HAGGAI , in theBible, the tenth in
See also:order of the " minor prophets," whose writings are preserved in the Old Testament . The name Haggai ('m, Gr . 'Ay), aios, whence Aggeus in the
See also:English version of the Apocrypha) perhaps means "
See also:born on the feast
See also:day," "festive." But Wellhausen1 is probably right in taking the word as a contraction for Hagariah (" Yahweh bath girded "), just as Zaccai (Zacchaeus) is known to be a contraction of
See also:Zechariah . The
See also:book of Haggai contains four
See also:short prophecies delivered between the first day of the
See also:month and the twenty-
See also:fourth day of the ninth month—that is, between
See also:September and December—of the second
See also:year of Darius the
See also:king . The king in question must be Darius Hystaspis (521-485 B.c.) . The language of the
See also:prophet in ii . 3 suggests the probability that he was himself one of those whose memories reached across the seventy years of the captivity, and that his prophetic
See also:work began in extreme 1 In Bleek's Einleitung, 4th ed., p . 434 . old age . This supposition agrees well with the shortness of the
See also:period covered by his book, and with the fact that Zechariah, who began to prophesy in the same autumn and was associated with Haggai's labours (
See also:Ezra v . I), afterwards appears as the leading prophet in Jerusalem (Zech. vii . 1-4) .
We know nothing further of the
See also:history of Haggai from the Bible . Later traditions may be read in
See also:Carpzov's Introductio, pars 3, cap. xvi .
See also:Epiphanius (Vitae prophetarum) says that he came up from
See also:Babylon while still
See also:young, prophesied the return, witnessed the
See also:building of the
See also:temple and received an honoured
See also:burial near the priests . Haggai's name is mentioned in the titles of several psalms in the Septuagint (Psalms cxxxvii., cxlv.-cxlviii.) -and other versions, but these titles are without value, and moreover vary in
See also:MSS .
See also:Eusebius did not find them in the Hexaplar Septuagint.' In his first prophecy (i . 1-11) Haggai addresses Zerubbabel and
See also:Joshua, rebuking the
See also:people for leaving the temple unbuilt while they are busy in providing panelled houses for themselves . The prevalent
See also:famine and
See also:distress are due to Yahweh's indignation at such remissness . Let them build the
See also:house, and Yahweh will take pleasure in it and acknowledge the
See also:honour paid to Him . The rebuke took effect, and the people began to work at the temple, strengthened by the prophet's assurance that the
See also:Lord was with them (i . 12-15) . In a second prophecy (ii . 1-9) delivered in the following month, Haggai forbids the people to be disheartened by the apparent meanness of the new temple .
See also:silver and gold are the Lord's . He will soon shake all nations and their choicest gifts will be brought to adorn His house . Its
See also:glory shall be greater than that of the former temple, and in this place He will give peace . A third prophecy (ii . 10-19) contains a promise; enforced by a figure
See also:drawn from the priestly ritual, that
See also:God will remove famine and bless the
See also:land from the day of the foundation of the temple onwards . Finally, in ii . 20-23, Zerubbabel is assured of God's
See also:special love and
See also:protection in the impending catastrophe of kingdoms and nations to which the prophet had formerly pointed as preceding the glorification of God's house on
See also:Zion . In thus looking forward to a shaking of all nations Haggai agrees with earlier prophecies, especially Isa.
See also:xxvii., while his picture of the glory and peace of the new Zion and its temple is drawn from the
See also:anonymous prophet who penned Isa. lx and lxvi . The characteristic features of the book are the importance assigned to the
See also:personality of Zerubbabel, who, though a living contemporary, is marked out as the
See also:Messiah; and the almost sacramental significance attached to the temple . The hopes fixed on Zerubbabel, the chosen of the Lord, dear to Him as His signet
See also:ring (cf . Jer. xxii . 24), are a last
See also:echo in Old Testament prophecy of the theocratic importance of the house of
See also:David .
In the book of Zechariah Zerubbabel has already fallen into the background and the high
See also:priest is the leading figure of the Judean community.2 The
See also:stem of David is superseded by the house of Zadok, the kingship has yielded to the priesthood, and the extinction of
See also:national hopes gives new importance to that strict organization of the hierarchy for which Ezekiel had prepared the way by his
See also:sentence of disfranchisement against the non-Zadokite priests . The indifference of the Jews to the desolate conditions of their sanctuary opens up a problem of some difficulty . It is
See also:strange that neither Haggai nor his contemporary Zechariah mentions or implies any return of exiles from Babylon, and the
See also:suggestion has accordingly been made that the return under Cyrus described in Ezra i.-iv. is unhistorical, and that the community addressed by Haggai consisted of the remnant that had been
See also:left in Jerusalem and its neighbourhood after the majority had gone into
See also:exile or fled to
See also:Egypt (Jer. xliii.) . Such a remhant, amongst whom might be members of the priestly and royal families, would gather strength and boldness as the troubles of Babylon ' See the note on Ps. cxlv . 1 in
See also:Hexapla; Kohler, Weissagungen Haggai's, 32;
See also:Wright, Zechariah and his Prophecies, xix . 2 After the foundation of the temple Zerubbabel disappears from history and lives only in
See also:legend, which continued to busy itself with his
See also:story, as we see from the apocryphal book of Esdras (cf .
See also:Derenbourg, Hist. de in
See also:chap, i.).increased and her vigilance was relaxed, and might receive from Babylon and other lands both refugees and some account at least of the writings of Ezekiel and the Second Isaiah . Stimulated by such causes and obtaining formal permission from the Persian
See also:government, they would arise as a new
See also:Israel and enter on a new phase of national
See also:life and divine
See also:revelation . In spite, however, of the plausibility of this theory, it seems preferable to adhere to the story of Ezra i.-iv . Apart from the weighty objections that the Edomites would have frustrated such a recrudescence of the remnant Jews as has been described, it must be remembered that the
See also:main stream of Jewish life and thought had been diverted to Babylon . Thence, when the opportunity came under Cyrus, some 50,000 Jews, the spiritual heirs of the best elements of the old Israel, returned to found the new community . With them were all the resources, and the only people they found at Jerusalem were hostile gentiles and
See also:Samaritans .
See also:enthusiasm, they set about rebuilding the temple and realizing the glowing promises about the prosperity and dominance of Zion that had fallen from the lips of the Second Isaiah (xlix . 14-26, xlv . 14) . Bitter disappointment, however, soon overcame them, the Samaritans were strong enough to thwart and hinder their temple-building, and it seemed as though the divine favour was withdrawn . Apathy took the place of enthusiasm, and sordid worries succeeded to high hopes . " The like collapse has often been experienced in history when bands of religious men, going forth, as they thought, to freedom and the immediate erection of a
See also:commonwealth, have found their unity wrecked and their enthusiasm dissipated by a few inclement seasons on a barren and hostile
See also:shore."3 From this torpor they were roused by tidings which might well be interpreted as the restoration of divine favour . Away in the East Cyrus had been succeeded in 529 B.C. by Cambyses, who had annexed Egypt and on whose
See also:death in 522 a Magian impostor, Gaumata, had seized the
See also:throne . The
See also:fraud was short-lived, and Darius I. became king and the founder of a new
See also:dynasty . These events shook the whole Persian
See also:empire; Babylon and other subject states
See also:rose in revolt, and to the Jews it seemed that
See also:Persia was tottering and that the Messianic era was nigh . It was therefore natural that Haggai and Zechariah should urge the speedy building of the temple, in order that the great king might be fittingly received . It is sometimes levied as a reproach against Haggai that he makes no
See also:direct reference to moral duties . But it is hardly
See also:fair to contrast his
See also:practical counsel with the more ethical and spiritual teaching of the earlier
See also:Hebrew prophets .
One thing was needful—the temple . " Without a sanctuary Yahweh would have seemed a foreigner to Israel . The Jews would have thought that He had returned to
See also:Sinai, the holy
See also:mountain; and that they were deprived of the temporal blessings which were the gifts of a God who literally dwelt in the midst of his people." Haggai argued that material prosperity was conditioned by zeal in worship; the prevailing distress was an indication of divine anger due to the people's religious apathy . Haggai's reproofs touched the
See also:conscience of the Jews, and the book of Zechariah enables us in some measure to follow the course of a religious revival which, starting with the restoration of the temple, did not confine itself to matters of ceremony and ritual worship . On the other
See also:hand, Haggai's treatment of his theme, practical and effective as it was for the purpose in hand, moves on a far
See also:lower level than the aspirations of the prophet who wrote the closing chapters of Isaiah . To the latter the material temple is no more than a detail in the picture of a work of restoration eminently ideal and spiritual, and he expressly warns his hearers against attaching
See also:intrinsic importance to it (Isa. lxvi . 1) . To Haggai the temple appears so essential that he teaches that while it
See also:lay waste, the people and all their
See also:works and offerings were unclean (
See also:Hag. ii . 14) . In this he betrays his
See also:affinity with Ezekiel, who taught that it is by the possession of the sanctuary that Israel is sanctified (Ezek.
See also:xxxvii . 28) . In truth the new
See also:movement of religious thought and feeling which started from the fall of the Hebrew state took two distinct lines, of which Ezekiel and the anonymous 2 G .
See also:Smith, Minor Prophets, ii . 235 . authors of Isa. xl.-lxvi. are the respective representatives . While the latter
See also:developed their great picture of Israel the mediatorial nation, the systematic and priestly mind of Ezekiel had shaped a more material conception of the religious vocation of Israel in that picture of the new theocracy where the temple and its ritual occupy the largest place, with a sanctity which is set in
See also:express contrast to the older conception of the holiness of the city of Jerusalem (cf . Ezek. xliii . 7 seq. with Jer. xxxi . 40, Isa. iv . 5), and with a supreme significance for the religious life of the people which is expressed in the figure of the living
See also:waters issuing from under the
See also:threshold of the house (Ezek. xlvii.) . It was the conception of Ezekiel which permanently influenced the citizens of the new Jerusalem, and took final shape in the institutions of Ezra . To this consummation, with its necessary accompaniment in the extinction of prophecy, the book of Haggai already points . y-ophets,as by Kohler, Pressel (
See also:Gotha, 1870),
See also:Dods (1879) and others. he older literature will be found in books of introduction or in Rosenmuller's Scholia .
The learned commentary of Marckius may be specially mentioned . On the place of Haggai in the history of Old Testament prophecy, see Duhm, Theologie der Propheten (
See also:Bonn, 1875); A . B .
See also:Davidson, The
See also:Theology of-the Old Testament (1904); A . F . Kirkpatrick, The
See also:Doctrine of the Prophets; G . A . Smith, The Book of the Twelve Prophets, vol . 2 (1903) ; Tony Andree, Le Prophete Aggee; Ed .
See also:Meyer, Entstehung
See also:des Judentums (1896) . (W . R .
S.; A . J .
HENRY RIDER HAGGARD (1856– )
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