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HASAN

Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V13, Page 49 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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HASAN UL-BASRI [Abu Saud ul-Hasan ibn Abi-l-Hasan Vassar ul-Basri], (642–728 or 737), Arabian theologian, wasborn at Medina. His father was a freedman of Zaid ibn Thabit, one of the An¢r (Helpers of the Prophet), his mother a client of Umm Salama, a wife of Mahomet. Tradition says that Umm Salama often nursed Hasan in his infancy. He was thus one of the Tdbi'un (i.e. of the generation that succeeded the Helpers). He became a teacher of Basra and founded a school there. Among his pupils was Wasil ibn 'Ata, the founder of the Mo'tazilites. He himself was a great supporter of orthodoxy and the most important representative of asceticism in the time of its first development. With him fear is the basis of morality, and sadness the characteristic of his religion. Life is only a pilgrimage, and comfort must be denied to subdue the passions. Many writers testify to the purity of his life and to his excelling in the virtues of Mahomet's own companions. He was " as if he were in the other world." In politics, too, he adhered to the earliest principles of Islam, being strictly opposed to the inherited caliphate of the Omayyads and a believer in the election of the caliph. His life is given in Nawawi's Biographical Dictionary (ed. F. Wiistenfeld, Gottingen, 1842-1847). Cf. R. Dozy, Essai sur l'histoire de l'islamisme, pp. 201 sqq. (Leiden and Paris, 1879) ; A. von Kremer, Cuiturgeschichtliche Streifzuge, p. 5 seq. ; R. A. Nicholson, A Literary History of the Arabs, pp. 225-227 (London, 1907). (G. W. T.)
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