Online Encyclopedia

GUAYMAS, or SAN

Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V12, Page 667 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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GUAYMAS, or SAN JosE DE GUAYMAS, a seaport of Mexico, in the state of Sonora, on a small bay opening into the Gulf of California a few miles W. of the mouth of the Yaqui river, in lat. 270 58' N., long. 110° 58' W. Pop. (1900) 8648. The harbour by the emperor. In 1203 it had its first podesta, and from this period dates the rise of its importance. In 1387, after various political changes, it surrendered to Antonio da Montefeltro of Urbino, and remained under the dominion of the dukes of Urbino until, in 1624, the whole duchy was ceded to the pope. Gubbio was the birthplace of Oderisio, a famous miniature painter (1240–1299), mentioned by Dante as the honour of his native town (Purg. xi. 8o " l' onor d'Agobbio "), but no authentic works by him exist. In the 14th and 15th centuries a branch of the Umbrian school of painting flourished here, the most famous masters of which were Guido Palmerucci (1280–1345?) and several members of the Nelli family, particularly Ottaviano (d. 1444), whose best work is the " Madonna del Belvedere " in S. Maria Nuova at Gubbio (1404), extremely well preserved, with bright colouring and fine details. Another work by him is the group of frescoes including a large " Last Judgment," and scenes from the life of St Augustine, in the church of S. Agostino, discovered in 1902 under a coating of whitewash. These painters seem to have been influenced by the contemporary masters of the Sienese school. Gubbio occupies a far more important place in the history of majolica. In a decree of 1438 a vasarius vasorum pictorum is mentioned, who probably was not the first of his trade. The art was brought to perfection by Giorgio Andreoli, whose father had emigrated hither from Pavia, and who in 1498 became a citizen of Gubbio. The works by his hand are remarkable for their ruby tint, with a beautiful metallic lustre; but only one small tazza remains in Gubbio itself. His art was carried on by his sons, Cencio and Ubaldo, but was afterwards lost, and only recovered in 18J3 by Angelico Fabbri and Luigi Carocci. Two miles outside Porta Metauro to the N.E. is the Bottaccione, a large water reservoir, constructed in the 12th or 14th century; the water is collected in the bed of a stream by a massive dam. See A. Colasanti, Gubbio (Bergamo, 1905) ; L. McCracken, Gubbio (London, 1905). (T. As.)
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