See also:Magnus, a preacher and founder of the society of
See also:Brothers of
See also:Life (q.v.), was
See also:born in 1340 at
See also:Deventer in the
See also:diocese of Utrecht, where his
See also:father held a
See also:good civic position . He went to the university of
See also:Paris when only fifteen . Here he studied scholastic philosophy and
See also:theology under a
See also:pupil of
See also:Occam's, from whom he imbibed the nominalist conception of philosophy; in addition he studied
See also:medicine, astronomy and even magic, and apparently some
See also:Hebrew . After a brilliant course he graduated in 1358, and possibly became
See also:master in 1363 . He pursued his studies still further in Cologne, and perhaps in
See also:Prague . In 1366 he visited the papal
See also:court at
See also:Avignon . About this
See also:time he was appointed to a canonry in Utrecht and to another in
See also:Aix-la-Chapelle, and the life of the brilliant
See also:scholar was rapidly becoming luxurious, secular and selfish, when a
See also:great spiritual
See also:change passed over him which resulted in a final renunciation of every worldly enjoyment . This conversion, which took place in 1374, appears to have been due partly to the effects of a dangerous illness and partly to the influence of
See also:Henry de Calcar, the learned and pious
See also:prior of the Carthusian monastery at Munnikhuizen near
See also:Arnhem, who had remonstrated with him on the vanity of his life . About 1376 Gerhard retired to this monastery and there spent three years in meditation, prayer and study, without, however, becoming a Carthusian . In 1379, having received ordination as a deacon, he became missionary preacher through-out the diocese of Utrecht . The success which followed his labours not only in the
See also:town of Utrecht, but also in
See also:Zwolle, Deventer,
See also:Kampen, Amsterdam,
See also:Zutphen and elsewhere, was immense; according to
See also:Thomas A . Kempis the
See also:left their business and their meals to hear his sermons, so that the churches could not hold the crowds that flocked together wherever he came .
See also:bishop of Utrecht supported him warmly, and got him to preach against concubinage in the presence of the
See also:clergy assembled in synod . The impartiality of his censures, which he directed not only against the prevailing sins of the laity, but also against
See also:simony, avarice, and impurity among the secular and
See also:regular clergy, provoked the hostility of the clergy, and accusations of heterodoxy were brought against him . It was in vain that
See also:Groot emitted a Publica Protestatio, in which he declared that Jesus Christ was the great subject of his discourses, that in all of them he believed himself to be in harmony with Catholic
See also:doctrine, and that he willingly subjected them to the candid
See also:judgment of the
See also:Church . The bishop was induced to issue an edict which prohibited from preaching all who were not in
See also:priest's orders, and an
See also:appeal to Urban VI. was without effect . There is a difficulty as to the date of this prohibition; either it was only a few months before Groot's
See also:death, or else it must have been removed by the bishop, for Groot seems to have preached in public in the last
See also:year of his life . At some
See also:period (perhaps 1381, perhaps earlier) he paid a visit of some days' duration to the famous mystic Johann Ruysbroeck, prior of the Augustinian canons at Groenendael near Brussels; at this visit was formed Groot's attraction for the
See also:rule and life of the Augustinian canons which was destined to bear such notable fruit . At the close of his life he was asked by some of the clerics who attached themselves to him to
See also:form them into a religious
See also:order, and Groot resolved that they should be canons regular of St Augustine . No time was lost in the effort to carry out the project, but Groot died before a foundation could be made . In 1387, however, a site was secured at Windesheim, some 20 M.
See also:north of Deventer, and here was established the monastery that became the
See also:cradle of the Windesheim
See also:congregation of canons regular, embracing in course of time nearly one
See also:hundred houses, and leading the way in the series of reforms undertaken during the 15th century by all the religious orders in Germany .
GROS VENTRES (Fr. for " Great Bellies "), or ATSINA...
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