See also:Roman emperor A.D . 117-138, was
See also:born on the 24th of
See also:January A.D . 76, at Italica in Hispania Baetica (according to others, at Rome), where his ancestors, originally from
See also:Hadria in
See also:Picenum, had been settled since the
See also:time of the Scipios . On his
See also:death in 85 or 86 he was placed under the guardianship of two
See also:fellow-countrymen, his kinsman Ulpius Trajanus (afterwards the emperor Trajan), and Caelius Attianus (afterwards
See also:prefect of the praetorian guard) . He spent the next five years at Rome, but at the age of fifteen he returned to his native place and entered upon a military career . He was soon, however, recalled to Rome by Trajan, and appointed to the offices of decemvir stlitibus judicandis, praefectus feriarum Latinarum, and sevir turmae equitum Romanorum . About 95 he was military tribune in
See also:Moesia . In 97 he was sent to upper Germany to convey the congratulations of the army to Trajan on his adoption by
See also:Nerva; and, in January of the following
See also:year, he hastened to announce the death of Nerva to Trajan at Cologne . Trajan, who had been set against
See also:Hadrian by reports of his extravagance, soon took him into favour again, chiefly owing to the
See also:goodwill of the empress Plotina, who brought about the
See also:marriage of Hadrian with (Vibia) Sabina, Trajan's
See also:great-niece . In lot Hadrian was quaestor, in 105 tribune of the
See also:people, in rob praetor . He served with distinction in both Dacian
See also:campaigns: in the second Trajan presented him with a valuable
See also:ring which he himself had received from Nerva, a token of regard which seemed to designate Hadrian as his successor . In ro7 Hadrian was legatus
See also:praetorius of lower
See also:Pannonia, in ro8
See also:consul suffectus, in 112
See also:archon at Athens, legatus in the
See also:campaign (113–117), in 117 consul designatus for the following year, in 119 consul for the third and last time only for four months .
When Trajan, owing to a severe illness, decided to returnhome from the East, he
See also:left Hadrian in command of the army and
See also:governor of
See also:Syria . On the 9th of
See also:August 117, Hadrian, at
See also:Antioch, was informed (T . As.) of his adoption by Trajan, and, on the rlth, of the death of the latter at
See also:Selinus in
See also:Cilicia . According to Dio Cassius (lxix . 1) the adoption was entirely fictitious, the
See also:work of Plotina and Attianus, by whom Trajan's death was concealed for a few days in
See also:order to facilitate the
See also:elevation of Hadrian . Whichever may have been the truth, his succession was confirmed by the army and the
See also:senate . He hastened to propitiate the former by a donative of twice the usual amount, and excused his hasty acceptance of the
See also:throne to the senate by alleging the impatient zeal of the soldiers and the
See also:necessity of an imperator for the welfare of the state . Hadrian's first important
See also:act was to abandon as untenable the conquests of Trajan beyond the
See also:Euphrates (
See also:Mesopotamia and Armenia), a recurrence to the traditional policy of
See also:Augustus . The provinces were unsettled, the barbarians on the
See also:borders restless and menacing, and Hadrian wisely judged that the old limits of Augustus afforded the most defensible frontier . Mesopotamia and Assyria were given back to the Parthians, and the Armenians were allowed a
See also:king of their own . From Antioch Hadrian set out for
See also:Dacia to punish the Roxolani, who, incensed by a reduction of the tribute hitherto paid them, had invaded the Danubian provinces . An arrangement was patched up, and while Hadrian was still in Dacia he received
See also:news of a
See also:conspiracy against his
See also:life .
Four citizens of consular
See also:rank were accused of being concerned in it, and were put to death by order of the senate before he could interfere . Hurrying back to Rome, Hadrian endeavoured to remove the unfavourable impression produced by the whole affair and to gain the goodwill of senate and people . He threw the responsibility for the executions upon the prefect of the praetorian guard, and swore that he would never punish a senator without the assent of the entire
See also:body, to which he expressed the utmost deference and
See also:consideration . Large sums of
See also:money and
See also:games and shows were provided for the people, and, in addition, all the arrears of
See also:taxation for the last fifteen years (about £ro,000,000) were cancelled and the bonds burnt in the Forum of Trajan . Trajan's
See also:scheme for the " alimentation " of poor
See also:children was carried out upon a larger scale under the superintendence of a
See also:special official called praefectus alimentorum . The record of Hadrian's journeysl through all parts of the
See also:empire forms the chief authority for the events of his life down to his final settlement in the capital during his last years . They can only be briefly touched upon here . His first great
See also:journey probably lasted from 121 to 126 . After traversing Gaul he visited the Germanic provinces on the Rhine, and crossed over to Britain (
See also:spring, 122), where he built the great rampart from the
See also:Tyne to the Solway, which bears his name (see BRITAIN: Roman) . He returned through Gaul into Spain, and then proceeded to
See also:Mauretania, where he suppressed an insurrection . A war with the Parthians was averted by a
See also:personal interview with their king (123) . From the Parthian frontier he travelled through
See also:Asia Minor and the islands of the
See also:Aegean to Athens (autumn, 125), where he introduced various
See also:political and commercial changes, was initiated at the Eleusinia, and presided at the celebration of the greater
See also:Dionysia .
After visiting Central
See also:Greece and
See also:Peloponnesus, he returned by way of
See also:Sicily to Rome (end of 126) . The next year was spent at Rome, and, after a visit to Africa, he set out on his second great journey (
See also:September 128) . He travelled by way of Athens, where he completed and dedicated the buildings (see ATHENS) begun during his first visit, chief of which was the Olympieum or
See also:temple of Olympian
See also:Zeus, on which occasion Hadrian himself assumed the name of Olympius . In the spring of 129 he visited Asia Minor and Syria, where he invited the
See also:kings and princes of the East to a
See also:meeting (probably at Samosata) . Having passed the winter at ,tioch, he set out for the south (spring, 130) . He ordered Jerusalem to be rebuilt (see JERUSALEM) under the name of Aelia Capitolina, and made his way through
See also:Arabia to
See also:Egypt, where he restored 1 The chronology of Hadrian's journeys—indeed, of the whole reign—is confused and obscure . In the above the article by von Rohden in Pauly-Wissowa's Realencyclopadie has been followed . Weber's (see
See also:Bibliog.) is the most important discussion . He was without doubt one of the most capable emperors who ever occupied the throne, and devoted his great and varied talents to the interests of the state . One of his chief
See also:objects was the abolition of distinctions between the provinces and the
See also:country, finally carried out by Caracalla, while at the same time he did not neglect reforms that were urgently called for in Italy . Provincial
See also:governors were kept under strict super-vision; extortion was practically unheard of; the
See also:jus Latii was bestowed upon several communities; special officials were instituted for the
See also:control of the finances; and the emperor's
See also:interest in provincial affairs was shown by his personal
See also:assumption of various municipal offices . New towns were founded and old ones restored; new streets were laid out, and aqueducts, temples and magnificent buildings constructed .
In Italy itself the ad-ministration of
See also:justice and the finances required special
See also:attention . Four legati juridici (or simply juridici) of consular rank were appointed for Italy, who took over certain important judicial functions formerly exercised by
See also:local magistrates (cases of fideicommissa, the nomination of guardians) . The judicial council (consiliarii Augusti, later called consistorium), composed of persons of the highest rank (especially jurists), became a permanent body of advisers, although merely consultative . Roman
See also:law owes much to Hadrian, who instructed Salvius Julianus to draw up an edictum perpetuum, to a great extent the basis of Justinian's Corpus
See also:juris (see M . Schanz, Geschichle der romischen Literalur, iii. p . 167) . In the administration of
See also:finance, in addition to the remission of arrears already mentioned, a revision of claims was ordered to be made every fifteen years, thereby anticipating the " indictions " (see
See also:CALENDAR; CHRONOLOGY) .
See also:Direct collection of taxes by imperial procurators was substituted for the
See also:system of farming, and a special official (advocatus fisci) was instituted to look after the interests of the imperial
See also:treasury . The
See also:gift of " coronary gold " (aurum coronarium), presented to the emperor on certain occasions, was entirely remitted in the case of Italy, and partly in the case of the provinces . The administration of the postal service throughout the empire was taken over by the state, and municipal officials were relieved from the
See also:burden of maintaining the imperial posts . Humane regulations as to the treatment of slaves were strictly II enforced; the
See also:master was forbidden to put his slave to death, but was obliged to bring him before a
See also:court of justice; if he
See also:ill-treated him it was a penal offence . The sale of slaves (male and
See also:female) for immoral and gladiatorial purposes was forbidden; the
See also:custom of putting all the
See also:household to death when their master was murdered was modified .
See also:baths were kept under strict supervision; the toga was ordered to be worn in public by senators and equites on
See also:solemn occasions; extravagant banquets were prohibited; rules were made to prevent the congestion of
See also:traffic in the streets . In military matters Hadrian was a strict disciplinarian, but his generosity and readiness to
See also:share their hardships endeared him to the soldiers . He effected a material and moral improvement in the conditions of service and mode of life, but in other respects he does not appear to have introduced any important military reforms . During his reign an advance was made in the direction of creating an organized body of servants at the disposal of the emperor by the
See also:appointment of equites to important administrative posts, without their having performed the militiae equestres (see EQUITES) . Among these posts were various procuratorships (chief of which was that of the imperial fisc), and the offices ab epistulis, a rationibus and a libellis (secretary, accountant,
See also:receiver of petitions) . The prefect of the praetorian guard was now the most important
See also:person in the state next to the emperor, and subsequently became a supreme
See also:judge of
See also:appeal . Among the magnificent buildings erected by Hadrian mention may be made of the following: In the capital, the temple of
See also:Venus and
See also:Roma; his splendid
See also:mausoleum, which formed the groundwork of the
See also:castle of St Angelo; the
See also:pantheon of Agrippa; the
See also:Basilica Neptuni; at
See also:Tibur the great
See also:villa 8 m. in extent, a kind of epitome of the
See also:world, with miniatures of the most celebrated places in the provinces . Athens, however, was the favourite site of his architectural labours; here he built the temple of Olympian Zeus, the Panhellenion, the Pantheon, the library, a gymnasium and a temple of
See also:Hera . Hadrian was fond of the society of learned men—poets, scholars, rhetoricians and philosophers—whom he alternately humoured and ridiculed . In
See also:painting, sculpture and
See also:music he considered himself the equal of specialists . The architect
See also:Apollodorus of
See also:Damascus owed his banishment and death to his outspoken
See also:criticism of the emperor's plans . The sophist
See also:Favorinus was more politic; when reproached for yielding too readily to the emperor in some grammatical discussion, he replied that it was unwise to contradict the master of
See also:thirty legions .
See also:Athenaeum (q.v.) owed its foundation to Hadrian . He was a man of considerable intellectual attainments, of prodigious memory, master of both Latin and Greek, and wrote
See also:prose and
See also:verse with equal facility . His taste, however, was curious; he preferred
See also:Cato the elder,
See also:Ennius and Caelius
See also:Antipater to
See also:Cicero, Virgil and Sallust, the obscure poet
See also:Antimachus to
See also:Homer and
See also:Plato . As a-writer he displayed great versatility . He composed an autobiography, published under the name of his freedman
See also:Phlegon; wrote speeches, fragments of two of which are preserved in inscriptions (a
See also:panegyric on his mother-in-law Matidia, and an address to the soldiers at Lambaesis in Africa) . In imitation of Antimachus he wrote a work called Catachannae, probably a kind of miscellanea . The Latin and Greek anthologies contain about a dozen epigrams under his name . The
See also:letter of Hadrian to the consul Servianus (in Vopiscus, Vita Saturnini, 8) is no longer considered genuine . Hadrian's celebrated dying address to his soul may here be quoted: " Animula vagula, blandula, Hospes comesque corporis, Quae nunc abibis in loca Pallidula,-rigida, nudula; Nec, ut soles, dabis jocos?" The character of Hadrian exhibits a mass of contradictions, well summed up by Spartianus (14 . 1 r) . He was
See also:grave and gay, affable and dignified, cruel and gentle, mean and generous, eager for fame yet not vain, impulsive and cautious, secretive and open . He hated eminent qualities in others, but gathered
See also:round him the most distinguished men of the state; at one time affectionatetowards his friends, at another he mistrusted and put them to death .
In fact, he was only consistent in his inconsistency (
See also:semper in
See also:omnibus varius) . Although he endeavoured to win the popular favour, he was more feared than loved . A man of unnatural passions and grossly superstitious, he was an ardent
See also:lover of nature . But, with all his faults, he devoted himself so indefatigably to the service of the state, that the
See also:period of his reign could be characterized as a "
See also:golden age." The chief
See also:ancient authorities for the reign of Hadrian are: the life by Aelius Spartianus in the Scriptores historiae Augustae (see AUGUSTAN
See also:HISTORY and bibliography) ; the epitome of Dio Cassius (lxix.) by
See also:Xiphilinus; Aurelius Victor, Epit . 14, probably based on
See also:Marius Maximus;
See also:Eutropius viii . 6;
See also:Zonaras xi . 23; Suidas, s.v . 'Abpcavos: and numerous inscriptions and coins . The autobiography was used by both Dio Cassius and Marius Maximus .
See also:Modern authorities: C . Merivale, Hist. of the Romans under the Empire, ch. lxvi.; H . Schiller, Geschichte der romischen Kaiserzeit, i .
2, p . 602 (1883); J . B .Bury, The Student's Roman Empire (1893), where a concise table of the journeys is given; P. von Rohden, s.v . " Aelius (No . 64) in Pauly-Wissowa's Realencyclopadie, i . 1 (1894) ; J . Diirr, Die Reisen
See also:des Kaisers Hadrian (1881) ; F .
See also:Gregorovius, The Emperor Hadrian (Eng. tr. by Mary E .
See also:Robinson, 1898) ; A .
See also:Hausrath, Neutestamentliche Zeitgeschichte, iii . (1874); W .
See also:Schurz, De mutationibus in imperio ordinando ab
See also:imp . Hadr. factis, i . (
See also:Bonn, 1883); J . Plew, Quellenuntersuchungen zur Geschichte des Kaisers Hadrian (Strassburg, 189o); O . T . Schulz, " Leben des Kaisers Hadrian," Quellenanalysen [of Spartianus' Vita] (1904); E . Kornemann, Kaiser Hadrian and der letzte
See also:grosse Historiker von Rom (1905); W . Weber, Untersuchungen zur Geschichte des Kaisers Hadrianus (1908); H . F .
See also:Hitzig, Die Stellung Kaiser Hadrians in der romischen Rechtsgeschichte (1892); C . Schultess, Bauten des Kaisers Hadrian (1898); G . Doublet, Notes sur
See also:les oeuvres litleraires de l'empereur Hadrien (Toulouse, 1893); J .
B .Lightfoot, Apostolic Fathers, ii . 1, 476 seq.;
See also:Sir W . M .
See also:Church in the Roman Empire, pp . 320 seq.; V . Schultze, in Herzog-Hauck's Realencyklopadie, vii . 315; histories of Roman literature by Teuffel-
See also:Schwabe and Schanz . On Aelius Caesar, see Class . Quart., 1908, i . (T . K.; J .
H . F.) HADRIAN'S
See also:WALL, the name usually given to the remains of the Roman fortifications which defended the
See also:northern frontier of the Roman province of Britain, between the Tyne and the Solway . The
See also:works consisted of (1) a continuous defensive rampart with a ditch in front and a road behind; (2) various forts, blockhouses and towers along the rampart; and (3) an earthwork to the south of it, generally called the Valium, of uncertain use . The defensive wall was probably first erected by Hadrian about A.D . 122 as a
See also:turf wall, and rebuilt in
See also:stone by Septimius Severus about A.D . 208 . See further BRITAIN: Roman .
HADRIA [mod. Atri (q.v.)]
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