till 1902. Rev W. R. Dawes's obs., first at Ormskirk (1830-1839), lat. +53° 43' 18", long. o h. II m. 36 s. W.; afterwards at Cranbrook, Kent (1844-185o), lat. +51° 6' 31", long. o h. 2 M. io•8 s. E.; then at Wateringbury, near Maidstone, lat. +51° 15' 12", long. o h. I m. 39.8 s. E., till 1857; and finally at Hopefield, Haddenham, lat. +51° 45' 54", long. o h. 3 M. 43.4 s. W., till Mr Dawes's death in 1868. Possessed at first only small instruments, then successively a 6-in. refr. by Merz, a 72-in. and an 8i-in. refr. by Clark, and an 8-in. refr. by Cooke, with all of which a great many measures of double stars were made. Mr W. De La Rue's obs., Cranford, Middlesex, lat. +51° 28' 57.8", long. o h. I m. 37.5 s. W. Established in 1857; with 13-in. refl , de-voted to solar and lunar photography. The Kew photoheliograph was employed here from 1858 to 1863 to take daily photographs of the sun. The refl. was presented to the Oxford univ. obs. in 1874. Mr S. Groombridge's obs., Blackheath, lat. +51° 28' 2.7", long. o h. o m. o•6 s. E. In 1806 Mr Groombridge obtained a new transit circle of 4-ft. diameter by Troughton, with which he up to 1816 observed stars within 5o° of the pole forming a catalogue of 4243 stars. Sir William and Sir John Herschel's obs. at Slough near Windsor, lat. +51° 30' 20", long. o h. 2 M. 24 s. W. William Herschel settled at Datchet in 1782, and at Slough in 1786, and erected several 20-ft. refl. (of 18-in. ap.), and in 1789 his 4o-ft. refl. of 4-ft. ap. The latter was comparatively little used (two satellites of Saturn were discovered with it), while the former served to discover about 2500 nebulae and clusters, 800 double stars, and two satellites of Uranus, as also to make the innumerable other obs. which have made the name of Herschel so celebrated. Sir J. Herschel used a 20-ft. refl. at Slough from 1825 to 183, and from 1834 to 1838 at the Cape of Good Hope, to examine the nebulae and double stars of the whole of the visible heavens, discovering 2100 new nebulae and 5500 new double stars. Sir William Huggins's obs., Upper Tulse Hill, London, lat. +51° 26' 47", long. o h. o m. 27.7 s. W. Founded in 1856; furnished with an 8-in. refr. (by Clark and Cooke). In 187o was erected an equat. mounting with a I5-in. refr. and a Cassegrain refl. of 18-in. ap., both made by Grubb for the Royal Society. With these Sir W. Huggins has made his well-known spectroscopic observations and photographs of stellar spectra. The instruments were transferred to the Cambridge obs. in 1908. Rev T. J. Hussey's obs., Hayes, Kent, lat. +51° 22' 38", long. o h. o m. 3.6 s. E. In activity from about 1825 for about twelve years; 62-in. refr. by Fraunhofer, used for making one of the star maps published by the Berlin Academy. Mr G. Knott's obs., Cuckfield, Sussex (from 186o to 1873 at Woodcroft, lat. +51° 0' 41", long. o h. o m. 34 s. W., afterwards at Knowles Lodge, Cuckfield) ; 7.3-in. refr. by Clark, used for observing double stars and variable stars till 1894. Mr W. Lassell's obs., from 184o to 1861 at Starfield near Liver-pool, lat. +53° 25' 28", long. o h. 11 m. 38.7 S. W.; contained refl. of 9- and 24-in. ap.; employed for obs. of the satellites of Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, and of nebulae. The 2-ft. refl. was used at Malta in 1852-1853, and a 4-ft. refl. was mounted in 1861, also at Malta, and used till 1864 for obs. of satellites and nebulae. The eighth satellite of Saturn, the two inner satellites of Uranus and the satellite of Neptune were discovered at Starfield by Mr Lassell. Dr J. Lee's obs., Hartwell, Bucks, lat. +51° 48' 36", long. h. 3 M. 24.3 s. W. In 1836 Dr Lee came into possession of Captain Smyth's 6-in. ref r., and mounted it at Hartwell House where it continued to be occasionally employed for double-star obs. and other work up to about 1864. Mr F. McClean's obs., Rusthall House, Tunbridge Wells. Phot. 12-in. refr. and o.g. prism by Grubb used for photos. of star spectra, 1895-1904. Mr R. S. Newall's obs., Gateshead, Newcastle-on-Tyne. A 25-in. ref r. by Cooke was mounted in 1870 but never used; presented to Cambridge obs. in 1891. Dr Isaac Roberts's obs., Crowborough, Sussex, lat. +51° 3' 7" long. o h. o m. 37 s. E. 20-in. s.g. refl. by Grubb (with 7-in. refr.) used for phot. of nebulae and clusters 1890-1904. Captain W. H. Smyth's obs., Bedford, lat. +52° 8' 27.6", long.. o h. I m. 52.0 s. W. In 183o Captain (afterwards Admiral) Smyth erected a 6-in. refr. by Tulley, and observed the double stars and nebulae contained in his " Bedford Catalogue " (1844). Sir James South's obs., from 1816 to 1824 at Blackman Street, Southwark, long. o h. o m. 21.8 s. W. Here South took transit obs. of the sun, and he and J. Herschel measured double stars, in 1821-1823. In 1826 South erected an obs. at Campden Hill, Kensington, lat. +51° 30' 12", long. o h. o m. 46.8 s. W., and procured a 12-in. o.g. from Cauchoix. As 'Troughton, however, failed to make a satisfactory mounting, the glass was never used till after it had been presented to Dublin ohs. in 1862. Colonel Tomline's obs. at Orwell Park, Ipswich, lat. +52° 0' 33", long. o h. 4 M. 55.8 s. E. lo-in. refr. by Merz, used for obs. of comets from 1874 to 1889. Mr W. E. Wilson's (d. 1908), obs., Daramona, Streete, Co. Westmeath, Ireland, lat. +53° 41' 12", long. o h. 29 M. 59 S. W. 2-ft. refl. by Grubb, and other instruments for phot. and solar work. Lord Wrottesley's obs., from 1829 to 1841 at Blackheath, lat. +51° 28' 2", long. o h. o m. 2.7 s. E., where a catalogue of the right ascensions of 1318 stars was formed from obs. with a transit instrument by Jones. In 1842 a new obs. was built at Wrottesley Hall, lat. +52° 37' 2.3", long. o h. 8 m. 53.6 s. W., where the transit and a 7i-,i in.-refr. by Dollond were mounted. Obs. were here made of double stars. FRANCE Paris, national obs., lat. +48° 5o' I1•2", long. o h. 9 M. 20.9 s. E. Founded in 1667, when the construction of a large and monumental building was commenced by the architect Claude Perrault. J. D. Cassini's obs. made the institution for some time the most celebrated obs. existing, but later the activity declined, although several eminent men, as Bouvard and Arago, have held the post of director. Since 1854, when Leverrier assumed the directorship, the obs. have been conducted with regularity, and, together with a number of most important theoretical works, published in the Annals (Observations and Memoirs). The principal instruments now in use are: a meridian circle by Secretan and Eichens, with an o.g. of 9:5-in. ap., another by Eichens (given by M. Bischoffsheim) of 7.5-in. ap., a 15-in. refr. by Lerebours and Brunner, a 12-in. refr. by Secretan and Eichens, a refr. of 9.5-in. ap., an equat. coud6e by Henry and Gautier of 104-in. ap. (1883), another by the same of 23i-in. ap., vis. and phot. (1891), phot. ref r. of 13 in, by the same. A s.g. refl. of 4-ft. ap. was mounted in 1875, but has never been used. In addition to this national obs. there were during the latter half of the 18th century several minor obs. in Paris, which only lasted for some years. Among these were the obs. at College Mazarin, lat. +48° 51' 29", where Lacaille observed from 1746 to 1750, and from 1754 to 1762, and the obs. at the E°cole Militaire, lat. +48° 51' 5", built in 1768 and furnished with an 8-ft. mural quadrant by Bird, with which J. L. d'Agelet observed telescopic stars (1782-1785), and which was afterwards (1789-1801), under Lalande's direction, employed for observing more than 50,000 stars, published in the Histoire Celeste (18oi). Meudon, close to Paris, lat. +48° 48' 18", long. o h. 8 m. 55.6 s. E. Founded in 1875; devoted to physical astronomy, and especially to celestial photography, under the direction of J. Janssen; 32-in. vis. and 24i-in. phot. ref r. by Henry and Gautier, refl. by the same of 39-in. ap. There is a branch obs. on Mont Blanc, where a polar siderostat with 12-in. o.g. and 20-in. mirror is occasionally used for solar and spectroscopic work (15,780 ft. above sea-level). Montsouris, situated in the Montsouris Park, south of Paris, lat. +48° 49' 18", long. o h. 9 M. 20.7 S. E. Founded in 1875 for the training of naval officers. Juvissy (Seine-et-Oise), private obs. of N. C. Flammarion, lat. +48° 41' 37", long. o h. 9 M. 29.0 s. E. 91-in. refr. used for obs. of planets. Chevreuse (Seine-et-Oise), private obs. of M. Farman (1903), lat, +48° 42' 33", long. o h. 8 m. 4.5 s. E.; 8-in. refr. by Mailhat used on double stars. Besancon, chronometric and meteorol. obs., lat. +470 14' 59.0", long. o h. 23 M. 57.1 s. E. Opened 1884; 8-in. refr., 12-in. equat, coud6e, 72-in. transit circle, all by Gautier. Lyons, old obs. in lat. 45° 45' 46", long. o h. 19 M. 18 s. E., at the Jesuit college. A new obs. was erected in 1877 at St G6nis-Laval, at some distance from the city, lat. + 45° 41' 41 .o", long. o h. 19 M. 8.5 s. E. Transit circle by Eichens (6-in. o.g.), i2-in. equat. coud6e by Gautier, 12-in. siderostat. Bordeaux, univ. obs. at Floirac, 4 km. N.W. of the city, lat. +44° 50' 7.3", long. o h. 2 M. 5.5 s. W. Founded 1882; 7-in. transit circle by Eichens, I4-in. refr. by Merz and Gautier, 13-in. phot. refr. by Henry and Gautier. Marseilles, lat. 43° i8' 17.5", long. o h. 21 M. 34.6 s. E. Originally belonging to the Jesuits, taken over by the ministry of the navy in 1749. It was here that J. L. Pons made his numerous discoveries of comets. New buildings erected in 1869; 9i-in. Merz. refr., refl. of 32-in. ap. s.g. by Foucault, 71-in. transit circle. Toulouse, lat. 430 36' 45.0", long. o h. 5 M. 49.9 S. E. Erected in 1841 (Darquier had observed at the Lyceum towards the end of the 18th century); reorganized 1873; 9-in. refr. and phot. refr. by Gautier, i3-in. and 32-in. refl. Nice, lat. + 43° 43' 16.9" long. o h. 29 M. 12.2 s. E., founded and endowed by R. L. Bischoffsheim for the Bureau de Longitude (188o), situated at Mont Gros, north-east of Nice; a refr. of 3o-in. ap. by Henry and Gautier, a meridian circle by Brunner of 8-in. ap., 15-in. refr. and 151-in. equat. coudee by Henry and Gautier. A bbadia (Basses Pyrenees), lat. + 43° 22' 52.2", long. o h. 7 M. 0.1S. W. Founded by A. d'Abbadie, 1858, belongs now to the Paris Acad. of Science. 6-in. transit circle. GERMANY Altona, lat. + 53° 32' 45.3", long. o h. 39 M. 46.1 s. E. Founded in 1823 by the Danish government to assist in the geodetic operations in Holstein. A meridian circle by Reichenbach (of 4-in. ap.) was procured, to which in 1858 was added a 44-in. equat. by Repsold. The obs. is best known by the fact that the Astronomische Nachrichten, the principal astronomical journal, was published here from 1821 (by H. C. Schumacher up to 185o, by C. F. W. Peters from 1854). The obs. was moved to Kiel in 1874. Bamberg, lat. + 49° 53' 6.o", long. o h. 43 M. 33.6 s. E. Founded and endowed by the late Dr K. Remeis, completed 1889; 74-in. heliometer by Merz and Repsold, 104-in. refr. by Schroder. Berlin, royal obs., lat. + 52° 30' 16.7", long. o h. 53 M. 34.9 s. E. Was erected in 1705 as part of the building of the Academy of Sciences (lat. + 52° 31' 12.5", long. o h. 53 M. 35 s. E.), a very unsuitable locality. A new obs. was built In the southern part of the city, finished in 1835. Refr. by Utzschneider and Fraunhofer of 9-in. ap. (used chiefly for obs. of minor planets), a meridian circle by Pistor and Martins of 4-in. ap., another by the same makers of 7-in. ap. Berlin, obs. of Urania Society for diffusing natural knowledge, lat. + 52° 31' 30.7", long. o h. 53 M. 27.4 s. E. Opened 1889; 12-in. refr. by Schott. In the Treptow Chaussee is a popular obs. with a 27-in. ref r. by Schott and Steinheil. Bonn, univ. obs., lat. + 5o° 43' 45.0", long. o h. 28 m. 23.2 s. E. Finished in 1845; meridian circle by Pistor of 44-in. ap., heliometer by Merz of 6-in. ap. The former was used by F. W. A. Argelander for observing the stars contained in his three great catalogues. The obs. is chiefly known by the zone obs., made from 1852 to 1859, with a small comet-seeker, on which Argelander's great atlas of 324,i98 stars between the north pole and -2° decl. is founded, continued with a 6-in. refr. from -2° to -31° decl. by Schonfeld. A meridian circle of 6-in. ap. by Repsold was mounted in 1882. Bothkamp, F. G. von Billow's obs., lat. + 54° 12' 9.6", long. o h. 40 m. 31.2 s. E. Situated a few miles from Kiel, founded in 1870. With a refr. of II-in. ap. by Schroder, Dr K. H. Vogel obtained valuable results in 1871–1874; since then it has only been used occasionally. Bremen. In the third storey of his house in Sandstrasse, H. W. M. Olbers (d.1840) had his obs., lat. + 53° 4' 38", long. o h. 35 M. to s. E. ; though the principal instrument was only a 34-in. refr. by Dollond, many comets and the planets Pallas and Vesta were discovered and observed here. Breslau, univ. obs., lat. + 51 ° 6' 55.8", long. i h. 8 m. 8.7 s. E. Founded 1790. In a small and unsuitable locality; 8-in. refr. by Clark and Repsold erected 1898. Dresden, Baron von Engelhardt's obs., lat. + 51° 2' 16.8" long. o h. 54 M. 54.8 s. E. A 12-in. refr. by Grubb (mounted 188o), used for obs. of comets and double stars, presented to Kasan obs. in 1897. Dusseldorf (Bilk, originally a suburb, now part of the city), lat. + 51° 12' 25.0", long. o h. 27 M. 5.5 s. E. Founded and endowed by Professor J. F. Benzenberg (d. 1846); best known by the discovery of twenty-one minor planets by K. T. R. Luther;-44-in. refr. by Merz, 71-in. refr. by Merz and Bamberg. Gotha.—In 1791 an obs. was founded by Duke Ernest II. at Seeberg, lat. + 50° 56' 5.2", long. o h. 42 M. 55.8 s. E., on a hill a few miles from Gotha, the chief instrument being a large transit instrument by Ramsden. Through the labours, principally theoretical, of F. X. Zach, B. A. von Lindenau, J. F. Encke and P. A. Hansen, the institution ranked with the first obs. A new obs. was built at Gotha in 1857, lat. + 50° 56' 37.5", long. o h. 42 M. 50.4 s. E., which received the instruments from Seeberg, including a small transit circle by Ertel (made in 1824), also a new equat. by Repsold of 44-in. ap. Gottingen, univ. obs., lat. + 51 ° 31' 48.2", long, o h. 39 m. 46.2 s. E. An obs. had existed here from 1751, where Tobias Mayer worked. In 1811 a new building was constructed. Besides his mathematical works, K. F. Gauss found time to engage in important geodetic and magnetic obs.; meridian circle by Repsold (41-in. ap.), another by Reichenbach (44-in.), 6-in. heliometer by Repsold (1888). Hamburg. lat. + 53° 33' 7.0", long. o h. 39 M. 53.6 s. E. Built in the year 1825. With a meridian circle of 4-in. ap. by Repsold, K. L. C. Rumker observed the places of 12,000 stars. A refr. of to-in. ap. by Merz and Repsold was mounted in 1868. A new obs. is now being built 20 km. south-east of the city, lat. + 53° 28' 46", long. o h. 40 m. 58.5 s. E., with a 234-in. refr by Steinheil and Repsold, 74-in. transit circle by Repsold, and a 39-in, refl. Heidelberg, grand ducal obs., lat. + 490 23' 54.9", long. o h. 34 m. 53.1 s. E. On the Konigstuhl hill, 500 ft. above the Neckar; opened 1898. Consists of an astrometric and an astrophysical department. The former has a i3-in. refr. by Steinheil and Repsold, an 8-in. refr. by Merz and a 64-in. transit circle by Repsold. The astrophysical department is chiefly devoted to phot. work with a triple equat. with two 16-in. lenses and to-in. guiding telescope, as well as with a 28-in. s.g. refl. by Zeiss. Jena, univ. obs., lat.+ 50° 55' 349", long. o h. 46 m. 20.3 s. 7-in. refr. mounted 1891. Kid, univ. obs., lat. + 54° 20' 27.6", long. o h. 40 M. 35.6 s. E. Contains the instruments removed from Altona in 1874, also an 8-in refr. by Steinheil and a 9-in. transit circle by Repsold. Konigsberg, univ. obs., lat. + 54° 42' 50.4", long. i h. 21 m."59.0 s. E. Built 1813; F. W. Bessel was the director till his death in 1846, and nearly all his celebrated investigations were carried out here, e.g. obs. of fundamental stars, zone obs. of stars, researches on refraction, heliometric obs., by which the annual parallax of the star 61 Cygni was first determined, &c. The instruments are a 4-in. transit circle by Repsold (1841), a 6-in. heliometer by Utzschneider (1829), and a 13-in. refr. by Reinfelder and Repsold (1898). Landstuhl (Palatinate), private obs. of J. P. H. Fauth, lat. + 49° 24' 42.9", long. o h. 30 m. 16.3 s. E.; 7z-in. refr. Leipzig, univ. obs. Erected 1787–1790 on the " Pleissenburg "; lat. + 51° 20' 20.5", long. o h. 49 M. 30.2 s. E.; possessed only small instruments, the largest being a 44-in. ref r. by Fraunhofer (183o). In 1861 a new obs. was erected, lat. + 51° 20' 5.9", long. o h. 49 m 33'9 s. E., with a refr. of 84-in. ap. by Steinheil, replaced in 1891 by a 12-in. ref r. by Reinfelder and Repsold, a meridian circle by Pistor and Martins of 6.3-in. ap. and a 6-in. heliometer by Repsold. Lilienthal, near Bremen, lat. + 53° 8' 25", long. o h. 36 m. i s. E. J. H. Schrdter's private obs.; from 1779 to 1813. Contained a number of refl. by Herschel and Schrader, the largest being of 27-ft. focal length and 20-in. ap. (movable round the eye-piece), used for physical obs., chiefly of planets. Destroyed during the war in 1813; the instruments (which had been bought by the government in 1800) were, for the greater part, sent to the Gottingen obs. Mannheim, lat. + 49° 29' 10.9", long. o h. 33 M. 50.5 s. E. Built in 1772; very few obs. were published until the obs. was restored in i86o, when a 6-in. refr. by Steinheil was procured. In 1879 the obs. was moved to Karlsruhe and later to Heidelberg. Munich, at Bogenhausen, royal obs., lat. + 48° 8' 45.5", long. o h. 46 m. 26.1 s. E. Founded in i8o9; a transit circle by Reichenbach was mounted in 1824, an II-in. equat. refr. by Fraunhofer in 1835. The former was used from 184o for zone obs. (about 80,000) of telescopic stars. 6-in. transit circle by Repsold mounted 1891. Potsdam, lat. + 52° 22' 56.o", long. o h. 52 M. 15.9 s. E. "Astrophysical obs.," founded in 1874, devoted to spectroscopic and photo-graphic obs. A refr. by Schroder of ap., another by Grubb of 8-in. ap., a refr. by Steinheil and Merz with 9-in. vis. and i3-in. phot. o.g. and a refr. by Steinheil and Repsold with 31-in. phot. and 194-in. vis. o.g., spectroscopes, photometers, &c. Results are published in 4t0 vols. Strassburg, univ. obs., lat. + 48° 35' 0.3", long. o h. 31 M. 4.5 s. E. Finished in 1881; an i8-in. refr. by Merz; altazimuth of 54-in. ap., meridian circle of 64-in. ap., and a 64 in. orbit sweeper, all by Repsold. Wilhelmshaven (Prussia), naval obs., lat. + 53° 31' 52.2", long. o h. 32 M. 35.1 s. E.; situated on the Jande to the north of Oldenburg. Founded in 1874; meridian circle by Repsold of 44-in. ap., and meteorological, magnetical, and tide-registering instruments. AUSTRIA-HUNGARY Vienna, imperial and royal obs. On the univ. building an obs. was founded in 1756, lat. + 48° 12' 35.5", long. I h. 5 M. 31.7s. E. Owing to the unsuitable locality and the want of instruments, very few obs. of value were taken until the obs. was rebuilt in 1826, when some better instruments were procured, especially a meridian circle of 4-in. ap., and a 6-in. refr. by Fraunhofer (mounted in 1832), used for obs. of planets and comets. From 1874 to 1879 a large and magnificent building (with four domes) was erected at Wahring, north-west of the city, lat. + 48° 13' 55.4", long. I h. 5 m. 21.5 s. E. In addition to the old instruments, two refrs. were erected, one by Clark of 111-in. ap., another by Grubb of 27-in. ap. (mounted 1882) ; later a i5-in. equat. coudee by Gautier and a 13-in. phot. refr. by Repsold have been mounted. Vienna (Josephstadt), private obs. of T. von Oppolzer (d. 1886), lat. + 48° 12' 53.8", long. h. 5 M. 25.3 s. E. Established in 1865; 5-in. refr. by Merz, 4-in. meridian circle. Vienna(Ottakring) ,private obs.of M.vonKuffner,lat.+48°12'46.7", long. i h. 5 m. 11•o s. E. Completed 1886; 104-in. vis. and 6.3-in. phot. refr. by Steinheil and Repsold, 8-in. heliometer and 41-in. transit circle by Repsold. Prague, univ. obs., lat. + 500 5' 15.8", long. o h. 57 M. 40.3 s. E. Founded in 1751 at the Collegium Clementinum, on a high tower. 6-in. refr. by Steinheil and a 4-in. meridian circle. Senftenberg (in the east of Bohemia), lat. + 5o° 5' 55", long. 1 h. 5 m. 5i s. E. Baron von Senftenberg's obs.; established in 1844. Obs. of comets and planets made with small instruments till the owner's death (1858). Olmiitz, lat. +40° 35' 40", long. I h. 9 M. o s. E. E. von Unkrechtsberg's obs.; 5-in. refr. by Merz. J. F. Julius Schmidt observed planets and comets from 1852 to 1858. Kremsmiinster (Upper Austria), lat. +48° 3' 23.1", long. o h. 56 m. 31.6 s. E. Founded in 1748 at the gymnasium of the Benedictines. 3-in. meridian circle (mounted in 1827); 51-in. refr. (mounted in 1856), used for comets and minor planets. Transit circle by Repsold (19o7). Foltz (sea-coast, Austria), naval obs., lat. +44° 51' 48.7", long. o h. 55 M. 23.1 s. E. Founded in 1871; meridian circle of 6-in. ap. by Simms, 6-in. refr. by Steinheil, magnetic and meteorological instruments. Twenty-eight minor planets were discovered here from 1874 to 188o by J. Palisa. Cracow, univ. obs., lat. +50° 3' 50.0", long. i h. 19 M. 51.1 s. E. Possesses only small instruments. Lussin piccolo (island of Lussin, Adriatic), private obs. of Madame Manora, lat. +44° 32' 11.0", long. o h. 57 M. 52.4 s. E. Erected 1894; 7-in. refr. by Reinfelder, used for obs. of planets. Kis Karlal (north-east of Budapest), private obs. of Baron Podmaniczky, lat. +47° 41' 54'8", long. I h. 18 m. 11.7 s. E. 71-in. ref r. by Merz and Cooke. O'Gyalla (near Komorn, Hungary), lat. +47° 52' 27.3", long. 1 h. 12 m. 45.6 s. E. Nicolas de Konkoly's obs., since 1899 a royal obs. Established in 1871, rebuilt and enlarged in 1876, devoted to astrophysics. A Io-in. s.g. refl. by Browning was in use tip to 1881, when it was disposed of and a To-in. refr. (o.g. by Merz) mounted in its place; also a 6-in. refr. by Merz, and a 6.3 in. phot. refr. Kalocza (south of Budapest), lat. +46° 31' 41", long. I h. 15 M. 54 s. E. (tbs. of the Jesuit college, founded in 1878 by Cardinal Haynald; 7-in. fefr. by MVIerz, used for solar obs. Hereny (Vas, Hungary), lat. +47° 15' 47'4", long. I h. 6 m. 24.7 s. E. E. and A. von Gothard's obs. Founded in 1881; 10-in. refl. by Browning. - SWITZERLAND Zurich, lat. +47° 22' 40.0", long. o h. 34 M. 12.3 s. E. An obs. existed since 1759; handed over to the Polytechnic School in 1855; new building erected in 1863. A 6-in. refr. by Metz and Kern with two phot. telescopes, two transit instruments, &c. Sun-spots are regularly observed, but the institution is chiefly devoted to educational purposes. Neuchatel, lat. +46° 59' 51.0", long. o h. 27 M. 49.9 s. E. Erected in 1858; meridian circle of 44-in. ap. by Ertel, 61-in. refr. by Merz. Geneva, lat. +46° I1' 59.3", long. o h. 24 M. 36.6 s. E. Founded in 1773; a new building erected in 183o. The obs. has been the centre of the important geodetic operations carried on in Switzerland since 1861. An I1-in. refr. (o.g. by Merz) was presented by the director E. Plantamour in 1880; 4-in. transit circle.

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