See also:English philosopher, and founder of the Associationist school of psychologists, was
See also:born on the 3oth of
See also:August 1705 . He was educated at
See also:Bradford grammar school and Jesus
See also:College, Cambridge, of which society he became a
See also:fellow in 1727 . Originally intended for the
See also:Church, he was deterred from taking orders by certain scruples as to
See also:signing the
See also:Thirty-nine Articles, and took up the study of
See also:medicine . Nevertheless, he remained in the communion of the English Church, living on intimate terms with the most distinguished churchmen of his
See also:day . Indeed he asserted it to be a
See also:duty to obey ecclesiastical as well as
See also:civil authorities . The
See also:doctrine to which he most strongly objected was that of eternal punishment .
See also:Hartley practised as a physician at Newark, Bury St
See also:London, and lastly at Bath, where he died on the 28th of August 1757 . His Observations on Man was published in 1749, three years after Condillac's Essai sur l'origine
See also:des connaissances humaines, in which theories essentially similar to his were expounded . It is in two parts—the first dealing with the
See also:frame of the human
See also:body and mind, and their mutual connexions and influences, the second with the duty and expectations of mankind . His two
See also:main theories are the doctrine of vibrations and the doctrine of associations . His
See also:physical theory, he tells us, was
See also:drawn from certain speculations as to
See also:action which
See also:Newton had published in his Principia . His psychological theory was suggested by the Dissertation concerning the Fundamental Principles of Virtue or Morality, which was written by a clergyman named
See also:John Gay (1699–1745), and prefixed by
See also:Law to his
See also:translation 1 of Archbishop
See also:King's Latin
See also:work on the Origin of E&, its chief
See also:object being to show that sympathy and
See also:conscience are developments by means of association from the selfish feelings .
The outlines of Hartley's theory are as follows . With
See also:Locke he asserted that,
See also:prior to sensation, the human mind is a
See also:blank . By a growth from
See also:simple sensations those states of consciousness which appear most remote from sensation come into being . And the one 1 Anonymously in the 1731 ed., with
See also:acknowledgment in 1758 ed.law of growth of which Hartley took account was the law of contiguity, synchronous and successive . By this law he sought to explain, not only the phenomena of memory, which others had similarly explained before him, but also the phenomena of emotion, of reasoning, and of voluntary and involuntary action (see AssocIATION OF IDEAS) . By his physical theory Hartley gave the first strong impulse to the
See also:modern study of the intimate connexion of physiological and psychical facts which has proved so fruitful, though his physical theory in itself is inadequate, and has not been largely adopted . He held that sensation is the result of a vibration of the minute particles of the medullary substance of the nerves, to account for which he postulated, with Newton, a subtle elastic
See also:ether, rare in the interstices of solid bodies and in their close neighbourhood, and denser as it recedes from them . Pleasure is the result of moderate vibrations,
See also:pain of vibrations so violent as to break the continuity of the nerves . These vibrations leave behind them in the
See also:brain a tendency to fainter vibrations or " vibratiuncles " of a similar kind, which correspond to " ideas of sensation." Thus memory is accounted for . The course of reminiscence and of the thoughts generally, when not immediately dependent upon
See also:external sensation, is accounted for on the ground that there are always vibrations in the brain on account of its
See also:heat and the pulsation of its
See also:arteries . What these vibrations shall be is determined by the nature of each man's past experience, and by the influence of the circumstances of the moment, which causes now one now another tendency to prevail over the
See also:rest . Sensations which are often associated together become each associated with the ideas corresponding to the others; and the ideas corresponding to the associated sensations become associated together, sometimes so intimately that they
See also:form what appears to be a new simple idea, not without careful analysis resolvable into its component parts .
Starting, like the modern Associationists, from a detailed account of the phenomena of the senses, Hartley tries to show how, by the above
See also:laws, all the emotions, which he analyses with considerable skill, may be explained . Locke's phrase " association of ideas " is employed throughout, " idea " being taken as including every
See also:mental state but sensation . He emphatically asserts the existence of pure disinterested sentiment, while declaring it to be a growth from the self-regarding feelings . Voluntary action is explained as the result of a
See also:firm connexion between a motion and a sensation or " idea," and, on the physical side, between an " ideal " and a motory vibration . Therefore in the Freewill controversy Hartley took his place as a determinist . It is singular that, as he tells us, it was only with reluctance, and when his speculations were nearly
See also:complete, that he came to a conclusion on this subject in accordance with his theory . See
See also:life of Hartley by his son in the 18o1 edition of the Observations, which also contains notes and additions translated from the German of H . A . Pistorius;
See also:History of English Thought in the Eighteenth Century (3rd ed., 1902), and article in the
See also:Dictionary of
See also:National Biography; G . S .
See also:Bower, Hartley and
See also:Mill (1881); B . Schonlank, Hartley and
See also:Priestley die Begrunder des Assozialionismus in England (1882) .
See also the histories ofphilosophy and bibliography in J . M . Baldwin's Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology (1905), vol. iii .
JONATHAN SCOTT HARTLEY (1845– )
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