See also:term for any
See also:escape of
See also:blood from a blood-vessel (see BLOOD) . It commonly results from injury, as the tearing or cutting of a blood-vessel, but certain forms result from disease, as in
See also:scurvy and
See also:purpura . The chief varieties of haemorrhage are arterial, venous and capillary . Bleeding from an artery is of a bright red
See also:colour, and escapes from the end of the vessel nearest the heart in jets synchronous with the heart's
See also:beat . Bleeding from a vein is of a darker colour; the flow is steady, and the bleeding is from the distal end of the vessel . Capillary bleeding is a general oozing from a raw
See also:surface . By extravasation of blood is meant the pouring out of blood into the areolar tissues, which become boggy . This is termed a bruise or ecchymosis . Epistaxis is a term given to bleeding from the
See also:nose . Haematemesis is vomiting of blood, the colour of which may be altered by digestion, as is also the case in melaena, or passage of blood with the faeces, in which the blood becomes dark and tarry-looking from the
See also:action of the intestinal fluids . Haemoptysis denotes an escape of blood from the air-passages, which is usually bright red and frothy from admixture with air . Haematuria means passage of blood with the urine .
Cessation of bleeding may takeplace from natural or from artificial means . Natural arrest of haemorrhage arises from (r) the coagulation of the blood itself, (2) the diminution of the heart's action as in fainting, (3) changes taking place in the cut vessel causing its retraction and contraction . In the surgical treatment of haemorrhage minor means of arresting bleeding are:
See also:cold, which is most valuable in general oozing and
See also:local extravasations; very hot
See also:water, 130° to 16o F., a powerful haemostatic; position, such as
See also:elevation of the
See also:limb, valuable in bleeding from the extremities; styptics or astringents, applied locally, as perchloride of iron, tannic acid and others, the most valuable being suprarenal extract . In arresting haemorrhage temporarily the chief thing is to
See also:press directly on the bleeding
See also:part . The pressure to be effectual need. not be severe, but must be accurately applied . If the bleeding point cannot be reached, the pressure should be applied to the
See also:main artery between the bleeding point and the heart . In small blood-vessels pressure will be sufficient to arrest. haemorrhage permanently . In large vessels it is usual to pass a ligature
See also:round the vessel and tie it with a
See also:reef-knot . Apply the ligature, if possible, at the bleeding point, tying both ends of the cut vessel . If this cannot be done, the main artery of the limb must be exposed by dissection at the most accessible point between the
See also:wound and the heart, and there ligatured . Haemorrhage has been classified as—(1)
See also:primary, occurring at the
See also:time of the injury; (2) reactionary, or within twenty-four
See also:hours of the accident, during the stage of reaction; (3) secondary, occurring at a later
See also:period and caused by faulty application of a ligature or septic
See also:condition of the wound . In severe haemorrhage, as from the division of a large artery, the patient may collapse and
See also:death ensue from syncope .
In this case stimulants and
See also:strychnine may be given, but they should be avoided until it is certain the bleeding has been properly controlled, as theytend to increase it . Transfusion of blood directly from the vein of a healthy
See also:person to the blood-vessels of the patient, and infusion of saline solution into a vein, may be practised (see
See also:SHOCK) . In a congenital condition known as haemophylia (q.v.) it is difficult to stop the flow of blood . The surgical procedure for the treatment of an open wound is-(1) arrest of haemorrhage; (2) cleansing of the wound and removal of any
See also:foreign bodies; (3) careful apposition of its edges and surfaces—the edges being best brought in contact by sutures of aseptic
See also:silk or
See also:catgut, the surfaces by carefully applied pressure; (4)
See also:free drainage, if necessary, to prevent accumulation either of blood or serous effusion; (S) avoidance of sepsis; (6) perfect
See also:rest of the part . These methods of treatment require to be modified for wounds in
See also:special situations and for those in which there is much contusion and laceration . When a special
See also:poison has entered the wound at the time of its infliction or at some subsequent date, it is necessary to provide against septic conditions of the wound itself and blood-poisoning of the general circulation .
HAEMORRHOIDS, or HEMORRHOIDS (from Gr. aiµa, blood...
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