HARROW ,1 an agriculturalimplement used for (I) levelling ridges
See also:left by the plough and preparing a smooth
See also:surface for the reception of seeds; (2) covering in seeds after
See also:sowing; (3) tearing up and gathering weeds; (4) disintegrating and levelling the
See also:soil of meadows and pastures; (5) forming a surface tilth by pulverizing the top soil and so .conserving moisture . The harrow rivals the plough in antiquity . In its simplest
See also:form it consists of the boughs of trees interlaced into a wooden
See also:frame, and this form survives in the "
See also:bush-harrow." Another old type, found in the
See also:middle ages and still in use, consists of a wooden framework in which iron pegs or " tines " are set . This is now generally superseded by the " zig-zag " harrow patented by
See also:Armstrong in 1839, built of iron bars in which the tines are so arranged that each follows its own track and has a
See also:line of
See also:action . This harrow is usually made in two or three sections which
See also:fold over one another and are thus easily portable, the arrangement at the same
See also:time giving a flexibility on uneven ground . Additional flexibility may be imparted to the implement by jointing the stays of the frame which are in the line of
See also:draught . The liability that the tines may snap off is the chief weakness of this type, and improvements have consisted chiefly in alterations in their shape and the method of fixing them to the frame . The other type of harrow most used is the chain harrow, consisting of a number of square-
See also:link chains connected by
See also:cross links and attached to a draught-
See also:bar, the whole being kept
See also:expanded by stretchers and trailing weights . It is used for levelling and spreading manure over grass-
See also:land, from which it at the same time tears up
See also:moss and coarse herbage . Mention may also be made of the
See also:drag-harrow, a heavy implement with long tines, approximating closely to the
See also:cultivator, and of the
See also:Norwegian harrow with its revolving rows of spikes . A few variations and developments of the ordinary harrow require
See also:notice . In the adjustable harrow (fig .
2) theteeth are secured to bars pivoted at their ends in the side bars of the frame, and provided with
See also:crank arms connected to a
See also:common link bar, which may be moved horizontally by means of a
See also:lever for the purpose of adjusting 1 In
See also:Mid . Eng. harke; the O . Eng. appears to have been kearge; the word is cognate with the Dutch hark, Swed. harke, Ger . Harke,
See also:rake, and with Danish hare, and Swed. harf, harrow, but the ultimate origin is unknown; the Fr. herse is a different word, cf .
See also:HEARSE . the
See also:angle which the teeth make with the ground, and thus convert the machine from a pulverizer to a smoothing harrow . The small figure illustrates a
See also:spring connexion between the adjusting lever and its locking bar, which allows the teeth to yield upon striking an obstruction . As the briskness of the operation adds to its effective- ness, the harrow is often made with a seat from which the operator can hasten the team without fatiguing himself . Fig . 3 illustrates a spring-tooth harrow . In this harrow the in-dependent frames are carried upon wheels, and a seat for the operator is mounted upon
See also:standards supported by the two frames . The teeth consist of
See also:steel springs of
See also:scroll form, which yield to rigid obstructions and are mounted on
See also:rock shafts in the same manner as in the walking harrow before described .
The levers enable the operator t o raise the teeth more or less, and thus
See also:free them from rubbish and also regulate the
See also:depth of,,action . Another variation of the harrow with
See also:great pulverizing and loosening capabilities consists of a
See also:main frame, having a
See also:pole and whipple-trees attached; to this frame are pivoted two supplemental frames, each of which has mounted on it a
See also:shaft carrying a series of concavo-
See also:convex disks . The supplemental frames may be swung by the adjusting levers to any, angle with relation to the line of draught, and the disks then
See also:act like that of the disk plough (see PLOUGH), throwing the soil outward with more or less force, according to the angle at which they are set, and thus thoroughly breaking up and pulverizing the clods . Above the disks is a bar to which are pivoted a series of scrapers, one for each disk, which are held to their
See also:work with a yielding action, being thrown out of operation when desired by the levers shown in connexion with the operating bar . Pans on the main frame are used to carry weights to hold the disks down to their work . The cut away disk harrow differs from the ordinary disk harrow in that its disks are notched and so have greater penetrating power . The curved
See also:knife-tooth harrow consists of a frame to which a
See also:row of curved
See also:blades is attached . Other forms of the implement are illustrated and discussed in
See also:Farm Machinery and Farm
See also:Motors by J . B .
See also:Davidson and L . W .
See also:Chase (New
See also:York, 1908) .
OF 1ST EARL DUDLEY RYDER HARROWBY (1762–1847)
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