Online Encyclopedia

HAMMERSMITH

Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V12, Page 899 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
Spread the word: del.icio.us del.icio.us it!

HAMMERSMITH  , a western

metropolitan borough of
See also:
London, England, bounded E. by
See also:
Kensington and S. by
See also:
Fulham and the
See also:
river
See also:
Thames, and extending N. and W. to the boundary of the county of London . Pop . (1901) 112,239 . The name appears in the early forms of Hermodewode and Hamersmith; the derivation is probably from the Anglo-Saxon, signifying the place with a haven (
See also:
hythe) . Hammersmith is mentioned with Fulham as a winter camp of Danish invaders in 879, when they occupied the island of Hame, which may be identified with
See also:
Chiswick Eyot . Hammersmith consists of residential streets of various classes . There are many good houses in the districts of
See also:
Brook Green in the south-east, and Ravenscourt Park and
See also:
Starch Green in the west . Shepherd's
See also:
Bush in the east is a populous and poorer quarter . Boat-
See also:
building yards, lead-mills, oil mills, distilleries, coach factories, motor
See also:
works, and other
See also:
industrial establishments are found along the river and elsewhere in the borough . The main thoroughfares are
See also:
Uxbridge Road and Goldhawk Road, from Acton on the west, converging at Shepherd's Bush and continuing towards Notting Hill; King Street from Chiswick on the south-west, continued as Hammersmith Broadway and Road to Kensington Road;
See also:
Bridge Road from Hammersmith Bridge over the Thames, and Fulham Palace Road from Fulham, converging at the Broadway . Old Hammersmith Bridge, designed by Tierney Clark (1824), was the earliest suspension bridge erected near London . This bridge was found insecure and replaced in 1884-1887 .

Until 1834 Hammersmith formed

See also:
part of Fulham parish . Its church of St Paul was built as a
See also:
chapel of ease to Fulham, and consecrated by Laud in 1631 . The existing building
See also:
dates from 189o . Among the old monuments preserved is that of
See also:
Sir Nicholas Crispe (d . 1665), a prominent royalist during the
See also:
civil
See also:
wars and a benefactor of the parish .
See also:
Schools and religious houses are numerous . St Paul's school is one of the
See also:
principal public schools in England . It was founded in or about 1509 by John Colet, dean of St Paul's, under the shadow of the
See also:
cathedral church . But it appears that Colet actually refounded and reorganized a school which had been attached to the cathedral of St Paul from very early times; the first mention of such a school dates from the early part of the 12th century (see an article in The Times, London,
See also:
July 7, 1909, on the occasion of the celebration of the quatercentenary of Colet's foundation) . The school was moved to its
See also:
present site in Hammersmith Road in 1883 . The number of foundation scholars, that is, the number for which Colet's endowment provided, is 153, according to the number of fishes taken in the miraculous draught . The
See also:
total number of pupils is about 600 .

The school

See also:
governors are appointed by the Mercers'
See also:
Company (by which
See also:
body the new site was acquired), and the
See also:
universities of Oxford, Cambridge and London . Close to the school is St Paul's preparatory school, and at Brook Green is a girls' school in connexion with the main school . There are, besides, the
See also:
Edward Latymer foundation school for boys (1624), part of the income of which is devoted to general charitable purposes; the Godolphin school, founded in the 16th century and remodelled as a grammar school in 1861; Nazareth House of Little Sisters of the Poor, the Convent of the Sacred Heart, and other convents . The
See also:
town hall, the West London hospital with its
See also:
post-graduate college, and
See also:
Wormwood Scrubbs prison are noteworthy buildings . Other institutions are the Hammer-smith school of
See also:
art and a
See also:
Roman Catholic training college . Besides the picturesque Ravenscourt Park (31 acres) there are extensive recreation grounds in the north of the borough at Wormwood Scrubbs (193 acres), and others of lesser extent . An important place of entertainment is
See also:
Olympia, near Hammer-smith Road and the Addison Road station on the West London railway, which includes a vast arena under a glass roof; while at Shepherd's Bush are the extensive grounds and buildings first occupied by the Franco-
See also:
British
See also:
Exhibition of 1908, including a huge
See also:
stadium for athletic displays . In the extreme north of the borough is the Kensal Green Roman Catholic cemetery, in which Cardinal Manning and many other prominent members of this faith are buried . In the neighbourhood of the Mall, bordering the river, are the house where Thomson wrote his poem " The Seasons," and Kelmscott House, the residence of William Morris . The
See also:
parliamentary borough of Hammersmith returns one member . The borough council consists of a mayor, 5 aldermen, and 30 councillors .
See also:
Area, 2286.3 acres .

HAMMER-THROWING, a

branch of field athletics which consists of hurling to the greatest possible distance an instrument with a heavy head and slender handle called the hammer . Throwing the hammer is in all probability of Keltic origin, as it has been popular in Ireland and Scotland for many centuries . The missile was, however, not a hammer, but the wheel of a chariot attached to a fixed axle, by which it was whirled round the head and cast for distance . Such a sport was undoubtedly cultivated in the old Irish games, a large stone being substituted for the wheel at the beginning of the Christian era . In the Scottish highlands the missile took the form of a smith's sledge-hammer, and in this form the sport became popular in England in early days . Edward II. is said to have fostered it, and Henry VIII. is known to have been proficient . At the beginning of the 19th century two standard hammers were generally recognized in Scotland, the heavy hammer, weighing about 21 lb, and the
See also:
light hammer, weighing about 16 lb . These were in general use until about 1885, although the light hammer gradually attained popularity at the expense of the heavy . Although originally an ordinary blacksmith's sledge with a handle about 3 ft. long, the form of the head was gradually modified until it acquired its present spherical shape, and the stiff wooden handle gave place to one of flexible
See also:
whalebone about e in. in diameter . The Scottish style of throwing, which also obtained in
See also:
America, was to stand on a mark, swing the hammer round the head several times and 'hurl it backwards over the shoulder, the length being measured from the mark made by the falling hammer to the nearest
See also:
foot of the thrower, no run or follow being allowed . Such men as Donald Dinnie, G . Davidson and
See also:
Kenneth McRae threw the light hammer over Ito ft., and Dinnie's record was 132 ft .

8 in., made, however, from a raised

mount . Meanwhile the
See also:
English Amateur Athletic Association had early fixed the
See also:
weight of the hammer at 16 lb, but the length of the handle and the run varied widely, the restrictions being few . Under these conditions S . S . Brown, of Oxford, made in 1873 a throw of 120 ft., which was considered extraordinary at the time . In 1875 the throw was made from a 7-ft. circle without run, head and handle of the missile weighing together exactly 16 lb . In 1887 the circle was enlarged to 9 ft., and in 1896 a handle of flexible metal was legalized . The throw was made after a few rapid revolutions of the body, which added an impetus that greatly added to the distance attained . It thus happened that the Scottish competitors at the English games, who clung to their
See also:
standing style of throwing, were, although athletes of the very first class, repeatedly beaten; the result being that the Scottish association was forced to introduce the English rules . This was also the case in America, where the throw from the 7-ft. circle, any motions being allowed within it, was adopted in 1888, and still obtains . The Americans still further modified the handle, which now consists of steel wire with two
See also:
skeleton loops for the hands, the wire being joined to the head by means of a ball-bearing swivel . Thus the greatest
See also:
mechanical
See also:
advantage, that of having the entire weight of the missile at the end, as well as the least friction, is obtained ..

In England the Amateur Athletic Association in 1908 enacted that " the head and handle may be of any

See also:
size, shape and material, provided that the
See also:
complete implement shall not be more than 4 ft. and its weight not less than 16 lb . The competitor may assume any position he chooses, and use either one or both hands . All throws shall be made from a circle 7 ft. in diameter." The
See also:
modern hammer-thrower, if right-handed, begins by placing the head on the ground at his right side . He then lifts and swings it round his head with increasing rapidity, his wholebody finally revolving with outstretched arms twice, in some cases three times, as rapidly as possible, the hammer being released in the desired direction . During the " spinning," or revolving of the body, the athlete must be constantly, "ahead of the hammer," i.e. he must be
See also:
drawing it after him with continually increased pressure up to the very moment of delivery . The muscles chiefly called into
See also:
play are those of the shoulders, back and loins . The adoption of the hand-loops has given the thrower greater control over the hammer and has thus rendered the sport much less dangerous than it once was . With a wooden handle the longest throw made in
See also:
Great Britain from a 9-ft. circle was that of W . J . M . Barry in 1892, who won the championship in that
See also:
year with 133 ft . 3 in .

With the flexible handle, "unlimited run and follow " being permitted, the record was held in 1909 by M . J . McGrath with 175 ft . 8 in., made in 1907; a Scottish amateur, T . R .

Nicholson, held the British record of 169 ft . 8 in . The
See also:
world's record for throw from a 7-ft. circle was 172 ft . 11 in. by J . Flanagan in 1904 in America ; the British record from 9-ft. circle being also held by Flanagan with a throw of 163 ft . 1 in. made in 1900 . Flanagan's Olympic record (London, 1908) was 17o ft .

4'-,-, in . See Athletics in the

Badminton library; Athletes' Guide in Spalding's Athletic library; " Hammer-Throwing " in vol. xx. of Outing . HAMMER-TOE, a painful condition in which a toe is rigidly bent and the salient angle on its upper aspect is constantly irritated by the
See also:
boot . It is treated surgically, not as formerly by amputation of the toe, but the toe is made permanently to lie flat by the
See also:
simple excision of the small digital joint . Even in extremely
See also:
bad cases of hammer-toe the operation of resection of the head of the metatarsal phalanx is to be recommended rather than amputation .

End of Article: HAMMERSMITH
[back]
HAMMERFEST
[next]
HAMMOCK

Additional information and Comments

There are no comments yet for this article.
» Add information or comments to this article.
Please link directly to this article:
Highlight the code below, right click and select "copy." Paste it into a website, email, or other HTML document.