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Originally appearing in Volume V12, Page 751 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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GYLIPPUS, a Spartan general of the 5th century B.C.; he was the son of Cleandridas, who had been expelled from Sparta for accepting Athenian bribes (446 B.c.) and had settled at Thurii. His mother was probably a helot, for Gylippus is said to have been, like Lysander and Callicratidas, a mothax (see HELOT). When Alcibiades urged the Spartans to send a general to lead the Syracusan resistance against the Athenian expedition, Gylippus was appointed, and his arrival was undoubtedly the turning point of the struggle(414-413). Though at first his long hair, his thread-bare cloak and his staff furnished the subject of many a jest, and his harsh and overbearing manner caused grave discontent, yet the rapidity and decisiveness of his movements, won the sympathy and respect of the Syracusans. Diodorus (xiii. 28-32),probably following Timaeus, represents him as inducing the Syracusans to pass sentence of death on the captive Athenian generals, but we need have no hesitation in accepting the statement of Philistus (Plutarch, Nicias, 28), a Syracusan who himself took part in the defence, and Thucydides (vii. 86), that he tried, though without success, to save their lives, wishing to take them to Sparta as a signal proof of his success Gylippus fell, as his father had done, through avarice; entrusted by Lysander with an immense sum which he was to deliver to the ephors at Sparta, he could not resist the temptation to enrich himself and, on the discovery of his guilt, went into exile. Thucydides vi. 93. 104, vii. ; Plutarch, Nicias, 19, 21, 27, 28, Lysander, 16, 17; Diodorus xiii. 7, 8, 28-32; Polyaenus i. 39. 42), See SYRACUSE (for the siege operations), commentaries onThucydides and the Greek histories. GYLLEMBOURG-EHRENSVARD, THOMASINE CHRISTINE, BARONESS (1773–1856), Danish author, was born on the 9th of November 1773, at Copenhagen. Her maiden name was Buntzen. Her great beauty early attracted notice, and before she was seventeen she married the famous writer Peter Andreas Heiberg. To him she bore in the following year a son, afterwards illustrious as the poet and critic Johan Ludvig Heiberg. In 'Soo her husband was exiled, and she obtained a divorce, marrying in December 18o1 the Swedish Baron K. F. Ehrensvard, himself a political fugitive. Her second husband, who presently adopted the name of Gyllembourg, died in 1815. In 1822 she followed her son to Kiel, where he was appointed professor, and in 1825 she returned with him to Copenhagen. In 1827 she first appeared as an author by publishing her romance of The Polonius Family in her son's newspaper Flyvende Post. In 1828 the same journal contained The Magic Ring, which was immediately followed by En Hverdags historie (An Everyday Story). The success of this anonymous work was so great that the author adopted until the end of her career the name of " The Author of An Everyday Story." In 1833–1834 she published three volumes of Old and New Novels. New Stories followed in 1835 and 1836. In 1839 appeared two novels, Montanus the Younger and Ricida; in 184o, One in All; in 1841, Near and Far; in 1843, A Correspondence; in 1844, The Cross Ways; in 1845, Two Generations. From 1849 to 1851 the Baroness Ehrensvard-Gyllembourg was engaged in bringing out a library edition of her collected works in twelve volumes. On the 2nd of July 1856 she died in her son's house at Copenhagen. Not until then did the secret of her authorship transpire; for throughout her life she had preserved the closest reticence on the subject even with her nearest friends. The style of Madame Ehrensvard-Gyllembourg is clear and sparkling; for English readers no closer analogy can be found than between her and Mrs Gaskell, and Cranford might well have been written by the witty Danish authoress. See J. L. Heiberg, Peter Andreas Heiberg og Thomasine Gyllembourg (Copenhagen, 1882), and L. Kornelius-Hybel, Nagle Bemaerkninger om P. A. Heiberg og Fru Gyllembourg (Copenhagen, 1883).
End of Article: GYLIPPUS

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