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GYTHIUM

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Originally appearing in Volume V12, Page 780 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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GYTHIUM, the harbour and arsenal of Sparta, from which it was some 30 M. distant. The town lay at the N.W. extremity of the Laconian Gulf, in a small but fertile plain at the mouth of the Gythius. Its reputed founders were Heracles and Apollo, who frequently appear on its coins: the former of these names maypoint to the influence of Phoenician traders, who, we know, visited the Laconian shores at a very early period. In classical times it was a community of perioeci, politically dependent on Sparta, though doubtless with a municipal life of its own. In 455 B.C., during the first Peloponnesian War, it was burned by the Athenian admiral Tolmides. In 37o B.C. Epaminondas besieged it unsuccessfully for three days. Its fortifications were strengthened by the tyrant Nabis, but in 195 B.C. it was invested and taken by Titus and Lucius Quintius Flamininus, and, though recovered by Nabis two or three years later, was re-captured immediately after his murder (192 B.C.) by Philopoemen and Aulus Atilius and remained in the Achaean League until its dissolution in 146 B.C. Subsequently it formed the most important of the Eleutherolaconian towns, a group of twenty-four, later eighteen, communities leagued together to maintain their autonomy against Sparta and declared free by Augustus. The highest officer of the confederacy was the general (vrparrly6s), who was assisted by a treasurer (raµtas), while the chief magistrates of the several communities bore the title of ephors (fcbo pot). Pausanias (iii. 21 f.) has left us a description of the town as it existed in the reign of Marcus Aurelius, the agora, the Acropolis, the island of Cranae (Marathonisi) where Paris celebrated his nuptials with Helen, the Migonium or precinct of Aphrodite Migonitis (occupied by the modern town of Marathonisi or Gythium), .and the hill Larysium (Koumaro) rising above it. The numerous remains extant, of which the theatre and the buildings partially submerged by the sea are the most note-worthy, all belong to the Roman period. The modern town is a busy and flourishing port with a good harbour protected by Cranae, now connected by a mole with the mainland: it is the capital of the prefecture (vogt6s) of Aaxwvucil with a population in 1907 of 61,522. See G. Weber, De Gytheo et Lacedaemoniorum rebus navalibus (Heidelberg, 1833) ; W. M. Leake, Travels in the Morea, i. 244 foil. ; E. Curtius, Peloponnesos, ii. 267 foll. Inscriptions: Le Bas-Foucart, Voyage archeologique, ii. Nos. 238-248 f.; Collitz-Bechtel, Sammlung d. griech. Dialekt-Inschriften, 111. Nos. 4562-4573; British School Annual, x. 179 foll. Excavations: 'A. Einhc, llpaxnua r;tr 'ApX. 'Eratpetas, 1891, 69 foil. (M. N. T.) GYULA-FEHERVAR (Ger. Karlsburg) , a town of Hungary, in Transylvania, in the county of Also-Feller, 73 M. S. of Kolozsvar by rail. Pop. (1900) 11,507. It is situated on the right bank of the Maros, on the outskirts of the Transylvanian Erzgebirge or Ore Mountains, and consists of the upper town, or citadel, and the lower town. Gyula-Fehervar is the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop, and has a fine Roman Catholic cathedral, built in the 11th century in Romanesque style, and rebuilt in 1443 by John Hunyady in Gothic style. It contains among other tcmbs that of John Hunyady. Near the cathedral is the episcopal palace, and in the same part of the town is the Batthyaneum, founded by Bishop Count Batthyany in 1794. It contains a valuable library with many incunabula and old manuscripts, amongst which is one of the Nibelungenlied, an astronomical observatory, a collection of antiquities, and a mineral collection. Gyula-Fehervar carries on an active trade in cereals, wine and cattle. Gyula--Fehervar occupies the site of the Roman colony Apulum. Many Roman relics found here, and in the vicinity, are preserved in the museum of the town. The bishopric was founded in the 11th century by King Ladislaus I. (1078--1095). In the 16th century, when Transylvania separated from Hungary, the town became the residence of the Transylvanian princes. From this period dates the castle, and also the buildings of the university, founded by Gabriel Bethlen, and now used•as barracks. After the reversion of Transylvania in 1713 to the Habsburg monarchy the actual strong fortress was built in 1716-1735 by the emperor Charles VI., whence the German name of the town. H The eighth symbol in the Phoenician alphabet, as in its descendants, has altered less in the course of ages than most alphabetic symbols. From the beginning of Phoenician records it has consisted of two uprights connected by transverse bars, at first either two or three in number. The uprights are rarely perpendicular and the cross bars are not so precisely arranged as they are in early Greek and Latin inscrh Lions. In these the symbol takes the form of two rectangles out of which the ordinary H develops by the omission of the cross bars at top and bottom. It is very exceptional for this letter to have more than three cross bars, though as many as five are occasionally found in N.W. Greece. Within the same inscription the appearance of the letter often varies considerably as regards the space between and the length of the uprights. When only one bar is found it regularly crosses the uprights about the middle. In a few cases the rectangle is closed at top and bottom but has no middle cross bar 0. The Phoenician name for the letter was Heth (Het). According to Semitic scholars it had two values, (1) a glottal spirant, a very strong h, (2) an unvoiced velar spirant like the German ch in ach. The Greeks borrowed it with the value of the ordinary aspirate and with the name '7'7r a. Very early in their history, however, most of the Greeks of Asia Minor lost the aspirate altogether, and having then no further use for the symbol with this value they adopted it to represent the long e-sound, which was not originally distinguished by a different symbol from the short sound (see E). With this value its name has always been il-ra in Greek. The alphabet of the Asiatic Greeks was gradually adopted elsewhere. In official documents at Athens H represented the rough breathing or aspirate ` till 403 B.c.; henceforth it was used for rl. The Western Greeks, however, from whom the Romans obtained their alphabet, retained their aspirate longer than those of Asia Minor, and hence the symbol came to the Romans with the value not of a long vowel but of the aspirate, which it still preserves. The Greek aspirate was itself the first or left-hand half of this letter F , while the smooth breathing ' was the right-hand portion -4. At Tarentum I- is found for H in inscriptions. The Roman aspirate was, however, a very slight sound which in some words where it was etymologically correct disappeared at an early date. Thus the cognate words of kindred languages show that the Lat. anser " goose " ought to begin with h, but nowhere is it so found. In none of the Romance languages is there any trace of initial or medial h, which shows that vulgar Latin had ceased to have the aspirate by 240 B.C. The Roman grammarians were guided to its presence by the Sabine forms where f occurred; as the Sabines said fasena (sand), it was recognised that the Roman form ought to be harena, and so for haedus (goat), hordeum (barley), &c. Between vowels h was lost very early, for ne-hemo (no man) is throughout the literature nemo, bi-himus (two winters old) bimus. In the Ciceronian age greater attention was paid to reproducing the Greek aspirates in borrowed words, and this led to absurd mistakes in Latin words, mistakes which were satirized by Catullus in his epigram (84) upon Arrius, who said chommoda for commoda and hinsidias for insidias. In Umbrian h was often lost, and also used without etymological value to mark length, as in comohota (=Lat. commota), a practice to which there are some doubtful parallels in Latin. In English the history of h is very similar to that in Latin. While the parts above the glottis are in position to produce a vowel, an aspirate is produced without vibration of the vocal chords, sometimes, like the pronunciation of Arrius, with considerable effort as a reaction against the tendency to " drop the h's." Though h survives in Scotland, Ireland and America as well as in the speech of cultivated persons, the sound in most of the vulgar dialects is entirely lost. , Where it is not ordinarily lost, it disappears in unaccented syllables, as " Give it 'im " and the like. Where it is lost, conscious attempts to restore it onthe part of uneducated speakers lead to absurd misplacements of h and to its restoration in Romance words when it never was pronounced, as humble (now recognized as standard English), humour and even honour. (P. Gi.) HAAG, CARL (182o– ), a naturalized British painter, court painter to the duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, was born in Bavaria, and was trained in the academies at Nuremhurg and Munich. He practised first as an illustrator and as a painter, in oil, of portraits and architectural subjects; but after he settled in England, in 1847, he devoted himself to water colours, and was elected associate of the Royal Society of Painters in Water Colours in 185o and member in 1853. He travelled much, especially in the East, and made a considerable reputation by his firmly drawn and carefully elaborated paintings of Eastern subjects. Towards the end of his professional career Carl Haag quitted England and returned to Germany. See A History of the " Old Water-Colour " Society, now The Royal Society of Painters in Water Colours, by John Lewis Roget (2 vols., London, 1891).
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