HAMAH , the Hamath of theBible, a Hittite royal city, situated in the narrow valley of the
See also:Orontes, 110
See also:miles N . (by E.) of
See also:Damascus . It finds a place in the
See also:northern boundaries of
See also:Israel under
See also:David, Solomon and
See also:Jeroboam II . (2 Sam. viii . 9; 1
See also:Kings viii . 65; 2 Kings )iv . 25) . The Orontes flows winding past the city and is spanned by four bridges . On the south-east the houses rise 15o ft. above the
See also:river, and there are four other hills, that of the Kalah or
See also:castle being to the
See also:north roo ft. high . Twenty-four minarets rise from the various mosques . The houses are principally of mud, and the
See also:town stands amid poplar gardens with a fertile plain to the west . The castle is ruined, the streets are narrow and dirty, but the bazaars are
See also:good, and the
See also:trade with the
See also:Bedouins considerable .
See also:water-wheels (naurah,) of enormous dimension, raising water from the Orontes are the most remarkable features of the view .
See also:Silk, woollen and
See also:cotton goods are manufactured . The population is about 40,000 . In the
See also:year 854 B.C . Hamath was taken by Shalmaneser II.,
See also:king of
See also:Assyria, who defeated a large army of allied Hamathites, Syrians and Israelites at Karkor and slew 14,000 of them . In 738 B.C . Tiglath Pileser III. reduced the city to tribute, and another
See also:rebellion was crushed by
See also:Sargon in 720 B.C . The down-fall of so
See also:ancient a state made a
See also:great impression at Jerusalem (Isa. x . 9) . According to 2 Kings xvii . 24, 30, some of its
See also:people were transported to the
See also:land of N . Israel, where they made images of Ashima or Eshmun (probably
See also:Ishtar) .
After the Macedonian
See also:conquest of
See also:Syria Hamath was called Epiphania by the Greeks in
See also:honour of
See also:Antiochus IV., Epiphanes, and in the early
See also:period it was known by both its
See also:Hebrew and its Greek name . In A.D . 639 the town surrendered to
See also:Abu 'Obeida, one of
See also:Omar's generals, and the
See also:church was turned into a mosque . In A.D . 1108 Tancred captured the city and massacred the Ism'aileh defenders . In 1115 it was retaken by the Moslems, and in 1178 was occupied by Saladin . Abulfeda,
See also:prince of Hamah in the early
See also:part of the 14th century, is well known as an authority on Arab geography .
JOHANN GEORG HAMANN (1730—1788)
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