See also:born on the 7th of
See also:June r810 at
See also:Dresden . In 1831 he went to
See also:Leipzig to study
See also:law, but devoted himself mainly to philosophy and belles lettres . Returning to Dresden in 1834 a small
See also:comedy, Das seltsame Friihstuck, introduced him to the
See also:literary society of the capital, notably to Ludwig
See also:Tieck, and from this
See also:time he devoted himself entirely to writing . Iri 1837 he returned to Leipzig, and, coming again to Dresden, from 1851 to 1859 edited the feuilleton of Slichsische konstitutionelle Zeitung, and took the lead in the foundation in 1855 of the Schiller Institute in Dresden . His
See also:marriage in 1851 had made him
See also:independent, and he bought a small
See also:property at
See also:Pillnitz, on which, soon after his return from a residence of several years at
See also:Nuremberg, he died, on the 23rd of
See also:August 1862,
See also:Hammer wrote, besides several comedies, a drama Die Bruder (1856), a number of unimportant romances, and the novel Einkehr and Umkehr (Leipzig, 1856); but his reputation rests upon his epigrammatic and didactic poems . His Schau' um dick, and schau' in dich (1851), which made his name, has passed through more than
See also:editions . It was followed by Zu
See also:alien guten Stunden (1854), Fester Grund (1857), Auf stillen Wegen (18J9), and Lerne, liebe, lebe (1862) . Besides these he wrote a
See also:book of
See also:Turkish songs, Unter dem Halbmond (Leipzig, 186o), and rhymed versions of the psalms (1861), and compiled the popular religious
See also:anthology Leben and Heimat in Gott, of which a 14th edition was published in 'goo . See C . G . E . Am Ende,
See also:Julius Hammer (Nuremberg, 1872) .
HAMMER, animplement consisting of a
See also:shaft or handle with
See also:head fixed transversely to it . The head, usually of
See also:metal, has one
See also:face, the other may be shaped to serve various purposes, e.g. with a claw, a pick, &c . The implement is used for breaking, beating,
See also:driving nails, rivets, &c., and the word is applied to heavy masses of metal moved by machinery, and used for similar purposes . (See
See also:TooL.) " Hammer " is a word
See also:common to Teutonic
See also:languages . It appears in the same
See also:form in German and Danish, and in Dutch as hamer, in
See also:Swedish as hammare . The ultimate origin is unknown . It has been connected with the
See also:root seen in the Greek Kaµorrety, to
See also:bend; the word would mean, therefore, something crooked or bent . A more
See also:suggestion connects the word with the
See also:Slavonic kamy, a
See also:stone, cf .
See also:Russian kamen, and ultimately with
See also:Sanskrit acman, a pointed stone, a thunderbolt . The
See also:legend of
See also:Thor's hammer, the thunderbolt, and the probability of the
See also:primitive hammer being a stone, adds plausibility to this derivation . The word is applied to many
See also:objects resembling a hammer in shape or
See also:function . Thus the " striker " in a
See also:clock, or in a
See also:bell, when it is sounded by an independent
See also:lever and not by the swinging of the "
See also:tongue," is called a " hammer "; similarly, in the "
See also:action " of a pianoforte the word is used of a wooden shank with
See also:felt-covered head attached to a
See also:key, the striking of which throws the "hammer" against the strings .
In the mechanism of a
See also:arm, the " hammer " is that
See also:part which by its impact on the cap or primer explodes the
See also:charge . (See
See also:GuN.) The hammer, more usually known by its French name of martel de fer, was a
See also:hand-weapon . With a long shaft it was used by
See also:infantry, especially when acting against mounted troops . With a
See also:short handle and usually made altogether of metal, it was also used by
See also:horse-soldiers . The martel had one part of the head with a blunted face, the other pointed, but occasionally both sides were pointed . There are 16th century examples in which a hand-gun forms the handle . The name of " hammer," in Latin malleus, has been frequently applied to men, and also to books, with reference to destructive power . Thus on the
See also:tomb of
See also:Edward I. in
See also:Westminster Abbey is inscribed his name of Scotorum Malleus, the " Hammer of the Scots." The title of " Hammer of Heretics," Malleus Haereticorum, has been given .to St Augustine and to Johann
See also:Faber, whose
See also:tract against
See also:Luther is also known by the name .
See also:Cromwell was styled Malleus Monachorum . The famous text-book of procedure in cases of
See also:witchcraft, published by
See also:Sprenger and Kramer in 1489, was called Hexenhammer or Malleus Maleficarum (see
See also:WITCH- CRAFT) . expedition for the measurement of the arc of the meridian in 1816-1852 . Nor is this its only association with science; for it was one of the spots chosen by
See also:Sir Edward
See also:Sabine for his series of pendulum experiments in 1823 .
The ascent of the Sadlen or the Tyven in the neighbourhood is usually undertaken by travellers for the view of the barren,
See also:snow-clad Arctic landscape, the
See also:bluff indented
See also:coast, and the vast expanse of the Arctic Ocean . HAMMER-KOP, or HAMMERHEAD, an
See also:bird, which has been regarded as a
See also:stork and as a
See also:heron, the Scopus
See also:umbrella of ornithologists, called the " Umbre " by T .
See also:Pennant, now placed in a
See also:family Scopidae between the herons and storks . It was discovered by M .
See also:Adanson, the French traveller, in
See also:Senegal about the
See also:middle of the 19th century, and was described by M . J . Brisson in 176o . It has since been found to inhabit nearly the whole of Africa and
See also:Madagascar, and is the " hammerkop " (hammerhead) of the Cape colonists . Though not larger than a raven, it builds an enormous
See also:nest, some six feet in diameter, with a flat-topped roof and a small hole for entrance and exit, and placed either on a
See also:tree or a rocky ledge . The bird, of an almost
See also:colour, slightly glossed with
See also:purple and its tail barred with black, has a long occipital crest, generally
See also:borne horizontally, so as to give rise to its common name . It is some-what sluggish by
See also:day, but displays much activity at dusk, when it will go through a series of
See also:strange performances . (A .
See also:JOSEPH, FREIHERR VON (1774-1856),
See also:Austrian orientalist, was born at
See also:Graz on the 9th of June 1774, the son of Joseph Johann von Hammer, and received his early
See also:education mainly in Vienna . Entering the
See also:diplomatic service in 1796, he was appointed in 1799 to a position in the Austrian
See also:embassy in Constantinople, and in this capacity he took part in the expedition under
See also:Admiral Sir
See also:Smith and General Sir
See also:John Hely
See also:Hutchinson against the French . In 1807 he returned home from the East, after which he was made a privy councillor, and, on inheriting in 1835 the estates of the countess Purgstall in Styria, was given the title of " freiherr." In 1847 he was elected
See also:president of the newly-founded academy, and he died at Vienna on the 23rd of
See also:November 1856 . For fifty years Hammer-Purgstall wrote incessantly on the most diverse subjects and published numerous texts and
See also:translations of Arabic, Persian and Turkish authors . It was natural that a
See also:scholar who traversed so large a
See also:field should
See also:lay himself open to the
See also:criticism of specialists, and he was severely handled by
See also:Friedrich Christian Diez (1794-1876), who, in his Unfug and Betrug (1815), devoted to him nearly 600 pages of abuse . Von Hammer-Purgstall did for Germany the same
See also:work that Sir William
See also:Jones (q.v.) did for England and
See also:Silvestre de Sacy for France . He was, like his younger but greater
See also:con-temporary, Edward William Lane, with whom he came into friendly conflict on the subject of the origin of The Thousand and One Nights, an assiduous worker, and in spite of many faults did more for
See also:oriental studies than most of his critics put together . Von Hammer's
See also:principal work is his Geschichte
See also:des osmanischen Reiches (10 vols., Pesth, 1827-1835) . Another edition of this was published at Pesth in 1834-1835, and it has been translated into French by J . J . Hellert (1835-1843) . Among his other
See also:works are Constantinopolis and der Bosporos (1822); Sur
See also:les origines russes (St
See also:Petersburg, 1825) ; Geschichte der osmanischen Dichtkunst (1836); Geschichte der Goldenen
See also:Horde in Kiptschak (184o); Geschichte der Chane der Krim (1856); and an unfinished Litteraturgeschichte der Araber (1850-1856) .
His Geschichte der Assassinen (1818) has been translated into English by O . C .
See also:Wood (1835) . Texts and translations— Eth-Thaalabi, Arab. and Ger . (1829) ;
See also:Ibn Wahshiyah,
See also:History of the
See also:Mongols, Arab..and Eng . (1806); El - Wassaf, Pers. and Ger . (1856) ; Esch - Schebistani's' Rosenflor des Geheimnisses, Pers. and Ger . (1838) ; Ez - Zamakhsheri, Goldene Halsbdnder, Arab. and Germ . (1835) ; El-Ghazzalz, Hujjet-el-
See also:Islam, Arab. and Ger . (1838); El-Hamawi, Das arab . Hoke Lied der Liebe, 'Arab. and Ger . (1854) .
Translations of—El-Mutanebbi's Poems; Er-Resmi'sAccount of his Embassy (1809); Conies inedits des zoo' nuits (1828) . Besides these and smaller works, von Hammer contributed numerous essays and criticisms to the Fundgruben des Orients, which he edited; to the Journal asiatique; and to many other learned
See also:journals; above all to the Transactions of the " Akademie der Wissenschaften " of Vienna, of which he.was mainly thefounder; and he translated Evliya Effendi's Travels in
See also:Europe, for the English Oriental
See also:Translation Fund . For a
See also:list of his works, which amount in all to nearly 10o volumes, see Comptes rendus of the Acad. des Inscr. et des Belles-Lettres (1857) . See also Schlottman, Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall (Zurich, 1857) .
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