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GRIMSBY, or GREAT GRIMSBY

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Originally appearing in Volume V12, Page 604 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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GRIMSBY, or GREAT GRIMSBY, a municipal, county and parliamentary borough of Lincolnshire, England; an importantseaport near the mouth of the Humber on the south shore. Pop. (1901) 631138. It is 155 M. N. by E. from London by the Great Northern railway, and is also served by the Great Central railway. The church of St James, situated in the older partof the town, is' a cruciform Early English building; retaining, in spite of injudicious restoration, many beautiful details. The chief buildings' are that containing the town hall and the grammar school (a foundation of 5547), the exchange, a' theatre, and the customs house and dock offices: A sailors' and fishermen's Harbour of Refuge, free library, constitutional club and technical school are maintained. The' duke of York public gardens' were opened in 1894. Adjacent to Grimsby on the east is the coastal watering-place of Cleethorpes. The• dock railway station lies a mile from the town station. In 1849 the Great Central (then the Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire) railway initiated a scheme of reclamation and dock-construction. This was completed in 1854, and subsequent extensions were made. There are two large fish-docks, and, for general traffic, the Royal dock, communicating with the Humber through a tidal basin, the small Union dock, and the extensive Alexandra dock, together with graving docks, timber yards, a patent slip, &c. These docks have an area of about Io4 acres, but were found insufficient for the •growing traffic of the port, and in 1906 the construction of a large new dock, of about 4o acres' area and 30 to 35 ft. depth,' was undertaken by the Great Central Company at Immingham, 5 m. above Grimsby on the Humber. The principal imports are butter, woollens, timber, cereals, eggs, glass, cottons, preserved meat, wool, sugar and bacon. The exports consist chiefly of woollen yarn, woollens, cotton goods, cotton yarn, machinery, &c. and coal. It is as a fishing port, however, that Grimsby is chiefly famous. Two of the docks are for the accommodation of the fishing fleet, which, consisting principally of Stearn trawlers, numbers up-wards of 5oa vessels. ' Regular passenger steamers run from Grimsby to Dutch and south Swedish ports, and to Esbjerg (Denmark), chiefly those of the Wilson line and the Great Central railway. The chief industries of Grimsby are shipbuilding, brewing, tanning, manufactures of ship tackle, ropes, ice . for preserving fish, turnery, flour, linseed cake, artificial manure; and there are saw mills, bone and corn mills, and creosote works. The municipal borough is under a mayor,12 aldermen and 36 councillors. Area, 2852 acres. Grimsby (Grimesbi) is supposed to have been the landing-place of the Danes on their first invasion of Britain towards the close of the 8th century. It was a borough by prescription as early as 12oi, in which year. King John granted the burgbsses a charter of liberties according to the custom of the burgesses of North.. ampton. Henry III. in 1227 granted to " the mayor and good men " of Grimsby, that they should hold the town for a yearly tent of £'1 1, and confirmed the same in 1271. These charters were confirmed by later sovereigns. A governing charter, under the title of mayor and burgesses, was given by James II. in 1688, and under this the appointment of officers and other of the corporation, arrangements are to a great extent regulated. In law King John granted the burgesses an annual fair for fifteen days, beginning on the 25th of May. Two annual fairs are now held, namely on the first Monday in April and the second Monday in October. No early grant of a market can be found, but in 1792 the market-day was Wednesday.' In 1888 it had ceased to exist. Grimsby returned two members to the parliament.of 1298, but in 1833 the number was reduced to one. In the time of Edward III. Grimsby was an important seaport, but the haven became obstructed ' by sand and mud deposited by the Humber, and so the access of large vessels was prevented. At the beginning of the 19th century a subscription was raised by the proprietors of land in the neighbourhood for improving the harbour, and an act was obtained by which they were incorporated under the title The Grimsby Haven Co." The fishing trade had become so important by 1800 that it, was necessary to Construct a new dock. GRIMSTON;SIR HARBOTTLE (1603-1685), English politician., second son of Sir Harbottle Grimston, Bart. (d. 1648), was born at Bradfield Hall, near Manningtree, on the 27th of January 1603. Educated at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, he became a barrister of Lincoln's Inn, then recorder of Harwich and recorder of Colchester. As member for Colchester, Grimston sat in the Short Parliament of 164o, and he represented the same borough during the Long Parliament, speedily becoming a leading member of the popular party. He attacked Archbishop Laud with great vigour; was a member of the important committees of the parliament, including the one appointed in consequence of the attempted seizure of the five members; and became deputy-lieutenant of Essex after the passing of the militia ordinance in January 1642. He disliked taking up arms against the king, but remained nominally an adherent of the parliamentary party during the Civil War. In the words of Clarendon, he " continued rather than concurred with them." Grimston does not appear to have taken the Solemn League and Covenant, but after the conclusion of the first period of the war he again became more active. He was president of the committee which investigated the escape of the king from Hampton Court in 1647, and was one of those who negotiated with Charles at Newport in 1648, when, according to Burnet, he fell upon his knees and urged the king to come to terms. From this time Grimston's sympathies appear to have been with the Royalists. Turned out of the House of Commons when the assembly was " purged " by colonel Pride, he was imprisoned; but was released after promising to do nothing detrimental to the parliament or the army, and spent the next few years in retirement. Before this time, his elder brother having already died, he had succeeded his father as znd baronet. In 1656 Sir Harbottle was returned to Cromwell's second parliament as member for Essex; but he was not allowed to take his seat; and with 97 others who were similarly treated he issued a remonstrance to the public. He was among the secluded members who re-entered the Lcng Parliament in February ,66o, was then a member of the council of state, and was chosen Speaker of the House of Commons in the Convention Parliament of 166o. As Speaker he visited Charles II. at Breda, and addressed him in very flattering terms on his return to London; but he refused to accede to the king's demand that he should dismiss Burnet from his position as chaplain to the Master of the Rolls, and in parliament he strongly denounced any relaxation of the laws against papists. Grimston did not retain the office of Speaker after the dissolution of the Convention Parliament, but he was a member of the commission which tried the regicides, and in November 166o he was appointed Master of the Rolls. Report says he paid Clarendon £8000 for the office, while Burnet declares he obtained it " without any application of his own." He died on the znd of January 1685. His friend and chaplain, Burnet, speaks very highly of his piety and impartiality, while not omitting the undoubted fact that he was " much sharpened against popery." He translated the law reports of his father-in-law, the judge, Sir George Croke {1560–1642), which were written in Norman-French, and five editions of this work have appeared. Seven of his parliamentary speeches were published, and he also wrote Strena Christiana (London, 1644, and other editions). Grimston's first wife, Croke's daughter Mary, bore him six sons and two daughters; and by his second wife, Anne, daughter and heiress of Sir Nathaniel Bacon, K.B., a grandson of Sir Nicholas Bacon, he had one daughter. Of his sons one only, Samuel (1643–1700), survived his father, and when he died in October 1700 the baronetcy became extinct. Sir Harbottle's eldest daughter, Mary, married Sir Capel Luckyn, Bart., and their grandson, William Luckyn, succeeded to the estates of his great-uncle, Sir Samuel Grimston, and took the name of Grimston in 1700. This William Luckyn Grimstoh (1683–1756) was created Baron Dunboyne and Viscount Grimston in the peerage of Ireland in 1719. He was succeeded as 2nd viscount by his son James (1711–1773), whose son James Bucknall (1747–1808) was made an English peer as baron Verulam of Gorhambury in 1790. Then in 1815 his son James Walter (1775–1845), 2nd baron Verulam, was created earl of Verulam, and the present peer is his direct descendant. Sir Harbottle Grimstonbought Sir Nicholas Bacon's estate at Gorhambury, which is still the residence of his descendants. See G. Burnet, History of My Own Time, edited by O. Airy (Oxford, 1900).
End of Article: GRIMSBY, or GREAT GRIMSBY
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