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Originally appearing in Volume V12, Page 659 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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AND HOUSEHOLD TROOPS GUARDS. The word guard is an adaptation of the Fr. guarde, mod. garde, O. Ger. ward; see GUARDIAN. The practice of maintaining bodyguards is of great antiquity, and may indeed be considered the beginning of organized armies. Thus there is often no clear distinction between the inner ring of personal defenders and the select corps of trained combatants who are at the chief's entire disposal. Famous examples of corps that fell under one or both these headings are the " Immortals " of Xerxes, the Mamelukes, Janissaries, the Eluscarles of the Anglo-Saxon kings, and the Russian Strelitz (Stryeltsi). In modern times the distinction of function is better marked, and the fighting men who are more intimately connected with the sovereign than the bulk of the army can be classified as to duties into " Household Troops," GUARDS who are in a sense personal retainers, and " Guards," who are a corps d'elite of combatants. But the dividing line is not so clear as to any given body of troops. Thus the British Household Cavalry is part of the combatant army as well as the sovereign's escort. The oldest of the household or bodyguard corps in the United Kingdom is the King's Bodyguard of the Yeomen of the Guard (q.v.), formed at his accession by Henry VII. The " nearest guard," the personal escort of the sovereign, is the " King's Bodyguard of the Honourable Corps of Gentlemen-at-Arms," created by Henry VIII. at his accession in 1509. Formed possibly on the pattern of the " Pensionnaires " of the French kings—retainers of noble birth who were the predecessors of the Maison du Roi (see below)—the new corps was originally called " the Pensioners." The importance of such guards regiments in the general development of organized armies is illustrated by a declaration of the House of Commons, made in 1674, that the militia, the pensioners and the Yeomen of the Guard were the only lawful armed forces in the realm. But with the rise of the professional soldier and the corresponding disuse of arms by the nobles and gentry, the Gentlemen-at-Arms (a title which came into use in James II.'s time, though it did not become that of the corps until William IV.'s) retaining their noble character, became less and less military. Burke attempted without success in 1782 to restrict membership to officers of the army and navy, but the necessity of giving the corps an effective military character became obvious when, on the occasion of a threatened Chartist riot, it was called upon to do duty as an armed body at St James's Palace. The corps was reconstituted on a purely military basis in 1862, and from that date only military officers of the regular services who have received a war decoration are eligible for appointment. The office of captain, however, is political, the holder (who is always a peer) vacating it on the resignation of the government of which he is a member. The corps consists at present of captain, lieutenant, standard bearer, clerk of the cheque (adjutant), sub-officer and 39 gentlemen-at-arms. The uniform consists of a scarlet swallow-tailed coat and blue overalls, with gold epaulettes, brass dragoon helmet with drooping white plume and brass box-spurs, these last contrasting rather forcibly with the partizan, an essentially infantry weapon, that they carry. The Royal Company of Archers.—The king's bodyguard for Scot-land was constituted in its present form in the year 1670, by an act of the privy council of Scotland. An earlier origin has been claimed for the company, some connecting it with a supposed archer guard of the kings of Scotland. In the above-mentioned year, 1676, the minutes of the Royal Company begin by stating, that owing to " the noble and usefull recreation of archery being for many years much neglected, several noblemen and gentlemen did associate themselves in a company for encouragement thereof . . . and did apply to the privy council for their approbation . . which was granted." For about twenty years at the end of the 17th century, perhaps owing to the adhesion of the majority to the Stuart cause, its existence seems to have been suspended. But in 1703 a new captain-general, Sir George Mackenzie, Viscount Tarbat, afterwards earl of Cromarty (163o–1714), was elected, and he procured for the company a new charter from Queen Anne. The rights and privileges renewed or conferred by this charter were to be held of the crown for the reddendo of a pair of barbed arrows. This reddendo was paid to George IV. at Holyrood in 1822, to Queen Victoria in 1842 and to King Edward VII. in 1903. The history of the Royal Company since 1703 has been one of great prosperity. Large parades were frequently held, and many distinguished men marched in the ranks. Several of the leading insurgents in 1745 were members, but the company was not at that time suspended in any way. In 1822 when King George IV. visited Scotland, it was thought appropriate that the Royal Company should act as his majesty's bodyguard during his stay, especially as there was a tradition of a former archer bodyguard. They therefore performed the duties usually assigned to the gentlemen-at-arms. When Queen Victoria visited the Scottish capital in 1842, the Royal Company again did duty; the last time they were called out in her reign in their capacity of royal bodyguard was in 1860 on the occasion of the great volunteer review in the Queen's Park, Edinburgh. They acted in the same capacity when King Edward VII. reviewed the Scottish Volunteers there on the 18th of September 1905. King George IV. authorized the company to take, in addition to their former name, that of " The King's Body Guard for Scot-land," and presented to the captain-general a gold stick, thus constituting the company part of the royal household. In virtue of this stick the captain-general of the Royal Company takes his place at a coronation or similar pageant immediately behind the gold stick of England. The lieutenants-general of the company have silver sticks; and the council, which is the executive body of the company, possess seven ebony ones. George IV. further appointed a full dress uniform to be worn by members of the company at court, when not on duty as guards, in which latter case the ordinary field dress is used. The court dress is green with green velvet facings, gold epaulettes and lace, crimson silk sash, and cocked hat with green plume. The officers wear a gold sash in place of a crimson one, and an aiguillette on the left shoulder. All ranks wear swords. The field dress at present consists of a dark-green tunic, shoulder-wings and gauntleted cuffs and trousers trimmed with black and crimson; a bow-case worn as a sash, of the same colour as the coat, black waistbelt with sword, and Balmoral bonnet with thistle ornament and eagle's feather. The officers of the company are the captain-general, 4 captains, 4 lieutenants, 4 ensigns, 12 brigadiers and adjutant. Corps of the gentlemen-at-arms or yeoman type do not of course count as combatant troops—if for no other reason at least because they are armed with the weapons of bygone times. Colonel Clifford Walton states in his History of the British Standing Army that neither the Yeomen of the Guard nor the Pensioners were ever subject to martial law. The British guards and household troops that are armed, trained and organized as part of the army are the Household Cavalry and the Foot Guards. The Household Cavalry consists at the present day of three regiments, and has its origin, as have certain of the Footguard regiments, in the ashes of the " New Model " army disbanded at the restoration of Charles II. in r66o. In that year the " 1st or His Majesty's Own Troop of Guards " formed during the king's exile of his cavalier followers, was taken on the strength of the army. The 2nd troop was formerly in the Spanish service as the " Duke of York's Guards," and was also a cavalier unit. In 1670, on Monk's death, the original 3rd troop (Monk's Life Guards, renamed in 166o the " Lord General's Troop of Guards ") became the 2nd (the queen's) troop, and the duke of York's troop the 3rd. In 1685 the 1st and 2nd troops were styled Life Guards of Horse, and two years later the blue-uniformed " Royal Regiment of Horse," a New Model regiment that had been disbanded and at once re-raised in r66o, was made a household cavalry corps. Later under the colonelcy of the earl of Oxford it was popularly called " The Oxford Blues." There were also from time to time other troops (e.g. Scots troops 1700-1746) that have now disappeared. In 1746 the 2nd troop was disbanded, but it was revived in 1788, when the two senior corps were given their present title of 1st and 2nd Life Guards. From 1750 to 1819 the Blues bore the name of " Royal Horse Guards Blue," which in 1819 was changed to " Royal Horse Guards (The Blues)." The general distinction between the uniforms of the red Life Guard and the blue Horse Guard still exists. The 1st and the and regiments of Life Guards wear scarlet tunics with blue collars and cuffs, and the Royal Horse Guards blue tunics with scarlet collars and cuffs. All three wear steel cuirasses on state occasions and on guard duty. The head-dress is a steel helmet with drooping horse-hair plume (white for Life Guards, red for Horse Guards). In full dress white buckskin pantaloons and long knee boots are worn. Amongst the peculiarities of these corps d'elite is the survival of the old custom of calling non - commissioned officers " corporal of horse " instead of sergeant, and corporal-major instead of sergeant-major, the wearing by trumpeters and bandsmen in full dress of a black velvet cap, a richly laced coat with a full skirt extending to the wearer's knees and long white gaiters. There is little distinction between the two Life Guards regiments' uniforms, the most obvious point being that the cord running through the white leather pouch belt is red for the 1st and blue for the and. The Foot Guards comprise the Grenadier Guards, the Cold-stream Guards, the Scots Guards and the Irish Guards, each (except the last) of three battalions. The Grenadiers, originally the First Foot Guards, represent a royalist infantry regiment which served with the exiled princes in the Spanish army and returned at the Restoration in 1660. The Coldstream Guards are a New Model regiment, and were originally called the Lord General's (Monk's) regiment of Foot Guards. Their popular title, which became their official designation in 167o, is derived from the fact that the army with which Monk restored the monarchy crossed the Tweed into England at the village of Coldstream, and that his troops (which were afterwards, except the two units of horse and foot of which Monk himself was colonel, disbanded) were called the Coldstreamers. The two battalions of Scots Foot Guards, which regiment was separately raised and maintained in Scotland after the Restoration, marched to London in 1686 and 1688 and were brought on to the English Establishment in 1707. In George III.'s reign they were known as the Third Guards, and from 1831 to 1877 (when the present title was adopted) as the Scots Fusilier Guards. The Irish Guards (one battalion) were formed in 1902, after the South African War, as a mark of Queen Victoria's appreciation of the services rendered by the various Irish regiments of the line.' The dress of the Foot Guards is generally similar in all four regiments, scarlet tunic with blue collars, cuffs and shoulder-straps, blue trousers and high, rounded bearskin cap. The regimental distinctions most easily noticed are these. The Grenadiers wear a small white plume in the bearskin, the Cold-streams a similar red one, the Scots none, the Irish a blue-green one. The buttons on the tunic are spaced evenly for the Grenadiers, by twos for the Coldstreams, by threes for the Scots and by fours for the Irish. The band of the modern cap is red for the Grenadiers, white for the Coldstreams, "diced" red and white (chequers) for the Scots and green for the Irish. Former privileges of foot guard regiments, such as higher brevet rank in the army for their regimental officers, are now abolished, but Guards are still subject exclusively to the command of their own officers, and the officers of the Foot Guards, like those of the Household Cavalry, have special duties at court. Neither the cavalry nor the infantry guards serve abroad in peace time as a rule, but in 190,7 a battalion of the Guards, which it was at that time proposed to disband, was sent to Egypt. " Guards' Brigades " served in the Napoleonic Wars, in the Crimea, in Egypt at various times from 1887 to 1898 and in South Africa 1899—19os. The last employment of the Household Cavalry as a brigade in war was at Waterloo, but composite regiments made up from officers and men of the Life Guards and Blues were employed in Egypt and in S. Africa. The sovereigns of France had guards in their service in Merovingian times, and their household forces appear from time to time in the history of medieval wars. Louis XI. was, however, the first to regularize their somewhat loose organization, and he did so to such good purpose that Francis I. had no less than 8000 guardsmen organized, subdivided and permanently under arms. The senior unit of the Gardes du Corps was the famous company of Scottish archers (Compagnie ecossaise de la Garde du Corps du Roi), which was originally formed (1418) from the Scottish contingents that assisted the French in the Hundred Years' War. Scott's Quentin Durward gives a picture of life in the corps as it was under Louis XI. In the following century, however, its regimental history becomes somewhat confused. Two French companies were added by Louis XI. and Francis I. and the Gardes du Corps came to consist exclusively of cavalry. About 1634 nearly all the Scots then serving went into the " regiment d'Hebron " and thence later into the British regular army (see HEPBURN, SIR JOHN). Thereafter, though the titles, distinctions and privileges of the original Archer Guard were continued, it was recruited from native Frenchmen, preference being (at any rate at first) given to those of Scottish descent. At its disbandment in 1791 along with the rest of the Gardes du Corps, it contained few, if any, native Scots. There was also, for a short time (1643—1660), an infantry regiment of Gardes ecossaises. In 1671 the title of 'liaison Militaire du Roi was applied to that portion of the household that was distinctively military. It came to consist of 4 companies of the Gardes du Corps, 2 companies of Mousquetaires (cavalry) (formed 1622 and 1660), I company of Chevaux lagers (1570), I of Gendarmes de la Maison Rouge, and 1 of Grenadiers a Cheval (1676), with i company of Gardes de la Porte and" one called the Cent-Suisses, the last two being semi-military. This large establishment, which did not include all the guard regiments, was considerably reduced by the Count of St Germain's reforms in ' The " Irish Guards " of the Stuarts took the side of James II., fought against William III. in Ireland and lost their regimental identity in the French service to which the officers and soldiers transferred themselves on the abandonment of the struggle.1775, all except the Gardes du Corps and the Cent-Suisses being disbanded. The whole of the Maison du Roi, with the exception of the semi-military bodies referred to, was cavalry. The Gardes francaises, formed in 1563, did not form part of the Maison. They were an infantry regiment, as were the famous Gardes suisses, originally a Swiss mercenary regiment in the Wars of Religion, which was, for good conduct at the combat of Arques, incorporated in the permanent establishment by Henry IV. in 1589 and in the guards in 1615. At the Revolution, contrary to expectation, the French Guards sided openly with the Constitutional movement and were disbanded. The Swiss Guards, however, being foreigners, and therefore unaffected by civil troubles, retained their exact discipline and devotion to the court to the day on which they were sacrificed by their master to the bullets of the Marseillais and the pikes of the mob (August 10, 1792). Their tragic fate is commemorated by the well-known monument called the " Lion of Lucerne," the work of Thorvaldsen, erected near Lucerne in 1821. The " Constitutional," " Revolutionary " and other guards that were created after the abolition of the Maison and the slaughter of the Swiss are unimportant, but through the " Directory Guards " they form a nominal link between the household troops of the monarchy and the corps which is perhaps the most famous " Guard " in history. The Imperial Guard of Napoleon had its beginnings in an escort squadron called the Corps of Guides, which accompanied him in the Italian campaign of 1796—1797 and in Egypt. On becoming First Consul in 1799 he built up out of this and of the guard of the Directory a small corps of horse and foot, called the Consular Guard, and this, which was more of a fighting unit than a personal bodyguard, took part in the battle of Marengo. The Imperial Guard, into which it was converted on the establishment of the Empire, was at first of about the strength of a division. As such it took part in the Austerlitz and Jena campaigns; but after the conquest of Prussia Napoleon augmented it, and divided it into the " Old Guard " and the " Young Guard." Subsequently the " Middle Guard " was created, and by successive augmentations the corps of the guard had grown to be 57,000 strong in 1811—1812 and 81,000 in 1813. It preserved its general character as a corps d'elite of veterans to the last, but from about 1813 the" Young Guard " was recruited directly from the best of the annual conscript contingent. The officers held a higher rank in the army than their regimental rank in the Guards. At the first Restoration an attempt was made to revive the Maison du Roi, but in the constitutional regime of the second Restoration this semi-medieval form of body-guard was given tip and replaced by the Garde Royale, a selected fighting corps. This took part in the short war with Spain and a portion of it fought in Algeria, but it was disbanded at the July Revolution. Louis Philippe had no real guard troops, but the memories of the Imperial Guard were revived by Napoleon III., who formed a large guard corps in 1853—1854. This, however, was open to an even greater degree than Napoleon I.'s guard to the objection that it took away the best soldiers from the line. Since the fall of the Empire in 187o there have been no guard troops in France. The duty of watching over the safety of the president is taken in the ordinary roster of duty by the troops stationed in the capital. The " Republican Guard " is the Paris gendarmerie, recruited from old soldiers and armed and trained as a military body. In Austria-Hungary there are only small bodies of household troops (Archer Body Guard, Trabant Guard, Hungarian Crown Guards, &c.) analogous to the British Gentlemen at Arms or Yeomen of the Guard. Similar forces, the " Noble Guard " and the " Swiss Guard," are maintained in the Vatican. The court troops of Spain are called " halberdiers " and armed with the halbert. In Russia the Guard is organized as an army corps. It possesses special privileges, particularly as regards officers' advancement. In Germany the distinction between armed retainers and " Guards " is well marked. The army is for practical purposes a unit under imperial control, while household troops C' castle-guards " as they are usually called) belong individually to the various sovereigns within the empire. The "Guards," as a combatant force in the army are those of the king of Prussia and constitute a strong army corps. This has grown gradually from a bodyguard of archers, and, as in Great Britain, the functions of the heavy cavalry regiments of the Guard preserve to some extent the name and character of a body guard (Gardes du Corps). The senior foot guard regiment is also personally connected with the royal family. The conversion of a palace-guard to a combatant force is due chiefly to Frederick William I., to whom drill was a ruling passion, and who substituted effective regiments for the ornamental " Trabant Guards " of his father. A further move was made by Frederick the Great in substituting for Frederick William's expensive " giant " regiment of guards a larger number of ordinary soldiers, whom he subjected to the same rigorous training and made a corps d'elite. Frederick the Great also formed the Body Guard alluded to above. Nevertheless in 1806 the Guard still consisted only of two cavalry regiments and four infantry regiments, and it was the example of Napoleon's imperial guard which converted this force into a corps of all arms. In 1813 its strength was that of a weak division, but in 1860 by slight but frequent augmentations it had come to consist of an army corps, complete with all auxiliary services. A few guard regiments belonging to the minor sovereigns are counted in the line of the German army. In war the Guard is employed as a unit, like other army corps. It is recruited by the assignment of selected young men of each annual contingent, and is thus free from the reproach of the French Imperial Guard, which took the best-trained soldiers from the regiments of the line. GUARD-SHIP, a warship stationed at some port or harbour to act as a guard, and in former times in the British navy to receive the men impressed for service. She usually was the flagship of the admiral commanding on the coast. A guard-boat is a boat which goes the round of a fleet at anchor to see that due watch is kept at night.

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Main >> Hobbies & Interests >> My First Home Page Notify AOL | Search | Help Please bear with the first part as it leads into the History of Cusack's Regiment later the Kings Royal Irish Regiment or Irish Guards. It also quotes the commissions and traces the regiment into the present Royal Irish Regiment and others most notably 92e Infanterie de France and The United States Marine Corps. It is necessary to quote the Treaty of Limerick as it is germaine to the arguement that Ireland never transferred it Royal Stuart Soverignity to the Orange Prince or the later Guelph to Windsor Dynasty. Cusack's History Page Ireland is a Seperate Island Kingdom at British Constitutional Law The Pope Adrian IV. [An Englishman] angered by the refusal of the Celtic Archbishop of Armagh to release the Bishopric of Dublin to Canterbury issued the following Bull. "Ad preces meas illustri Regi Angelorum Henrico II concessit [Adrianus] et dedit Hiberniam jure haereditario possidendam, sicut literae ipsius testantur in hodiernum diem.Nam omnes insulae de jure antiquo ex donatione Constantini, qui eam fundavit et donavit, dicuntur ad Romanam Eccliesiam pertinere. Thus the Roman Pontiff's jealousy of the direct Desert Transmission of Christianity to the Irish Celtic Church led to the Lie of the 'Donation of Constantine' being used to illegally give away Ireland. In 1152, the religious see of Dublin opted to become an Irish archbishopric, spurning the ecclesiastical rule of the Archbishop of Canterbury in England. Shortly after, when Henry II became King of England, the idea of invading Ireland resurfaced apparently as it had during the previous reigns of William the Conqueror and Henry I. Ecclesiastic reaction to the loss of the see of Dublin was taken on by Pope Adrian, at the insistence of the envoys from Canterbury, who invested Henry and his successors the right to rule Ireland and to bring about religious reformation there. However Henry II was occupied at the outset of his career in securing his hold on England itself, and any plans of Irish invasion were on hold [maps of Ireland Computer Site] Thus was laid the seeds and right of King Henry VIII and the Irish Parliament to dismiss the Papacy's temporality over Ireland, using the Crown Servants St Leger and Sir Thomas Cusack in an effort to create a unified nation under 'Surrender and Grant' polices and using the monastic lands as inducements to the Irish Rio'gh Beig [Minor Kings]. The Irish RC Hierarchy denying that branch of the Christian Church’s part in the legitimisation and encouragement of the Invasion of Ireland has issued much terminological inexactatude. See on web CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA Pope Adrian IV. It is possible that the Cusacks as persons of the Blood of the Kings of Frankia occupied Killeen before the invasion in the part of an Embassy Demnse granted to the Holy Roman Empire of Charles the Great. Or the Cusacks took refuge as Carolingian refugees before the invasion in already familiar territory. Lorraine being behind Flemish Lands Cusacks could be described as Flemings. This self called Papal Lordship of Ireland is one of the Root Causes of the present troubled state of Ireland. It did not end until King Henry VIII and St Leger and Sir Thomas Cusack enacted in the Irish Parliament recognising King Henry VIII as King of Ireland and the leader of the Church of Ireland. The position ab initio of King Henry II and Ireland viz a viz Parliamentary Rule by consent is not clear to me. I do consider that the times were such that an early ‘Consilium Regis’ was to be Ireland’s direct contact, under the papal authority [assumed] by Rome. Much vehement hot air has been expended in the 20th XV., by clergy of the very recent Roman Catholic Church denying this ‘papal grant’ of Ireland. It would be of interest to read for references between Henry II’s, and Henry VIII’s Reigns in the official Rolls of the Kingdoms and the Vatican. From memory I know of King John at Runnemede and the number of similar charters issued afterwards by him and King Henry III. From memory the Declaration at Oxford [date 12 3?4?] Henry III. Makes reference to parliaments to be called thrice yearly in England and Ireland, and there was a parliament outside Dublin at Castle Dermot a very few years later thus establishing the existence the Irish Parliament as an Institution. However these decisions were later set aside by the King with Papal Blessing and approbition. {Source memory read 1970 by me parliaments ‘meant parliaments’ separate for the English Kingdom and the Irish Papal Lordship}. Sir Walter de Cusack of Geraldstown in 1375 was fined 300 shillings for not attending Parliament at Kilkenney and was summoned to Parliament in January 1376 in Dublin.Irish Genaelogist Vol 6 no 2. Nov 1981. page 132. King John introduced the Common Law to Ireland and a Parliament existed from at least King Henry III’s day in Ireland. In the time of King Henry VIII the ‘surrender and grant’ 26 June. 1541. Parliament. [923] Sir Anthony St Leger to Henry V111. "Parliament began the morrow after Trinity Sunday, but, as Ormond , -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Desmond, and other Lords of Munster were not arrived, the solemn mass of the Holy Ghost was deferred until Thursday, Corpus Christi Day. The Said Earls, with others, as lords barrye, Roche, Fitzmaurice, and Brymegeam, and McGilpatrike, now Baron of Upper Osserie, came on Tuesday and were at the mass. On Friday the Commons presented their Speaker, Sir Thos. Cusake, who made a right solemn 'preposition', praising the king for his extirpation of the Bishop's of Rome's power, and for his innumerable benefits shown to his people; which was prudently answered by the Chancellor. Ormond briefly declared both speeches to the said lords in Irish, to their contentation. Describes how he himself afterwards put forward the bill that the King should be King of Ireland, which was joyously agreed to by both Houses, and, on Saturday received the Royal consent. There were present 2 earls, 3 vicounts, 16 barons, 2 archbishops, 12 bishops, Donough Obrien, Dr Onolan and a bishop, deputies of the Great O'Brien, [1]The Great Oraley, and many other Irish Captains, and the Common House wherin are in divers Knights and many gentlemen of fair posessions. Describes the rejoiceing in Dublin and how prisoners were delivered; and, on Sunday solemn mass at St., Patrick's Church, sung by the apb. of Dublin, after which the act was proclaimed there in the presence of 2,000 persons, and a Te Deum sung. [Does not write more as the Council is writing, being poor sends a pair of silk gloves, 'as of him that would gladly present you with an empire of the whole world if it were in him to give'. Kilmaynam, 26 june. Signed. Add Encld. {From memory}. There is also an entry stating the Kings Title would be, which I shall have to find though it is not in the actuality of the Parliamentary Report. “24 Oct 1541. [33 Hy VIII] Deputy and Council of Ireland to Henry VIII. Have received his letters dated Lakenfelde,8 Sept and York, 23, Sept., with enclosures specified. Answer to first letter briefly by articles. As to the second, brought by sir Thomas Cusacke, it is especially the preamble set forth so pithly, …..The King reminds them that they should have forseen the maintenance of his title of king of this land before they devised the Act. Thought that there was no better means of advancing the revenues, especially as most of the Irish reputed to the Pope of Rome head and king.” Corpus Christi. Moving [lunar?] Feast day. First. Thursday after Trinity Sunday. THURS 16 JUNE 1541.according to Richard Bagwell in ‘Ireland under the Tudors’ Bagwell also gives the agreed title if King Henry VIII as Henry VIII., by the Grace of God, King of England, France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, and of the Church of England, and also of Ireland, in Earth the Supreme Head. Icbpo France was never in any union with England, and the Church of England appears separate from that ‘and also of Ireland. In Brief:- The King the Pope’s Papal Grant of the Lordship of Ireland is annulled by act of the Irish Parliament for Ireland [in toto] appointing King Henry VIII King of Ireland. The Irish Parliament appointed the Tudor King Henry VIII King of Ireland. [There are arguments as to the power to appoint another as King implied here]. A. 1691. Will. & Mar. Journals of the House of Lords. 647 Capitulation of Limerick. Upon the Debate concerning some Words in the Bill re- lating to Lawers and Physicians, the Articles of Ca- pitulation upon surrender of Limerick were produced in the House, and read as followeth : Articles. " Articles agreed upon the Third Day of October, " 1691, between the Right Honourable Sir, " Charles Porter Knight, and Thomas Coningsby " Esquire, Lords Justices of Ireland, and his " Excellency the Baron de Ginckell Lieutenant " General and Commander in Chief of the " English Army, on the one Part ; and the Right " Honourable , Patrick Earl of Lucan; , Piercy "Viscount Gallmoy, Colonel Nicholas Purcell, " Colonel Nicholas Cusack, Sir Toby Butler, " Colonel Garrett Dillon, and Colonel John " Browne, on the other Part, on the Behalf of "the Irish Inhabitants in the City and County " Of Limericke, the Counties of Clare, Kerry, Corke, Sligo, and Mayo. " In Consideration of the Surrender of the City of " Limerick, and the other aggrements made between the " said Lieutenant General Ginckell the Govenor of the " City of Limerick, and the Generals of the Irish Army, " bearing Date with these Presents, for the Surrender " of the said City and Submission of the said Army ; " it is agreed, that, " 1. The Roman Catholics of this Kingdom shall " enjoy such Privileges, in the Excercise of their Re- " ligion, as are consistent with the Laws of Ireland, or " as they did enjoy in the Reign of King Charles the " Second. And Their Majesties, as soon as Their Affairs " will permit Them to summon a Parliament in this " Kingdom, will endeavour to procure the said Roman " Catholics such forther Security in that Particular, as " may preserve them from any Disturbance upon the " Account of their said Religion. " 2. All the Inhabititants or Residents of Limerick, or " any other Garrison now in the Possession of the Irish, " and all Officers and Soldiers now in Arms under any " Commission of King James, or those authorised by " him to grant the same, in the several Counties of " Limerick, Clare, Kerry, Corke, and Mayow. or any of " them, and all the Commissioned Officers in Their " Majesties Quarters that belong to the Irish Regiments " now in Being, that are treated with, and are not " Prisoners of War, or have taken Protection, and who " shall return and submit to Their Majesties Obedience, " and their and every of their Heirs, shall hold, posses, " and enjoy, all and every their Estates of Freehold " and Inheritance, and all their Rights, Title, and In- " terest, Privileges and Immunities, which they and " every or any of them held, enjoyed, or were right- " fully and lawfully entitled to, in the Reign of King " Charles the Second, or any Time since, by the " Laws and Statutes that were in Force in the said " Reign of King Charles the Second ; and shall be put " in Possession, by Order of the Government, of such " of them as are in the Kings Hands, or in the Hands " of His Tenants, without being put to any Suit or " Trouble therin ; and all such Estates shall be freed " and discharged from all Arrears of Crown Rents, " Quit Rents, and other Public Charges, incurred and " become due since Michaelmas 1688, to the Day of " the Date hereof ; and all Persons comprehended in " this Article shall have, hold, and enjoy, all their " Goods and Chattels, Real and Personal, to them or " any of them belonging, and remaining either in their " own Hands or the Hands of any Persons whatsoever " in Trust for, or for the Use of, them or any of them ; " and all and every the said Persons, of what Profession, " Trade, or Calling soever they be, Shall and may use, " excercise, and Practice, their several and respective " Professions, Trades, and Callings, as freely as they " did use, excercise, and enjoy the same in the Reign of " King Charles the Second : Provided that nothing in " this Article contained be construed to extend to, or " restore, any forfiting person now out of the King- " dom, excepted what are hereafter comprised : Pro- " vided also, that no Person whatsoever shall have or " enjoy the Benefit of this Article, that shall neglect " or refuse to take the Oath of Allegiance, made by " Act of Parliament in England in the First Year of " the Reign of Their present Majesties, when there- " unto required. "3. All Merchants, or reputed Merchants, of the " City of Limerick, or of any other Garrison now " possessed by the Irish, or of any Town or Place in the " Counties of Clare or Kerry, who are absent beyond " the Seas, that have not bore Arms since Their Ma- " jesties Declaration in February 1688/9, shall have the " Benefit of the Second Article, in the same Manner " as if they were present : Provided such Merchants, " and reputed Merchants, do repair into this Kingdom " within the space of Eight Months from the Date " hereof. " 4. The following Officers, (videlicet,) Colonel Symon " Luttrell, Captain Rowland White, Maurice Eustace " of Yermous Towne, Chivers of Mays Towne, com- " monly called Mountleinster now belonging to the " regiments in the aforesaid Garrisons and Quarters " of the Irish Army , who are beyond the Seas, and " sent thither upon the Affairs of their respective Regi- ments, or the Army in general, shall have the Benefit " and Advantage of the Second Article : Provided they " return hither within the Space of Eight Months from " the Date of these Presents, and submit to Their Ma- " jesties Government, and take the abovementioned " Oath. " 5. That all and singular the said Persons comprised " in the Second and Third Articles shall have a Ge- " neral Pardon of all Attainders, Outlawries, Treasons, " Misprisons of Treasons, Praemunieries, Felonies, Tres- " paffes, and other Crimes and Misdeameanours what- " soever, by them, or any of them, committed since the " Beginning of the Reign of King James the Second ; " and if any of them are attainted by Parliament, the " Lords Justices and General will use their best En- " deavours to get the same repealed by Parliament, and " the Outlaweries to be reversed gratis ; all but Writing " Clerks Fees. " 6. And wheras these present Wars have drawn " on great Violences on both Parts; and that if Leave " were given to the bringing all Sorts of private Actions, " the Anomosities would probably continue that have " been too long a Foot, and the Public Disturbances " last ; for the Quieting and Settling therefore of this " Kingdom, and avoiding those Inconveniencies which " would be the neccessary Consequence of the contrary, " no Person or Persons whatsoever comprised in the " foregoing Articles shall be sued, molested, or im- " pleaded, at the Suit of any Party or Parties what- " soever , for any Treaspass by them committed, or for " any Arms, Horses, Money , Goods , Chattels, Mer- " chandises , or Provisions whatsoever , by them seized " or taken during the Time of the War ; and no Per- " son or Persons whatsoever, in the Second or Third " Articles comprised, shall be sued, impleaded, or made " accountable, for the Rents or Mean Rates of any " Lands, Tenements, or Houses, by him or them re- " ceived or enjoyed in this Kingdom, since the Begin- " ning of the present War, to the Day of the Date " hereof, nor for any Waste of Treaspas by him or " them committed in any such Lands, Tenements or " Houses : And it is also agreed, that this Article shall " be mutual and recriprocal on both Sides. " 7. Every 648 Journals of the House of Lords. A.1691. " 7. Every Nobleman and Gentleman comprised in " the said Second or Third Articles shall have Liberty " to ride with a Sword and Case of Pistols, if they " think fit ; and keep a Gen in their Houses, for the " Defence of the same, or for Fowling. " 8. The Inhabitants and Residents of the City of " Limerick, and other Garrisons, shall be permitted to " remove their Goods, Chattels, and Provisions, out of " the same, without being viewed and searched, or pay- " ing any Manner of Duties ; and shall not be " compelled to leave the Houses or Lodgings they now " have, for the Space of Six Weeks next ensuing the " Date herof. " 9. The Oath, to be administered to such Roman " Catholics as submit to Their Majesties Government, " shall be the Oath abovesaid, and no other. " 10. No Person or Persons, who shall at any Time " hereafter break these Articles, or any of them, shall " thereby make or cause any other Person or Persons " to forfit or lose the benefit of the same. " 11. The Lords Justices and General do promise to " use their utmost Endeavours, that all the Persons " comprehended in the abovementioned Articles shall " be protected and defended from all Arrests and Exe- " cutions for Deby or Damage, for the Space of Eight Months next ensueing the Date hereof. " 12. Lastly, The Lords Justices and General do " undertake, that Their Majesties will ratify these " Articles within the Space of Eight Months or sooner, " and use Their utmost Endeavours that the same shall " be ratified and confirmed in Parliament. " 13. And wheras Colonel John Browne stood in- " debted to several Protestants, by Judgements of " Record ; which appearing to the late Government, " the Lord Tyrconnel and Lord Lucan took away the " Effects the said John Browne had to answer the said " Debts, and promised to clear the said John Browne " of the said Debts, which Effects were taken for the " public Use of the Irish and their Army ; for freeing " the said Lord Lucan of his said Engagement passed on " their public Account, for Payment of the said Pro- " testants, and for preventing the Ruin of the said John " B rowne , and for Satisfaction of his Creditors, at the " Instance of the Lord Lucan and the rest of the Per- " sons aforesaid, it is agreed, that the said Lords Jus- " tices, and the said Baron de Gincell , shall intercede " with the King and Parliament, to have the Estates se- " cured to Roman Catholics by articles and Capitu- " lation in this Kingdom charged with, and equally " liable to, the Paymant of so much of the said Debts " as the said Lord Lucan, upon stating Accompts with " the said John Brown, shall certify, under his Hand, " that the effects taken from the said Browne amount " unto ; which accompt is to be stated, and the Balance " certified by the said Lord Lucan, in One and Twenty " days after the Date hereof. " For the true Performance whereof, we have " hereunto set our Hands. " Present: " Scravenmore. " Lucan " H. Mackay. " Gallmoy. " T. Tolmach. " N. Purcell. " Nich. Cusack. " Theobald Butler. " Ger. * Dilson. " John Browne. " * This name in the Preamble is Dillon. * This name in the Preamble is Dillon. 1400 members of the King's Royal Irish Foot Guards and other Regiments marched past General Ginkel and choose Sarsefield and only 7 choose to follow Ginkel. In fact only 500 of them embarked for France, the rest quietly leaving the defeated Colours to return home wishing to give the fair words of the Sassanach an opportunity for implementation without opposition. They were to be cruelly disappointed. Dorrington retained his Colonelship of the Royal Irish Foot Guards in France and indeed served as part of the army [approved by the widowed Queen Anne for the invasion and restoration of King James 2nd?], which assembled on the coast of Normandy. Cusarke, Colonel Nicholas 181.[ the royal or parliamentary clerk perhaps ran out of ink as r can look like an incomplete c]. State Papers Domestic Anne. p.1. Print. Endd, S.P. Ireland 363, 113, followed by:- The Articles of Limerick ratified under the Great Seal of England set out the agreement of 3 October 1691, between Sir Charles Porter and Thomas Coningsby Esq, Lords justices of Ireland, and General Baron de Ginckle on the one hand and Patrick, Earl of Lucan, Percy Vicount Galmoy, Colonel Nicholas Pursell, Colonel Nicholas Cusarke [Cusacke or Cusack], Sir Toby Butler, Colonel Garrett Dillon and Colonel John Browne on the other, on behalf of the Irish inhabitants of the City of Limerick, and Counties of Limerick, Clare, Mayo, Sligo , Kerry, and Cork in consideration of the surrender of Limerick and submission of the Irish Army. Proceeds:- we ratify and confirm the same for us, our heirs and successors, and all things therein; and as such parts thereof as shall be found to need confirmation by Act of Parliament we shall recommend Parliament to make them good, and shall assent to any bill or bills which shall be past by our two Houses of Parliament for that purpose. We ratify the second article with the addition of the words " all such as are under their protection in the said counties" after the words "Limerick, Clare, Cork, Kerry, Mayo, or any other of them; which first words were accidently omitted [details] from the signed articles. These patents to be enrolled in the chancery of Ireland within a year. pp 2 1/2 Print endd. S.P. Ireland. 363, 114. Comment could this amendment be something partially to do with the totally broken, or never implemented civil provisions of the treaty [ie. by England]? This treaty was intended in its core and from the start to transfer sovereignty by the implementation of conditions. I have outlined in bold the sections which would have to be implemented for the separate sovereignty of the Kingdom of Ireland to so transfer. Viz 1. 7. 10. 12. These provisions were not implemented and so the Axial Treaty of Limerick which was intended to transfer the Sovereignty of Ireland to the Orange Prince never came into being. Therefore Sovereignty did not pass to the Orange Prince. The best consequence for the Orange Prince was that he became the ‘de facto government of Ireland’, the worst for him he became as a private subject in Ireland guilty of Sedition, Rebellion and many felonies. De Jure he never [by any argument] was sovereign in Ireland. Queen Anne tried to rectify the situation, but nothing came of her efforts, and the escort of "The Kings Royal Irish Guards" assambled on the French Coast to escort her Brother the Lawful King of the Three Kingdoms' never left France with him. By the same and more arguments, in the face of Queen Anne’s repentant efforts to restore her lineage to the Thrones of the Three Kingdoms The Whig Conspirators INGLORIOUS REVOLUTION OF 1688 further separated the sovereignty of the Kingdom of Ireland from the Guelph to Windsor dynasty [or dynasties]. This is not to impugn their sovereignty over England or Scotland. In Ireland icba The Landed; fiscal; and above all Religious Misbehaviours of the Dutch Prince’s dynasty and the Guelph Whig appointed successors in the Stuart Kingdom of Ireland had the effect of totally preventing the sovereignty of Ireland passing to the monarchs regnant since in England and Scotland. The authority claimed for these dynasties is wrecked on the Rock called the ‘Treaty Stone’ in Limerick Town. The Army of the Kingdom of Ireland divided as follows 500 went to France on the boats which arrived provisioned to continue the war the days after the Treaty was signed. 1400 left the colours to return home under the assurances of the Treaty. 7 joined the Colours of the Prince of Orange [and some more later it appears including Lutterel] The fact that the Army of Ireland continued in being in St Germaine en Laye even as a Guarde de Corps of King JamesII, and that it continued its resistance in arms at various successful battles against the Guelph dynasty the Kings Royal Irish guards of Lt Col Nicholas Cusack [founded29 May1662, from Cusack’s Regt which under Col George Cusack its founder[Innisboffin 26Apr1653] had joined Charles Stewarts little brigade strength Spanish Subsidised Army in Flanders6 July 1656 during the English Republican Army’s Interregnum Rule of the Kingdom of Ireland]. Battles I remember include Fontinoy under Lt Col Richard Edmund de Cusack when Col Roche was wounded Lt Col Cusack took over the regiment. Francis Cusack [Dillon’s Regt was decorated Chev Leg here] Culloden [mainly Dillon’s Regiment where served Captain Francis Cusack who [again contrary to the never implemented treaty was stripped of his Lairdship of Kilballey Porter Co Meath on a charge of Treason, and him aged SEVEN YEARS]. Icba since he was even younger at the ‘Orange Prince’s Invasion War in Ireland’ this land seizure was totally illegal The American War of Independence Carolina and Yorktown As Marines Flamborough Head. Dept of The Navy. HQ US Marine Corps Historical Center 1254 Charles Mirris Street, SE. Washington Navy Yard, DC 20374-5040. ref 5750/428 31 May 05. Dear Mr Cusack, response to letter 23 March 2005 concerning the service of IRISH GUARDS in the Continental Marine Corps. ...Deeply Appreciate...the information...It will be placed in our subject Files on the early history of the Marine Corps, and will be available for the use of interested researchers. I thought... of interest Allen R Millet's 'Semper Fideles' The History of The United States marine Corps, provides a close examination od early interrelationship Between the Royal Marines and the origens of the Continental Marines. Chapter 1 Page 18 Soldiers at Sea. [John Paul] Jones persuaded the French governmant to buy him a merchantman, renamed 'The Bonhomme Richard'in January 1779...Jones...recruited a crew and drew upon the French government for additional Marines, a detachment of immigrant Irish Infantry from the Regiment of Walsh-Serrant of the French Army. John Adams inspected the unit and carped that their uniforms were red and white, not continental green, but Jones was probably pleased to have a disciplined, trained force for his ship. Icba [NB. The American colonies were not bound to the INGLORIOUS REVOLUTION OF 1688 in any case.] There was no American Revolution de Jure. A Cusack [from memory] fought there in the French Army as well. And Cusicks fought as members of the Tesquora Clan of the Iriquois nation on the American Colonists side. The presence of the Army of the Stuart De Jure Sovereign on the American colony’s side [albeit en Service de France] gave further de Jure legitimacy to the American colonists in founding their state sovereign. The Act of Union [1800] I have read. It seems to be watertight. And in its language it is. But King Henry IX. sovereign of the Three Kingdoms was alive at the time. It does not bear his signature as the de Jure Monarch of the Kingdom of Ireland. NOT BEARING KING HENRY IX’S SIGNATURE THE PURPORTED ACT OF UNION IS VOID., by reason of its purpose ‘to alter and transfer sovereignty of the Kingdom of Ireland. King George III was acting 'Ultra Vires' in signing it. [It is to be noted that the Irish Brigade including The King’s Royal Irish Guards under Col Walsh Serrant returned to the British Isles at the invitation of King George III. The subsequent scandalous treatment of this regiment which returned as the 5th Regiment according to the National Archives at Kew, [with its Battle Honours over the Three Grenadier Guards Regts and the Royal Navy] is shown by it being hidden by disbandment into the Irish Regiments mainly The Royal Irish Fusiliers in the Napoleonic Wars. The Royal Irish Fusiliers captured the first eagle in the Peninsular Wars and all the absorbing Regiments are now in the Royal Irish Regiment, which demonstrably has the right to The Irish Brigade Battle Honours so embarrassing to the English Establishment. ARGUEABLY The Reigning Dynasty did not become fully de Jure for the Two Kingdoms of Scotland and England until 1807 when the de Cardinal King of Scotland AND England AND Ireland died and his successors acknowledged they had no wish to maintain a claim for a British Crown. The reigning dynasty remained felonious in Ireland including Northern Ireland until the defeat of the Provisional Irish Republican Army caused the Good Friday Agreement to come to the fore. It is however not clear whether its provisions have been implemented and so the Protestant Rebels against their Lawful Stuart Government of Ireland, by resisting its implementation are in their normal continuous state of seditious rebellion. It is no wonder that Queen Elizabeth II rushed to declare Newry a City as the acceptance of that Honour from her hands gave her rule a legitimacy it never had. If the provisions of the Good Friday Agreement do come into play, Queen Elizabeth II. Shall have been taken on the first steps toward securing an honest and lawful presence for her dynasty in this island of Ireland. If not the Ulster Ascendancy arguably at law remains in felonious Rebellion and Sedition with England’s Whig based establishment as a powerful and obdurate ally. Michael Patrick Cusack. Irish Guards' Brief History The King's Royal Irish Guards Cusack's Regiments. Spanish Service: Joins Charles Stewarts Army in Exile: Disbanded into the Royal Irish Foot and Horse Guards. 271. notes. c. 1606. Sept, 27. Dublin. Thomas jones, Archbishop of Dublin, to Salisbury. Hath latly had some seference with one Evers, a young man born in Meath, near to his late dwelling at Arbrachen, who hath served under the Archduke, and is recently returned, having procured a passport by reason of his sickness. Questioned him touching the carriage and disposition of such gentlemen of this countru as serve the archduke, and especiall as such were born in the pale, naming onto him the Lord of Gormanstown, his brother, William Darcie, one Cusacke. Delahide and others. He answered that they all serve in a regiment under Henry, the Earl of Tyrones son, [and] do carry as hateful a mind to the King of this state as the mere Irish do.... 272. Notes. 1607. July 22. The report of D.M. son of R.M. of C. Ò Went out of Ireland into the Low Countries to recover cartain debts.... he notes at the end of his report:- The President of all the Irish Colleges in Brabant and Flanders is one called Father Cusacke; his father was Sir Thomas Cusacke, who had ben lord justice of Ireland; the Irish Colleges are five, at Douay, Tournay, lisle, Antwerpe, and one other at Louvaine. Cal S.P. Ire. 1606-8, pp. 227-130. 1611. Mar 6. Douai. A petition to Archduke Albert submitted on behalf of Dermot Roger O'Mallon by Sebastian Hanedouche, acting for Cornelius Bishop of killalaoe, uncle of son in law was also repeated by Christopher Cusack Prior of the Irish college in Douay on 20 March 1611. 16. 1637. Dec 10 Aire. The will of Captain Patrick Fleming. In the name of the father Son and the Holy Ghost. I underwritten Patrick Fleming, Capten. and sone to Christopher Fleming, Lord Baron of Slaine and brother to william Fleming Lord of Slaine, being sicke of body, yeatt being of perfect cencres and memorie doe make me will and testament as followed and for the exequeter of this me sequent will I doe ordain me [sic] brother Thomas and me uncle William Sarsfield. First I left in the hands of me oncle Mr Nicholas Barnwall.... ...make me broothers pay Geratt Cusak.... Dorso : Testamentum Capitanei Patricii Fleming, 1637. Archives, Dun Mhuire, Killiney, D>I>, pp. 189-91. Wild Geese in Spanish Flanders, 1582-1700. Comission of Manuscripts of Ireland. Documents relating to Irish Regiments from the Archives GeÕneÕrales Du Royaume, Brussels, and other Sources. By Brendan Jennings. Shall be written in this Avant Guarde Font. 2035. 1653AD. Jan 15. The Commissioners report to the council of State: 'There are gone from Ireland to the Service of the king of Spain since April some 13,000, and most of those who have been in arms against you would be persuaded to follow if any persons of ability and credit were employed to give conditions and carry tham away. Col. Plunkett having contracted for the carrying away of many and having sent them away, others on shipboard and many on their march to the Waterside, died last week (some concieve of grief because he had neither money nor credit to make good his contract) which will cause the disbanding of many desperate rouges, who know not how to live except by robbing and stealing out of bogs and fastnesses.' Ibid. II, p 310. 2036. a. An error for Hugh O'Neill, major - general, nephew of Owen O'Neill. Imprisoned after his defence of Limerick against Ireton. See J.G. Simms, "hugh Dubh O'Neill's defence of Limerick, 1650-51, in Irish Sword III, no2, 1957. b. The Commissioners of the Council of State. 'Having intelligence therefore that the Spanish ambassodor desires licence for Major General O'Neill to transport from hence 5,000 men, that to this purpose he has already moved your Lordships, that otherwise 4000 more are desired by Col O'Dwyer, we did the rather concieve it our duty to represent to you the probable security it may prove to the country, and conveniency to your affairs here, to give encouragement for the shipping away of as many as possible of those who have acted in war as soldiers against us.' Dunlop 11, pp. 323f. c. 1653. Aug., 24th. Ordered that Lord Eniskillen and Lt Col OÕNeill be authorised to raise 1,200. Irish to be transported to Spain. ibid. p. 371. Page 19. of the above. XIX. REGIMENT OF COLONEL GEORGE CUSACK. 1656-62. [April 26 1653 arrested and in the service of the Duke of Lorraine possibly under duress.]. Colonel George Cusack had served with his regiment in the army of the Duke of Lorraine, but went over to the Spaniards when Duke Francis went over to the French, though only, it would appear, after two more years in the French service with his regiment [I think he did not change sides until Charles II before he was restored [circa April 1661] to the English Throne ordered the change over so that he Charles II would have a strong Irish Regimental presence in Flanders next Holland, to if necessary invade, and later after his restoration on to counter any attempt by the English arrivistes of the Republican Revolution to rebel against him] George Cusack received a commission as colonel of an Irish Regiment in the Low Countries on 6 July 1656, and it explicitly stated that he brought his regiment with him. Cusack was pensioned as a disbanded colonel on 21 June 1662. Charles II's action regarding the transfer of Irish Regiments [if true] was not in France's interest. c. 1653. The Commissioners to the Council of State. August 24th. 1653?! 2046. a. Lieutenant Colonel Dudley Costello, with Colonel Richard Bourke and others signed articles with Comissary-General reynolds, on behalf of themselves and Colonel George Cusack govenor of Inishboffin, on 14 February 1652-3. Article 5 agreed That Commisary-General Reynolds undertake to transport Colonel Cusack, Lt., -Col Costello, or either of them with 1000 men or as many of them as they can produce at the time hereafter limited, from Clare Island to Bilbao Sebastian or any other convenient port in Biscay, within 21 days from the date hereof, and upon their shipping shall recieve from each man 12 shillings, and there been landed shall receive the benefit of as good conditions as was made with any contract with Spanish agents here..... and that from 7 March next (1654?). Dunlop II. p 335. b. 1653. Apr .26. Reported from Brussels that Col Cusack had landed a few days before with more than 1000 men from Inishbofen. Cusaack had come to Brussels to discuss with the authorities there the employment of his men in their service, but was arrested by the Duke of Lorraine, who claimed that the troops belonged to him, as he was protector of Ireland. Collectanea Hibernica I, pp 89-90. 2058. a. 1653. June 25-July3. ÒI hear 700 men from Ireland are upon the coast of Dunkirk.' Thurloe papers. p 318. b. One Cusack that has been the govenor of Ennisbuffin may soon be there, or some other from the Duke of lorraine to the Lord general Cromwell, with some propositions That Lorraine should attack Holland by land, and let the English attack them by sea. Ibid p318. Ibid. Shortly before this it was reported that Lorraine Keeps Cusack prisoner as formerly Ibid p 245. It is stated in Commentarius V, p. 73, that Cusack was restored to his regiment through the influence of Cromwell and the Commonwealth Officers who served with their regiments with Francis Duke of Lorraine. 1654-9. Colonel George Cusack. Recruiting. On 6 July 1656 a commission was granted as Colonel to George Cusack, and other commissions for his lieutenant colonel and nine captains, for a regiment which appears to have been brought from Ireland for service with the Duke of Lorraine. ARCHIVES GENERAL DE ROYAUME, BRUSSELS. 2145. 1656. JULY 6. FROM THE CAMP AT FALMARS, NEAR VALENCIENNES. Commission to Goorge Cusack as Colonel; had been colonel of an Irish Regiment with the Duke of Lorraine, but had come to these states to serve His majesty when Duke Francis went over to the French. Blank comission for the lieutenant Colonel and nine Captains of the same regiment. EG.,reg.54, fol. 47. 2147. 1656. July 11. Madrid. Phipip IV to Don John of Austria. ....News is awaited of what (King Charles of England) have done about the coming over of Cromwell's partys ships to the ports of the Low Countries and of his bringing over to the Spanish Service the Irish who are fighting for the french,. Both of great importance as neither could then be used against him. 2149. 1656. July 27. From the camp at Conde. Order to admit to pay the regiment of Colonel George Cusack. EG. reg. 54, fol. 53. 2162. 1656 Aug 23. From the camp at Conde'. Appointment of Licentiate Luke Garvi As senior chaplin to the Regiment of colonel George Cusack, with pay of twenty five crowns monthly.* EG., reg. 54, fol 70v. 2163. 1656. Aug.29. From the camp at Conde'. Don John of Austria to Phipip IV. In a letter of 7 August I informed your majesty of the receipt of the treaty made with Charles 2 of England, ( goes on to deal with pensions assigned to Charles 2)...The King of England has sent me orders directied to the Irish Regimentts which came out from CondeÕ after the Surrender, that they are to remain in your service. These orders have been sent in haste and it is doubtful if they will overtake the men on the march. * EGC., reg. 261, fol. 234. 2164. 1656. Sept 2. From the camp at Saucy Estre. Commission to Ensign Richard Russel as adjutant of the major of the regiment of Colonel George Cusack ; with pay of 25 crowns monthly. EG., reg 54, fol 74v. 2165. 1656. Sept . 2 . From the camp at Saucy Estre. Commission to Henry Donnelly, soldier of the company of Irish Infantry of captain Sartel, regiment of John Morfi, as ajutant of the major of the regiment of Colonel George Cusack. EG>, reg. 54, fol. 74v. 2182. 1657. Mar. 13. Brussels. Pay of 25 Crowns monthly to Fr John Mc David, of the Order of St., Agustin ; to serve as senior chaplin in the regiment of Irish infantry of the duke of Gloucester. EG., Reg. 55. fol. 17. 2183. 1657. Mar. 13. Brussels. Pay of 25 crowns monthly to Licentiate Barthomelew Plunquet; to serve as senior Chaplin in the Regiment of Colonel george Cusack. EG., reg 55, fol 17. 2239. 1658. July 24. Bruges. Commission to ensign John Morfi as captain to a company of Irish infantry in the Regiment of colonel George Cusack ; has been named for the commission by the marquis de Lede, govenor of Dunkirk, after the death from wounds of captain Henri Morfi in defence of the citidal. EG., reg. 56, fol 653. 2243. 1658. Sept 24. Tournai. Commission to Richard Laloer as Captain of a company of Irish Infantry in the regiment of Colonel George Cusack, vacant by the death of Captain Morgan Flarqui. EG., reg 56, fol. 68v. 2246. 1658. Nov 12 Brussels. Grant of 25 crowns monthly to Captain William Odorgan, formerly of the regiment of Colonel George Cusacque in the service of the duke of Lorraine, EG., reg. 56, fol. 93. 2249. 1658. Nov. 13. Brussels. Grant of 25 crowns monthly to Captain Constantine Oneil, formerly in command of a company of the regiment of Colonel George Cusaq, serving with the Duke of Lorraine, EG., reg. 56, fol. 96. 2256. 1658. Nov29. Brussels. Grant to Ensign William Morfi of the supplement of service required for him to become ensign of the company of Irish infantry of Captain James Nolan, regiment of Colonel George Cusaq ; had formerly been ensign in Lorraine. EG., reg 56, fol. 103v. 2271. 1659. Jan. 22. Brussels. Appointment of Anthony French as judge advocate of the regiment of Colonel George Cusacq ; to administer justice as is becoming. EG., reg 56. fol. 160v. 2279. 1659. Mar 10. Brussels. Commission to Adjutant Doudal as captain of a company of Irish infantry, regiment of Colonel Cusacq ; vacancy due to the death of Captain Malachy Flyn. EG ., reg. 57. fol. 1. 2301. 1659. July 14. Brussels. Licence for England, for two months to Captain Francis Coglan, of the regiment of Colonel George Cusacq. EG., reg, 57, fol62. 2305. 1659. Sept 16. Brusseels. Extension for three months of the licence granted to Captain Francis Coglan. EG., reg. 57. fol.95. 2313. 1660. Feb. 4. Brussels. Commission to ensign Nolano, as quartermaster of the regiment of Colonel George Cusacq. EG ., reg. 57. fol., 154. 2329. 1660. Mar. 13. Brussels. Special grant of six crowns monthly to Sergeant Denis Obrin, of the disbanded company of Captain Henry Dudal, of the regiment of Colonel George Cusacq. EG ., reg 57, fol. 166. 2330. 1660. Mar. 13. Brussels. Grant of forty crowns monthly to Captain Daniel Lanan of a disbanded company of the regiment of Colonel George Cusacq. EG., reg. 57. fol 157. 2331. 1660. Mar 13. Brussels. Grant of forty crowns monthly to Captain Edward Vuteler, of a disbanded company of the regiment of Colonel George Cusacq. Eg., reg. 57. fol 167. 2333. 1660. Mar 18. Brussels. Grant of forty crowns monthly to Captain Henry Dudal, of a disbanded company of the regiment of Colonel George Cusacq. EG., reg. 57, fol. 171. 2338. 1660. Mar. 20. Brussels. Special grant of six crowns monthly to Sergeant Omultuli, of the disbanded company of Captain Edward Butler, regiment of Colonel George Cusacq., Eg., reg. 57. fol. 191. 2356. 1660. Apr 10. Brussels. Special grant of ten crowns monthly, to Ensign Anthony Butelar, of the disbanded company of Captain Edward Buteler, of the regiment of Colonel George Cusacq. EG., reg. 57, fol 199v. 2362. 1660. Apr. 18. Special grant of 6 crowns monthly to John Libridas, sergeant of the disbanded company of Colonel George Cusacq. EG., reg. 57, fol 228. 2363. ditto 10 crowns to Ensign William Morsi ditto. EG ditto. 2364 Apr 20 dittos Ensign Oliver Linche of the disbanded company of Captain Daniel Lelan, Regiment of col., George Cuscq. EG ditto. 2365. Apr 21 Brussels ditto to Sergeant Edmond Brun, of the disbanded co of Captain James Nolan, regiment of Colonel George Cusacq. EG., ditto. 2366. 1660. Apr. 23. Brussels. Commission to Anthony French as judge advocate of the regiment of Colonel George Cusacq, EG., reg. 57, fol. 233. 2373. 1660. May 3. Brussels. Pay of twelve crowns monthly to Licenciate Eugenio Egan ; to serve as ordinary chaplin in the regiment of Colonel George Cusacq. EG., reg. 58, fol. IV 29 May 1660. King Charles 2nd enters London his Capital on his 30th birthday 2391. 1660. June 7. Orders to transfer the grant of Captain Richard Fanin from the company of the Irish Infantry of Captain Louis Mulrain, of the regiment of Colonel George Cusacq, to the company of Spanish Infantry of Captain Noboa. EG., reg 58, fol. 31v. 2393. 1660. June 8. Brussels. Licence for Ireland on business, for six months, to Adjutant John Brady, pensioner in the company of Captain Philip Hay, of the regiment of Colonel George Cusacq.* EG., reg 58, fol, 30. 2396. 1660. June 21 . Brussels. Licence for Ireland, on business, to Captain Adam Roche, pensioner in the company of Irish Infantry of Captain Louis del Reano, of the Regiment of Col George Cusacq. EG., reg 58, fol 40v. 2412. 1660. July 5. Brussels. Licence for Ireland, for six months, to Colonel Thadeus Flaherty, pensioner in the regiment of Colonel George Cusacq ; wishes to go there to petition for the return of his estates. EG., reg. 58, fol. 54v. 2419. 1660. July 10. Brussels. Grant of forty crowns monthly to Captain James Nolano, of a disbanded company of Irish Infantry of the Regiment of Colonel George Cusacq. EG., 58. fol. 65v. 2424. 1660. July 20. Brussels. Licence for Ireland, on important business to which he must attend, to Captain o^ Cullan, pensioner in the company of Captain Thadeus Morfi, regiment of Colonel George Cusacq. EG., reg 58. fol 66v. 2444. 1660. Aug. 14. Brussels. Licence for Ireland for four months, to licenciate Anthony French, judge advocate of the regiment of colonel cusacq ; his father who is old and suffers from many infermities calls him to Ireland to see him before he dies. EG., reg. 58. fol 85. 2456. 1660. Sept. 5. Brussels. Licence for England, for four months on business, to Captain Francis Couhlan, of the regiment of Colonel George Cusacq. EG., reg. 58. fol. 100v. 2465. 1660. Sept 30. Brussels. Licence for Ireland, for four months on important business which requires his presence, to Captain Christopher Dillon, pensioner in the company of Captain Philip Hey, Regiment of Colonel George Cusacq. EG.,reg. 56. Fol 119. 2466. 2467. 1660. Oct. 11. Brussels. Licence for England and Ireland to look after a property that is in danger of being lost, to Captain james Fanin, pensioner in the company of Colonel George Cusacq. EG., reg. 58. fol 126. 2447. 1660. Nov, 12. Brussels. Grant of the dead place of a soldier, of the value of four crowns monthly, to Theodore Carti, of the company of Irish infantry of Captain John Morfi, regiment of Colonel George Cusacq ; while making grenades at the defence of Gravelines had been wounded in the hand and is unable for further service, EG.,reg. 58, fol. 143v. 2484. 1660. nov. 17. Brussels. Licence for England, for twenty one days on business which requires his presence, to Colonel George Cusacq. EG., reg. 58, fol. 152. 2485. 1660. Nov 18. Brussels. Extension for three months to the licence granted to Captain Francis Coglan on 5 Sept last. EG., reg. 58, fol. 156. 2495. Nov, 25. Brussels. Grant of 25 corons monthly to Captain Constantine Oneill, hithrto held by him on a company of Irish infantry formerly commanded by Captain Ohilip Orely, until the same Captain constine was given the company of Captain Charles Creagh, who was thought to have died in france ; the present grant to be held on one of the companies of captain George cusacq. EG., reg. 58, fol. 152v. 27. 1660. Nov. 30. His Majesties gracious declaration for the settlement of his kingdom of Ireland, and satisfaction of the several interests of Adventurers, Souldiers, and other of his subjects there. XXV. And wheras divers persons, for most of whom a provision is made by this our declaration, have for reasons known onto us, in an especial manner merited our grace and favours; particularly:- [ hereafter a list four printed pages long which included] ;- - in the County of Roscommon; captain Teige O Flaherty ; Colonel George Cusack; Mr Thomas Cusack of Carick in the County of Kildare ; The Statutes at large passed in the Parliaments held in Ireland (1310-1785) Dublin 1786, II, pp 245 and 256-60. 285. 1607. 1607. Brussels. Licence for Ireland to Philip Cusaq, of the company of Captain Thomas Preston. EG., reg. 24, fol, 21v. 2525. 1661. Feb 12. Brussels. Licence to be absent for four months, on business which requires his presence, to Captain Fergus Offarel, pensioner in the company of Colonel George Cusacq. EG., reg. 58, fol. 177v. 2558. 1661. June3. Brussels. a further extension for three months of the licence granted to Captain Francis Coglan, EG., reg. 58, fol 236v. 2562. 1662. Mar. 8. Grant of 1,500 florins each of the value of twenty placas, to Colonel George Cusacq, of the regiment of Irish infantry, to help him in the straits he is in his pay being overdue. GS., reg. 168. 2567. 1662. May 29. Brussels. Licence for three months to Captain Thedore Carey, pensioner in the company of Captain Richard Russel, regiment of Colonel George Cusacq ; to go to Spa to take the waters, on his doctor's orders, and from there to Aix-la-Chapelle for the baths. EG., reg. 59, fol2. SEE THE IRISH GUARDS CHAPTER. CUSACK'S DISBANDED REGIMENT MARCHED OVER ENGLAND TO DUBLIN TO BECOME THE KINGS ROYAL IRISH FOOT GUARDS AND ROYAL IRISH HORSE GUARDS. 2571. 1662. june 1. Brussels. Orders to transfer Ensign Thedore Conor from the company of the high German infantry of Colonel Cuscar to the regiment of Colonel Thedore Omeara , with a special grant of eight crowns monthly. EG., reg, 59. fol. 3. 2572. 1662. June 4. Brussels. Special grant of ten crowns monthly to Ensign Laurence Rurque, of the disbanded company of Captain Philip Hoya, regiment of colonel George Cusacq. EG., reg. 59. fol. 6. 2573. 1662. June 4. Brussels. special grant of four crowns monthly to Sergeant David Hey, of the company of Captain Philip Hoya. EG., reg. 59. fol.6. 2574. 1662. june 4. Brussels. Special grant of ten crowns monthly to ensign Maclaer, of the disbanded company of Captain Richard Lalor, regiment of Colonel George Cusacq. EG. reg. 59. fol.6. 2575. 1662. June 4. Grant of forty crowns monthly to Captain Philip Hoya, of a disbanded company of the regiment of Colonel George Cusacq. EG. reg. 59. fol. 8v. 2576. 1662. June 4. Brussels. Grant of twenty five crowns monthly to adjutant nicholas Nolan, of the disbanded regiment of Colonel George Cusacq.,EG. reg. 59. fol. 8v. 2577. 1662. june 4. Brussels. Special Grant of six Crowns monthly to Sergeant Quedar y Organ, of the disbanded company of Colonel Georgwe Cusacq.EG. reg. 59. fol. 8v. 2578. 1662. June 4 Brussels. Special grant of six crowns monthly to Sergeant Gillian Goyh, of the disbanded company of Captain richard Lalor of the regiment of Colonel George Cusacq.EG. reg. 59. fol. 8v. 2579. 1662. june 4 . Brussels. special grant of ten crowns monthly to Ensign Patrick Oneill, of the disbanded company of Captain James Groghegan,regiment of Colonel George Cusacq.EG. reg. 59. fol. 8v. 2580. 1662. June 8. Brussels. Special grant of six crowns monthly to Sergeant Dermot Morgan, of the disbanded company of Captain James Groghegan, regiment of Colonel George Cusacq.EG. reg. 59. fol. 6 2581. 1662. June 10. Brussels. Special grant of ten crowns monthly to Ensign Peter Cusacq, of the disbanded regiment of Colonel George Cusacq.EG. reg. 59. fol. 7. 2582. 1662. june 21. Brussels. Grant of eighty crowns monthly to Colonel George Cusacq, whoes regiment has been disbanded. EG. reg. 59. fol. 10 2587. 1662. June 22. Half pay grant of forty crowns monthly to Captain James Geoghagan, of a disbanded company of the regiment of Colonel George Cusacq.EG. reg. 59. fol. 16. 2613. 1662. Sept. 21. Brussels. Orders to transfer the pension and service of Adjutant Nicolas nolan from the company of Captain Robert Cusacq, regiment of Colonel Thedore d'Omara, to the company of spanish infantry of Colonel Antonio Hurtado.. EG., reg. 59, fol. 54v. 2635. 1663. jan 24. Brussels. grant of forty crowns monthly to Captain Richard Lalor, of a disbanded company of the regiment of Colonel George Cusacq.EG. reg. 59. fol. 94v. 2638. 1663. Jan 21. Brussels. a renewal in favour of Captain Melcior 2597. 1662. July 27. Brussels. Grant of the ordinary place of a soldier in the Spanish infantry, with pay of four crowns monthly to Thomas Cusacq, aged 14 years, eldest son of Colonel George Cusacq ; in consideration of the services of his father. EG. reg. 59, fol. Burgo of the half pay grant of forty crowns monthly which he held in the company, now disbanded, of Captain mark Faharty, regiment of Colonel George Cusacq, until he became captain of an infantry company of the regiment of Waloons of the regiment of Colonel William Renier van der Clausen, with which he served until it was disbanded ; the grant to be held henceforward in a company of the regiment of Colonel Thedore Domera, in which at present Captain de Burgo holds the place of an ordinary soldier..EG. reg. 59. fol. 96v. 2647. 1663. Mar. 9. Brussels. Grant of the ordinary place of a soldier with pay of four crowns monthly, in the spanish infantry, without obligation to serve or present himself at the musters, to Patrick Cusacque, aged thirteen years, in consideration of the services of his father Colonel George Cusacq.EG. reg. 59. fol. 108. 2661. 1663. Apr 2. Brussels. Renewal of the grant of forty crowns monthly formerly held by Captain Gerard Dillon, of the regiment formerly commanded by Colonel George Cusacq, until Dillon himself became a captain of a company of the regiment of the Duke of Gloucester ; the grant now to be held in the regiment of the Colonel Theodore Domera, Wheras after the regiment left Dunkirk he remained in these states to continue his services after the example of his ancestors EG., reg 59, fol, 114v. 2692. 1663. Aug 24. Brussels. Orders to transfer Captain Constantine Oneil from the company of Captain Richard Cusacq , regiment of Colonel Theodore Domara, to the regiment to be newly formed under the command of Colonel Bernard OÕNeill. 2704. 1664. To Captain William Barry pensioner in the regiment of Irish infantry of Colonel Theodore Domara..... Sergeant Nicholas Ohein, soldier in the company of Captain Richard Cusacq, of the same regiment. 2712. 1667. July 8. Of the money which shall come into your hands for secret services, you will give to the sixteen officers and men mentioned below, of the regiment of Colonel John Morfi, ninety five crowns, each to the value of ten reales, in the following manner: Of the company of the said colonel : to James Caferlin, four crowns ; to Thadeus Logh, a further four crowns ; to Olly Ollery, four crowns ; to Terlagh O Brin, four crowns. Of the company of Captain John Patricio : to Captain William Dargan, twenty five crowns : to James Dully four crowns. Of the company of Captain MacMahon : to Ensign John Quelly, fourteen crowns ; to Malmory Ohernan, four crowns ; to Daniel Macmahon, four crowns ; to Edmund Ohagan, four crowns. Of the company of Captain Richard Rossel : to Eugenio Macough, four crowns ; to Andrew Cusacq, four crowns. Of the company of Captain Robert Cusacq : to Peter Prossel, four crowns ; to William Oneill, four crowns, to Terence Obrenan, four crowns The said ninty crowns to be given to those mentioned to enabel them to reinstate themselves, as they were made prisioners of war and robbed by the French who had taken the positions around Tournai ; the amount to be deducted from their pay, and payment to made to them only on the production of this document and a receipt from them in the name of all. Of the men who have come from Furnes account will be taken later by order of the Marquis de fresignies. GS., reg. 168. 2713. 1667. Aug. 9. To Richard Cusacq, sergeant of the company of Irish Infantry of Captain Robert Cusacq, regiment of Colonel John Morfy, a grant of eight crowns, each of the value of ten reales, to enable him to be healed of the wounds he received in the leg during the sortie he made against the French at Tournai ; to be deducted from his pay. GS., reg. 168. 2714. 1667. Sept 23. To John Ohoye, soldier in the company of Captain Robert Cusacq ; to Daniel Obressiel, soldier in the company of Captain Rachel ; to German Koskier, of the company of Colonel John Morphie : twelve crowns, each to the value of ten reales ; four crowns to each of them in one payment , in consideration of their having been wounded at the siege of Toutnai ; to be deducted from their pay. GS. reg. 168. 2729. 1670. Jan. 23. Brussels. Commission to Captain Edward Butler as captain of a company of Colonel John Morphie vacant by the retirement of Captain Robert Cusacq. EG., reg. 60, fol. 26v. 2731. 1670. Commission to sergeant Richard Cusacq as quartermaster of the regiment formerly commanded by Colonel John Morfy ; vacancy due to the death of Solomon Sonny. EG., reg. 60, fol. 44v. 2752. 1672. Dec. 24. Brussels. Grant of a place in the garrison at Hal to Simon Joye ; has served his Majesty for many years in the company of Colonel George Cusacq, and is unable for further service on account of his advanced age. EG., Reg. 61, fol, 295. 2793. 1675. May 26. Brussels. Commission to Colonel George Cusacq for the regiment of Scottish infantry vacant be the retirement of Colonel Francis Schot. EG., geg. 64, fol. 156v. 2794. 1675. Sept 22. From the camp. Grant to Henry Cusacq of the supplement of service required to become ensign of the Scottish company of infantry of captain Bruce, regiment of Colonel George Cusacq. EG., reg. 64, fol. 216v. Conde de Clonard, Historia orgánica de las Armas de Infantería y Caballería españolas. Madrid, 16 vols., 1851 shows'le indico que hemos podido encontrar una referencia de Unidad, tipo Tercio, formado por anglo-escoceses,que entra al servicio de Espana al mando de D. Jorge Cusack [escrito Cubsac en el original' Lejado no 44, Estatos de Fuerza 1524-1746. 2806. 1676. Aug. 7. From the camp. Special grant of six crowns monthly to Sergeant William Faril, who held a like grant in the company of Irish infantry of captain Louis Varri, of the regiment of Colonel George Cusacq, which had been incorporated in the company of Captain Jamees Demsi, and Sergeact Faril had gone with it to Spain ; he had returned to these states as an ordinary soldier in the company of Captain Nicolas de Alaba, of the regiment of Spanish infantry formerly commanded by Colonel Francisco Antonio de Agurto ; the grant to be paid by the castle of Antwerp. EG., reg. 65, fol. 247v. INSTITUTO DE HISTORIA Y CULTURA MILITAR. Madrid, 4 de julio de 2002. 1677AD. Para 2. ÒNo obstante, le indico que hemos podido encontrar una feferencia de una Unidad, tipo Tercio, formada por anglo-escoceses, qui entra al servicio de Espana en 1677 al mando de D. Jorge Cusack (escrito Cubsack en el original, Coleccion Conde de Clonard, Legajo n 44, Estatos de Fuerza 1524-1746). INSTITUTE OF HISTORY And MILITARY CULTURE. Madrid, 4 of 2002 July. 1677AD. Para 2. Despite all difficulties, I can indicate that we have been able to find a reference to him connected with a Unit, Tercio type, formed of anglo-Scottish, which entered the service of Espana in 1677 under the control of D. Jorge Cusack (written as Cubsack in the original entry, Collection Count of Clonard, Legajo n 44, Estatos de Fuerza 1524-1746). 2811. 1677, May 20. Brussels. Commission to Ensign Richard Cusacq as adjutant of the regiment of the lieutenant of the regiment of Scottish infantry of Colonel George Cusacq. EG., reg. 67, fol, 18. 2815. 1677. July 2. Commission to Ensign francis Geoghegan as adjutant to the scots regiment of Colonel George Cusacq. EG., reg. 67. fol, 60v. . R.I.P. 2820. 1677. August 27, From the camp. Commission to Henry Gage, lieutenant-colonel of the regiment of English infantry, as colonel of the regiment of Scots infantry vacant by the death of Colonel George Cusacq. EG., reg. 67, fol. 100. 2841. 1681. Sept. 12. Antwerp. Licence for Colonel Denis Oberny for three months, with continuation of his pay, to enable him to go to Ireland to recruit for his regiment ; likewise licence to take with him for the same purpose adjutant Richard Cusacq, Ensign Charles Cusacq, and john Quigo, pensioners and soldiers in the same regiment. Notes. Page 614. Wild Geese in Spanish Flanders, 1582-1700. 2145. a. 1654. June 27. Brussels. Thurloe Papers a letter of Intelligence. Orders came from the King of Spain some eight days since, to remove from the castle of Antwerp and the Low Countries Duke Charles of Lorraine, and to convey him to Spain with due security and respect. In obedience whereunto the said Duke is sent to Dunkirk, where he now is expecting the first wind for Spain. Five vessels of war are there to receive and convey him. When he comes to Spain it shall appear what he is committed for. His brother Francis decided to se him at his being at Antwerp but it was not permitted by his guards, who had orders to the contrary. [October 1655. Treaty twixt Republic of England & Kingdom of France. Cardinal Mazarin asks that Cromwell permit that James Duke of York remain in France. Cromwell agrees provided that The Prince does not fight in Flanders. And later added he would prefer the brothers Charles and James Stewart to be at loggerheads while Charles sought his alliance with Spain. James Duke of York had considerable influence with the few English Volunteers serving in the French Army, and the many Irish troops 'en Service de France'.{James 2nd by Maurice Ashley Dent & Sons London. 1977.}.]. b. Cusack, according to Commentarius, V, p. 73f. abandoned the French service after a few months, Leaving his regiment behind, but not the money. He gave as explanation that the Duke Francis had gone over to the French without consulting him, and that he would rather lose his regiment then fail in the promise he had given the Spaniards originally, when serving with Lorraine. He claimed he had done no injury to the French, as they had deprived him arbitrarily of his regiment. See.2056, note b 1. 2157. a. The Duke of York Ò had served as lieutenant-general for four years with great reputation in the French Armies, and was strongly inclined to continue in that service, The Articles of the late treaty [Westminister, 1655] with Cromwell see two paras above obliged the French to expel him and all the royal family, and adherents to the King of England, out of their dominions; bur Mazarin, fearing the Dukes quitting the service would make all the Irish Regiments do the like, interceded with Cromwell for leave to keep him in their troops, and employ him in the wars of Catalonia or Italy. Cromwell consented that he might serve in Italy and his Royal Highness liked the service; but the King Charles II's commands overruled his inclinations, so that having received them and disposed of the chief Irish Officers to follow him, he waited on His Majesty at Bruges about the end of September.{1656 below [b]}. In a short time five or six regiments were formed out of such of the King's subjects as were either found in the Spanish Service or were tempted out of the French. Those of the latter sort were much more numerous, and were generally Irish, who left very good conditions which they enjoyed in France. The Marquis of Ormond had one of those regiments.' Carte, Ormonde V. pp. 654ff. INTERCEPTED LETTER. 1656. sept 23. Paris. The Duke of York is gone for Flanders; he parted hence on Thursday last.' Thurloe Papers V, p 412. An intercepted letter. INTERCEPTED LETTER. 1656. Sept 29. Bridges [Bruges}. The Duke of York is come accompanied with 120 horse, and three coaches, as they say, and special order was given in all places for the reception, as if the King of Spaine (forsooth) had bin there in person.' ibid. p 431. A letter of intelligence to secretary Thurloe. 2162. a. 1656. Aug 17-27. Clermont. William Lockhart to Secretary Thurloe. Charles Stewart hath appointed a rendezvous in Flanders for all of his partie that was scattered abroad in France Germanie and Holland. To justify this, besyds what I see in the general intelligence I see the original letter sent by My Lord Ormonde to one Coll Muscarrie, an Irishman, who hath a regiment in France, wherin Ormond says he hath received orders from his King to reqywer him to march with his regiment to such a place in Flanders as his next shoiuld make knowen to
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