HAMMERSMITH , a westernmetropolitan
See also:borough of
See also:London, England, bounded E. by
See also:Kensington and S. by
See also:Fulham and the
See also:Thames, and extending N. and W. to the boundary of the
See also:county of London . Pop . (1901) 112,239 . The name appears in the early forms of Hermodewode and Hamersmith; the derivation is probably from the Anglo-Saxon, signifying the place with a haven (
See also:hythe) . Hammersmith is mentioned with Fulham as a winter
See also:camp of Danish invaders in 879, when they occupied the
See also:island of Hame, which may be identified with
See also:Chiswick Eyot . Hammersmith consists of residential streets of various classes . There are many
See also:good houses in the districts of
See also:Green in the south-east, and Ravenscourt
See also:Park and
See also:Starch Green in the west . Shepherd's
See also:Bush in the east is a populous and poorer quarter .
See also:building yards, lead-mills, oil mills, distilleries,
See also:coach factories, motor
See also:works, and other
See also:industrial establishments are found along the river and elsewhere in the borough . The
See also:main thoroughfares are
See also:Uxbridge Road and Goldhawk Road, from
See also:Acton on the west, converging at Shepherd's Bush and continuing towards Notting
See also:King Street from Chiswick on the south-west, continued as Hammersmith Broadway and Road to Kensington Road;
See also:Bridge Road from Hammersmith Bridge over the Thames, and Fulham Palace Road from Fulham, converging at the Broadway . Old Hammersmith Bridge, designed by
See also:Clark (1824), was the earliest suspension bridge erected near London . This bridge was found insecure and replaced in 1884-1887 .
Until 1834 Hammersmith formed
See also:part of Fulham
See also:parish . Its
See also:church of St Paul was built as a
See also:chapel of ease to Fulham, and consecrated by Laud in 1631 . The existing building
See also:dates from 189o . Among the old monuments preserved is that of
See also:Nicholas Crispe (d . 1665), a prominent royalist during the
See also:wars and a benefactor of the parish .
See also:Schools and religious houses are numerous . St Paul's school is one of the
See also:principal public schools in England . It was founded in or about 1509 by
See also:John Colet, dean of St Paul's, under the
See also:shadow of the
See also:cathedral church . But it appears that Colet actually refounded and reorganized a school which had been attached to the cathedral of St Paul from very early times; the first mention of such a school dates from the early part of the 12th century (see an article in The Times, London,
See also:July 7, 1909, on the occasion of the celebration of the quatercentenary of Colet's foundation) . The school was moved to its
See also:present site in Hammersmith Road in 1883 . The number of foundation scholars, that is, the number for which Colet's endowment provided, is 153, according to the number of fishes taken in the miraculous
See also:draught . The
See also:total number of pupils is about 600 .
See also:governors are appointed by the Mercers'
See also:Company (by which
See also:body the new site was acquired), and the
See also:universities of
See also:Oxford, Cambridge and London . Close to the school is St Paul's preparatory school, and at Brook Green is a girls' school in connexion with the main school . There are, besides, the
See also:Edward Latymer foundation school for boys (1624), part of the income of which is devoted to general charitable purposes; the
See also:Godolphin school, founded in the 16th century and remodelled as a grammar school in 1861;
See also:House of Little Sisters of the Poor, the Convent of the Sacred Heart, and other convents . The
See also:hall, the West London hospital with its
See also:college, and
See also:Wormwood Scrubbs prison are noteworthy buildings . Other institutions are the
See also:smith school of
See also:art and a
See also:Roman Catholic training college . Besides the picturesque Ravenscourt Park (31 acres) there are extensive recreation grounds in the
See also:north of the borough at Wormwood Scrubbs (193 acres), and others of lesser extent . An important place of entertainment is
See also:Olympia, near Hammer-smith Road and the
See also:Addison Road station on the West London railway, which includes a vast
See also:arena under a
See also:glass roof; while at Shepherd's Bush are the extensive grounds and buildings first occupied by the Franco-
See also:Exhibition of 1908, including a huge
See also:stadium for athletic displays . In the extreme north of the borough is the Kensal Green Roman Catholic cemetery, in which
See also:Manning and many other prominent members of this faith are buried . In the neighbourhood of the Mall, bordering the river, are the house where
See also:Thomson wrote his poem " The Seasons," and Kelmscott House, the residence of
See also:Morris . The
See also:parliamentary borough of Hammersmith returns one member . The borough council consists of a mayor, 5 aldermen, and 30 councillors .
See also:Area, 2286.3 acres .
HAMMER-THROWING, abranch of
See also:field athletics which consists of hurling to the greatest possible distance an instrument with a heavy
See also:head and slender handle called the hammer . Throwing the hammer is in all probability of Keltic origin, as it has been popular in
See also:Ireland and Scotland for many centuries . The missile was, however, not a hammer, but the
See also:wheel of a chariot attached to a fixed
See also:axle, by which it was whirled
See also:round the head and
See also:cast for distance . Such a
See also:sport was undoubtedly cultivated in the old Irish
See also:games, a large
See also:stone being substituted for the wheel at the beginning of the Christian era . In the Scottish
See also:highlands the missile took the
See also:form of a smith's sledge-hammer, and in this form the sport became popular in England in early days . Edward II. is said to have fostered it, and
See also:Henry VIII. is known to have been proficient . At the beginning of the 19th century two standard hammers were generally recognized in Scotland, the heavy hammer, weighing about 21 lb, and the
See also:light hammer, weighing about 16 lb . These were in general use until about 1885, although the light hammer gradually attained popularity at the expense of the heavy . Although originally an ordinary blacksmith's sledge with a handle about 3 ft. long, the form of the head was gradually modified until it acquired its present spherical shape, and the stiff wooden handle gave place to one of flexible
See also:whalebone about e in. in diameter . The Scottish
See also:style of throwing, which also obtained in
See also:America, was to stand on a mark,
See also:swing the hammer round the head several times and 'hurl it backwards over the
See also:shoulder, the length being measured from the mark made by the falling hammer to the nearest
See also:foot of the thrower, no run or follow being allowed . Such men as Donald Dinnie, G .
See also:Davidson and
See also:Kenneth McRae threw the light hammer over
See also:Ito ft., and Dinnie's record was 132 ft .
8 in., made, however, from a raised
See also:mount . Meanwhile the
See also:Amateur Athletic Association had early fixed the
See also:weight of the hammer at 16 lb, but the length of the handle and the run varied widely, the restrictions being few . Under these conditions S . S .
See also:Brown, of Oxford, made in 1873 a throw of 120 ft., which was considered extraordinary at the
See also:time . In 1875 the throw was made from a 7-ft. circle without run, head and handle of the missile weighing together exactly 16 lb . In 1887 the circle was enlarged to 9 ft., and in 1896 a handle of flexible
See also:metal was legalized . The throw was made after a few rapid revolutions of the body, which added an impetus that greatly added to the distance attained . It thus happened that the Scottish competitors at the English games, who clung to their
See also:standing style of throwing, were, although athletes of the very first class, repeatedly beaten; the result being that the Scottish association was forced to introduce the English rules . This was also the case in America, where the throw from the 7-ft. circle, any motions being allowed within it, was adopted in 1888, and still obtains . The Americans still further modified the handle, which now consists of
See also:wire with two
See also:skeleton loops for the hands, the wire being joined to the head by means of a
See also:ball-bearing swivel . Thus the greatest
See also:advantage, that of having the entire weight of the missile at the end, as well as the least
See also:friction, is obtained ..
In England the Amateur Athletic Association in 1908 enacted that " the head and handle may be of any
See also:size, shape and material, provided that the
See also:complete implement shall not be more than 4 ft. and its weight not less than 16 lb . The competitor may assume any position he chooses, and use either one or both hands . All throws shall be made from a circle 7 ft. in diameter." The
See also:modern hammer-thrower, if right-handed, begins by placing the head on the ground at his right side . He then lifts and swings it round his head with increasing rapidity, his wholebody finally revolving with outstretched arms twice, in some cases three times, as rapidly as possible, the hammer being released in the desired direction . During the "
See also:spinning," or revolving of the body, the athlete must be constantly, "ahead of the hammer," i.e. he must be
See also:drawing it after him with continually increased pressure up to the very moment of delivery . The muscles chiefly called into
See also:play are those of the shoulders, back and loins . The adoption of the
See also:hand-loops has given the thrower greater
See also:control over the hammer and has thus rendered the sport much less dangerous than it once was . With a wooden handle the longest throw made in
See also:Great Britain from a 9-ft. circle was that of W . J . M .
See also:Barry in 1892, who won the championship in that
See also:year with 133 ft . 3 in .
With the flexible handle, "unlimited run and follow " being permitted, the record was held in 1909 by M . J . McGrath with 175 ft . 8 in., made in 1907; a Scottish amateur, T . R .
See also:Nicholson, held the British record of 169 ft . 8 in . The
See also:world's record for throw from a 7-ft. circle was 172 ft . 11 in. by J . Flanagan in 1904 in America ; the British record from 9-ft. circle being also held by Flanagan with a throw of 163 ft . 1 in. made in 1900 . Flanagan's Olympic record (London, 1908) was 17o ft .
4'-,-, in . See Athletics in the
See also:Badminton library; Athletes'
See also:Guide in Spalding's Athletic library; " Hammer-Throwing " in vol. xx. of Outing . HAMMER-TOE, a painful
See also:condition in which a toe is rigidly bent and the salient
See also:angle on its upper aspect is constantly irritated by the
See also:boot . It is treated surgically, not as formerly by amputation of the toe, but the toe is made permanently to lie
See also:flat by the
See also:simple excision of the small digital joint . Even in extremely
See also:bad cases of hammer-toe the operation of resection of the head of the metatarsal phalanx is to be recommended rather than amputation .
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