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FRIEDRICH JULIUS HAMMER (1810-1862)

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Originally appearing in Volume V12, Page 898 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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FRIEDRICH JULIUS HAMMER (1810-1862), German poet, was born on the 7th of June r810 at Dresden. In 1831 he went to Leipzig to study law, but devoted himself mainly to philosophy and belles lettres. Returning to Dresden in 1834 a small comedy, Das seltsame Friihstuck, introduced him to the literary society of the capital, notably to Ludwig Tieck, and from this time he devoted himself entirely to writing. Iri 1837 he returned to Leipzig, and, coming again to Dresden, from 1851 to 1859 edited the feuilleton of Slichsische konstitutionelle Zeitung, and took the lead in the foundation in 1855 of the Schiller Institute in Dresden. His marriage in 1851 had made him independent, and he bought a small property at Pillnitz, on which, soon after his return from a residence of several years at Nuremberg, he died, on the 23rd of August 1862, Hammer wrote, besides several comedies, a drama Die Bruder (1856), a number of unimportant romances, and the novel Einkehr and Umkehr (Leipzig, 1856); but his reputation rests upon his epigrammatic and didactic poems. His Schau' um dick, and schau' in dich (1851), which made his name, has passed through more than thirty editions. It was followed by Zu alien guten Stunden (1854), Fester Grund (1857), Auf stillen Wegen (18J9), and Lerne, liebe, lebe (1862). Besides these he wrote a book of Turkish songs, Unter dem Halbmond (Leipzig, 186o), and rhymed versions of the psalms (1861), and compiled the popular religious anthology Leben and Heimat in Gott, of which a 14th edition was published in 'goo. See C. G. E. Am Ende, Julius Hammer (Nuremberg, 1872). HAMMER, an implement consisting of a shaft or handle with head fixed transversely to it. The head, usually of metal, has one flat face, the other may be shaped to serve various purposes, e.g. with a claw, a pick, &c. The implement is used for breaking, beating, driving nails, rivets, &c., and the word is applied to heavy masses of metal moved by machinery, and used for similar purposes. (See TooL.) " Hammer " is a word common to Teutonic languages. It appears in the same form in German and Danish, and in Dutch as hamer, in Swedish as hammare. The ultimate origin is unknown. It has been connected with the root seen in the Greek Kaµorrety, to bend; the word would mean, therefore, something crooked or bent. A more illuminating suggestion connects the word with the Slavonic kamy, a stone, cf. Russian kamen, and ultimately with Sanskrit acman, a pointed stone, a thunderbolt. The legend of Thor's hammer, the thunderbolt, and the probability of the primitive hammer being a stone, adds plausibility to this derivation. The word is applied to many objects resembling a hammer in shape or function. Thus the " striker " in a clock, or in a bell, when it is sounded by an independent lever and not by the swinging of the " tongue," is called a " hammer "; similarly, in the " action " of a pianoforte the word is used of a wooden shank with felt-covered head attached to a key, the striking of which throws the "hammer" against the strings. In the mechanism of a fire-arm, the " hammer " is that part which by its impact on the cap or primer explodes the charge. (See GuN.) The hammer, more usually known by its French name of martel de fer, was a medieval hand-weapon. With a long shaft it was used by infantry, especially when acting against mounted troops. With a short handle and usually made altogether of metal, it was also used by horse-soldiers. The martel had one part of the head with a blunted face, the other pointed, but occasionally both sides were pointed. There are 16th century examples in which a hand-gun forms the handle. The name of " hammer," in Latin malleus, has been frequently applied to men, and also to books, with reference to destructive power. Thus on the tomb of Edward I. in Westminster Abbey is inscribed his name of Scotorum Malleus, the " Hammer of the Scots." The title of " Hammer of Heretics," Malleus Haereticorum, has been given .to St Augustine and to Johann Faber, whose tract against Luther is also known by the name. Thomas Cromwell was styled Malleus Monachorum. The famous text-book of procedure in cases of witchcraft, published by Sprenger and Kramer in 1489, was called Hexenhammer or Malleus Maleficarum (see WITCH- CRAFT). expedition for the measurement of the arc of the meridian in 1816-1852. Nor is this its only association with science; for it was one of the spots chosen by Sir Edward Sabine for his series of pendulum experiments in 1823. The ascent of the Sadlen or the Tyven in the neighbourhood is usually undertaken by travellers for the view of the barren, snow-clad Arctic landscape, the bluff indented coast, and the vast expanse of the Arctic Ocean. HAMMER-KOP, or HAMMERHEAD, an African bird, which has been regarded as a stork and as a heron, the Scopus umbrella of ornithologists, called the " Umbre " by T. Pennant, now placed in a separate family Scopidae between the herons and storks. It was discovered by M. Adanson, the French traveller, in Senegal about the middle of the 19th century, and was described by M. J. Brisson in 176o. It has since been found to inhabit nearly the whole of Africa and Madagascar, and is the " hammerkop " (hammerhead) of the Cape colonists. Though not larger than a raven, it builds an enormous nest, some six feet in diameter, with a flat-topped roof and a small hole for entrance and exit, and placed either on a tree or a rocky ledge. The bird, of an almost uniform brown colour, slightly glossed with purple and its tail barred with black, has a long occipital crest, generally borne horizontally, so as to give rise to its common name. It is some-what sluggish by day, but displays much activity at dusk, when it will go through a series of strange performances. (A. N.) HAMMER-PURGSTALL, JOSEPH, FREIHERR VON (1774-1856), Austrian orientalist, was born at Graz on the 9th of June 1774, the son of Joseph Johann von Hammer, and received his early education mainly in Vienna. Entering the diplomatic service in 1796, he was appointed in 1799 to a position in the Austrian embassy in Constantinople, and in this capacity he took part in the expedition under Admiral Sir William Sidney Smith and General Sir John Hely Hutchinson against the French. In 1807 he returned home from the East, after which he was made a privy councillor, and, on inheriting in 1835 the estates of the countess Purgstall in Styria, was given the title of " freiherr." In 1847 he was elected president of the newly-founded academy, and he died at Vienna on the 23rd of November 1856. For fifty years Hammer-Purgstall wrote incessantly on the most diverse subjects and published numerous texts and translations of Arabic, Persian and Turkish authors. It was natural that a scholar who traversed so large a field should lay himself open to the criticism of specialists, and he was severely handled by Friedrich Christian Diez (1794-1876), who, in his Unfug and Betrug (1815), devoted to him nearly 600 pages of abuse. Von Hammer-Purgstall did for Germany the same work that Sir William Jones (q.v.) did for England and Silvestre de Sacy for France. He was, like his younger but greater English con-temporary, Edward William Lane, with whom he came into friendly conflict on the subject of the origin of The Thousand and One Nights, an assiduous worker, and in spite of many faults did more for oriental studies than most of his critics put together. Von Hammer's principal work is his Geschichte des osmanischen Reiches (10 vols., Pesth, 1827-1835). Another edition of this was published at Pesth in 1834-1835, and it has been translated into French by J. J. Hellert (1835-1843). Among his other works are Constantinopolis and der Bosporos (1822); Sur les origines russes (St Petersburg, 1825) ; Geschichte der osmanischen Dichtkunst (1836); Geschichte der Goldenen Horde in Kiptschak (184o); Geschichte der Chane der Krim (1856); and an unfinished Litteraturgeschichte der Araber (1850-1856). His Geschichte der Assassinen (1818) has been translated into English by O. C. Wood (1835). Texts and translations— Eth-Thaalabi, Arab. and Ger. (1829) ; Ibn Wahshiyah, History of the Mongols, Arab..and Eng. (1806); El - Wassaf, Pers. and Ger. (1856) ; Esch - Schebistani's' Rosenflor des Geheimnisses, Pers. and Ger. (1838) ; Ez - Zamakhsheri, Goldene Halsbdnder, Arab. and Germ. (1835) ; El-Ghazzalz, Hujjet-el-Islam, Arab. and Ger. (1838); El-Hamawi, Das arab. Hoke Lied der Liebe, 'Arab. and Ger. (1854). Translations of—El-Mutanebbi's Poems; Er-Resmi's Account of his Embassy (1809); Conies inedits des zoo' nuits (1828). Besides these and smaller works, von Hammer contributed numerous essays and criticisms to the Fundgruben des Orients, which he edited; to the Journal asiatique; and to many other learned journals; above all to the Transactions of the " Akademie der Wissenschaften " of Vienna, of which he.was mainly thefounder; and he translated Evliya Effendi's Travels in Europe, for the English Oriental Translation Fund. For a fuller list of his works, which amount in all to nearly 10o volumes, see Comptes rendus of the Acad. des Inscr. et des Belles-Lettres (1857). See also Schlottman, Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall (Zurich, 1857).
End of Article: FRIEDRICH JULIUS HAMMER (1810-1862)
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