Conti de Segni),
See also:pope from the 19th of
See also:March 1227, to the 22nd of
See also:August 1241, was a nobleman of Anagni and probably a
See also:nephew of Innocent III . He studied at
See also:Paris and Bologna, and,. having been successively archpriest of St
See also:Peter's, papal
See also:cardinal-deacon of Sant' Eustachio, cardinal-
See also:bishop of
See also:Ostia, the first
See also:protector of the Franciscan
See also:order, and papal
See also:legate in Germany under Innocent III., and Honorius III., he succeeded the latter in the papacy . He had long been on friendly terms with the emperor
See also:Frederick II., but now excommunicated him (29th of
See also:September 1227) for continued neglect of his vows and refusal to undertake the crusade . When Frederick finally set out the following
See also:June without making submission to the pope,
See also:Gregory raised an insurrection against him in Germany, and forced him in 1230 to beg for absolution . The Romans, however, soon began a very bitter war against the temporal power and exiled the pope (1st of June 1231) . Hardly had this contest been brought to an end favourable to the papacy (May 1235) when Gregory came into fresh conflict with Frederick II . He again excommunicated the emperor and released his subjects from their
See also:allegiance (24th of March 1239) . Frederick, on his side, invaded the Papal States and prevented the assembling of a general council convoked for
See also:Easter 1241 . The
See also:work of Gregory, however, was by no means limited to his relations with emperor and Romans . He systematized the Inquisition and entrusted it to the
See also:Dominicans; his rules against heretics remained in force until the
See also:time of
See also:Sixtus V . He supported
See also:Henry III. against the
See also:English barons, and protested against the Pragmatic Sanction of
See also:Louis IX. of France .
He sent monks toConstantinople to negotiate with the Greeks for
See also:church unity, but without result . He canonized
See also:Elizabeth of Thuringia,
See also:Dominic, Anthony of
See also:Padua and
See also:Francis of
See also:Assisi . He permitted
See also:free study of the Aristotelian writings, and issued (1234), through his chaplain,
See also:Raymond of Pennaforte, an important new compilation of
See also:decretals which he prescribed in the bull Rex pacificus should be the standard text-
See also:book in
See also:law at the
See also:universities of Bologna and Paris . Gregory was famed for his learning and eloquence, his blameless
See also:life, and his
See also:great strength of character . He died on the 22nd of August 1241, while Frederick II. was advancing against him, and was succeeded by Celestine IV . For the life of Gregory IX., consult his Letters in Monumenta Germaniae historica, Epistolae saeculi XIII. e regestis pontif .
See also:Roman. selectee (Berlin, 1883) ; "
See also:Les Registres de
See also:Gregoire IX," ed . L . Auvray in Bibliotheque
See also:des ecoles francaises d'Athenes et de Rome (Paris, 1890—1905); A .
See also:Potthast, Regesta pontif . Roman . (Berlin, 1875) and " Registri dei Cardinali Ugolino d' Ostia et Ottaviano degli Ubaldini," ed .
G .Levi in Fonti per la storia d' Italia (189o) . See J . Felten, Papst Gregor IX . (
See also:Freiburg i . B., 1886) ; J .
See also:Marx, Die Vita Gregorii IX. quellenkritisch untersucht (1889); P . Balan, Storia di Gregorio IX e dei suoi tempi (3 vols.,'
See also:Modena, 1872—1873) ; F .
See also:Gregorovius, Rome in the
See also:Middle Ages, vol . 5, trans. by Mrs G . W .
See also:Hamilton (
See also:London, 1900—1902); H .
See also:Milman, Latin
See also:Christianity, vol . 5 (London, 1899); R . Honig, Rapporti tra Federico II e Gregorio IX rispetto ally spedizione in Palestina (1896) ; P . T . Masetti, I Pontefici Onorio III, Gregorio IX ed Innocenzo IV a fronte dell' .Imperatore Federico II nel secolo XIII (1884); T . Frantz, Der
See also:grosse Kampf zwischen Kaisertum u . Papsttum zur Zeit des
See also:Friedrich II . (Berlin, 19o3); W . Norden, Das Papsttum u . Byzanz (Berlin, 1903) . An exhaustive bibliography and an excellent article on Gregory by Carl Mirbt are to be found in Hauck's Realencyklopddie, 3rd edition .
, GREGORY X . (Tebaldo
See also:Visconti), pope from the 1st of September 1271, to the loth of
See also:January 1276, was
See also:born at
See also:Piacenza in 1208, studied for the church, and became archdeacon of Liege . The eighteen cardinals who met to elect a successor to
See also:Clement IV. were divided into French and
See also:Italian factions, which wrangled over the election for nearly three years in the midst of great popular excitement, until finally, stirred by the eloquence of St
See also:Bonaventura, the Franciscan
See also:monk, they entrusted the choice to six electors, who
See also:hit on Visconti, at that time accompanying
See also:Edward of England on the crusade . He returned to Rome and was ordained
See also:priest on the 19th of March 1272, and consecrated on the 27th . He at once summoned the fourteenth general council of the Catholic Church, which met at
See also:Lyons in 1274, with an attendance of some 1600 prelates, for the purpose of considering the eastern
See also:schism, the
See also:condition of the
See also:Land, and the abuses in the church . The Greeks were persuaded, thanks to St Bonaventura, to consent to a union with Rome for the time being, and Rudolph of
See also:Habsburg renounced at the council all imperial rights in the States of the Church . The most celebrated among the many reform decrees issued by Gregory was the constitution determining for the first time the
See also:form of conclave at papal elections, which in large measure has remained ever since the law of the church . Gregory was on his way to Rome to
See also:crown Rudolph and send him out on a great crusade in
See also:company with the
See also:kings of England, France,
See also:Aragon and
See also:Sicily, when he died at
See also:Arezzo on the loth of January 1276 . He was a nobleman, fond of peace and actuated by the consciousness of a great
See also:mission . He has been honoured as a
See also:saint by the inhabitants of Arezzo and Piacenza . His successor in the papacy was Innocent V . The registers of Gregory X. have been published by J .
See also:Guiraud in the Bibliotheque des ecales francaises d'Athenes et de Rome (Paris, 1892—1898) . See K . J. von
See also:Hefele, Conciliengeschichte, vol . 5, 2nd edition (1873—189o) ; H . Flake, Konzilienstudien z . Gesch. des z3ten Jahrhunderts (Miinster, 1891); P . Piacenza, Compendia della storia del b . Gregorio X, papa (Piacenza, 1876) ; F . Gregorovius, Rome in the Middle Ages, vol . 5, trans. by Mrs G . W . Hamilton (London, 1900—1902) ; II .
See also:Otto, Die Beziehungen Rudolfs von Habsburgs zu Papst Gregor X . (
See also:Innsbruck, 1895); A Zisterer, Gregor X. u . Rudolf von Habsburg in ihren gegenseitigen Beziehungen (Freiburg i . B., 1891) ; F . Walter, Die Politik der Kline unter Gregor X . (Berlin , 1894) ; A . Potthast, Regesta pontif . Roman. vol . 2 (Berlin, 1875) ; W . Norden, Das Papsttum and Byzanz (Berlin, 1903) ; J . Loserth, Akten fiber die Wahl Gregors X." in Neues Archiv, xxi . (1895); A. von Hirsch-Gereuth, " Die Kreuzzugspolitik Gregors X." in Studien z .
Gesch. d . Kreuzzugsidee nach den Kreuzziigen (
See also:Munich, 1896) . There is an excellent article by Carl Mirbt in Hauck's Realencyklopadie, 3rd edition .
GREGORY THE ILLUMINATOR
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