HARMONICA , a generic
See also:term applied to musical
See also:instruments in which sound is produced by
See also:friction upon
See also:glass bells . The word is also used to designate instruments of percussion of the
See also:Glockenspiel type, made of
See also:steel and struck by hammers (Ger . Stahlharmonika) . The origin of the glass-harmonica tribe is to be found in the fashionable 18th century instrument known as musical glasses (Fr. verrillon), the principle of which was known already in the 17th century.' The invention of musical glasses is generally ascribed to an Irishman,
See also:Richard Pockrich, who first played the instrument in public in
See also:Dublin in 1743 and the next
See also:year in England, but Eise12 described the verrillon and gave an
See also:illustration of it in 1738 . The verrillon or Glassspiel consisted of 18
See also:beer glasses arranged on a
See also:board covered with
See also:water being poured in when necessary to alter the pitch . The glasses were struck on both sides gently with two long wooden sticks in the shape of a
See also:spoon, the bowl being covered with
See also:silk or cloth . Eisel states that the instrument was used for
See also:church and other
See also:music .
See also:Gluck gave a concert at the " little theatre in the Haymarket " (
See also:London) in
See also:April 1746, at which he performed on musical glasses a concerto of his composition with full orchestral accompaniment . E . H . Delaval is also credited with the invention . When Benjamin
See also:Franklin visited London in 17J7, he was so much struck by the beauty of
See also:tone elicited by Delaval and Pockrich, and with the possibilities of the glasses as musical instruments, that he set to
See also:work on a
See also:mechanical application of the principle involved, the eminently successful result being the glass harmonica finished in 1762 .
In this the glass
See also:bowls were mounted on a rotating spindle, the largest to the
See also:left, and their under-edges passed during each revolution through a water-trough . By applying the fingers to the moistened edges, sound was produced varying in intensity with the pressure, so that a certain amount of expression was at the command of a
See also:good player . It is said that the timbre was extremely enervating, and, together with the vibration caused by the friction on the
See also:finger-tips, exercised a highly deleterious effect on the
See also:system . The instrument was for many years in
See also:great vogue, not only in England but on the Continent of
See also:Europe, and more especially in Saxony, where it was accorded a place in the
See also:court orchestra . Mozart,
See also:Beethoven, Naumann and
See also:Hasse composed music for it . Marianne
See also:Davies and Marianna Kirchgessner were celebrated virtuosi on it . The curious vogue of the instrument, as sudden as it was ephemeral, produced emulation in a generation unsurpassed for zeal in the invention of musical instruments . The most notable of its offspring were Carl
See also:Leopold Rollig's improved harmonica with a keyboard in 1786, Chladni's euphon in 1791 and clavicylinder in 1799, Ruffelsen's melodicon in 'Soo and 1803,
See also:Franz Leppich's panmelodicon 181o, Buschmann's uranion in the same year, &c . Of most of these nothing now remains but the name and a description in the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung, but there are numerous. specimens of the Franklin type in the museums for musical 'instruments of Europe . One specimen by Emanuel Pohl, a Bohemian maker, is preserved in the
See also:Victoria and
See also:Albert Museum, London . For the steel harmonica see GLOCKENSPIEL . (K .
S.) ' See G . P . Harsdorfer, Math. and philos . Erquickstunden (
See also:Nuremberg, 1677), ii . 147 . 2 Masscus abrobibairos (
See also:Erfurt, 1738), p . 70 .
HARMONIC SERIES OF THE CONTRABASS BOMBARDON IN C
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