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Originally appearing in Volume V13, Page 73 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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COMTE JOSEPH OTHENIN BERNARD DE CLERON HAUSSONVILLE D' (1809–1884), French politician and historian, was born in Paris on the 27th of May 1809. His grandfather had been " grand louvetier " of France; his father Charles Louis Bernard de Cleron, comte d'Haussonville (1770–1846), was chamberlain at the court of Napoleon, a count of the. French empire, and under the Restoration a peer of France and an opponent of the Villele ministry. Comte Joseph had filled a series of diplomatic appointments at Brussels, Turin and Naples before he entered the chamber of deputies in 1842 for Provins. Under the Second Empire he published a liberal anti-imperial paper at Brussels, Le Bulletin francais, and in 1863 he actively supported the candidature of Prevost Paradol. He was elected to the French Academy in 1869, in recognition of his historical writings, Histoire de la politique exterieure du gouvernement frangais de 1830 a 1848 (2 vols., 1850), Histoire de la reunion de la Lorraine a la France (4 vols., 1854–18J9), L'Eglise romaine et le premier empire 1800–1814 (5 vols., 1864–1879). In 1870 he published a pamphlet directed against the Prussian treatment of France, La France et la Prusse devant l'Europe, the sale of which was prohibited in Belgium at the request of King William of Prussia. He was the president of an association formed to provide new homes in Algeria for the inhabitants of Alsace-Lorraine who elected to retain their French nationality. In 1878 he was made a life-senator, in which capacity he allied himself with the Right Centre in defence of the religious associations against the anti-clericals. He died in Paris on the 28th of May 1884. His wife Louise (1818–1882), a daughter of Duc Victor de Broglie, published in 1858 a novel Robert Emmet, followed by Marguerite de Valois reine de Navarre (1870), La Jeunesse de Lord Byron (1872), and Les Dernieres Amities de Lord Byron (1874). His son, GABRIEL PAUL OTHENIN DE CLERON, comte d'Haussonville, was born at Gurcy de Chatel (Seine-et-Marne) on the 21st of September 1843, and married in 1865 Mlle Pauline d'Harcourt. He represented Seine-et-Marne in the National Assembly (1871) and voted with the Right Centre. Though he-was not elected to the chamber of deputies he became the right-hand man of his maternal uncle, the due de Broglie, in the attempted coup of the 16th of May. His Etablissenzents penitentiaires en France et aux colonies (1875) was crowned by the Academy, of which he was admitted a member in 1888. In 1891 the resignation of Henri Edouard Bucher from the administration of the Orleans estates led to the appointment of M d'Haussonville as accredited representative of the comte de Paris in France. He at once set to work to strengthen the Orleanist party by recruiting from the smaller nobility the officials of the local monarchical committees. He established HAUTE-GARONNE-HAUTE-MARNE new Orleanist organs, and sent out lecturers with instructions to emphasize the modern and democratic principles of the comte de Paris; but the prospects of the party were dashed in 1894 by the death of the comte de Paris. In 1904 he was admitted to the Academy of Moral and Political Science. The comte d'Ilaussonvilie published :—C. A. Sainte-Beuve, 4F vie et scs ceases (1875), Etudes biographigues ct litteraires, 2 series (1879 and 1888), Lc Salon de Mme Necker (1882, 2 vols.), Madame de La Fayette (1891), Madame Ackerman (1892), Le Comte de Paris, souvenirs personnels (1S95), La Duchesse de Bourgogne ct l'ulliance savoyarde (1898-1903), Salaire et miseres de femme (1600), and, with G. Hanotaux, Souvenirs sur Madame de 3laintenon (3 vols., 1902-1904). HAUTE-GARONNE, a frontier department of south-western France, formed in 1790 from portions of the provinces of La nguedoc(Toulousain and Lauraguais) and Gascony(Comminges and Nebouzan). Pop. (1906), 442,065. Area, 2458 sq. m. It is bounded N. by the department of Tarn-et-Garonne, E. by Tarn, Aude and Ariege, S. by Spain and W. by Gers and Hautes-Pyrenees. Long and narrow in shape, the department consists in the north of an undulating stretch of country with continual interchange of hill and valley nowhere thrown into striking relief; while towards the south the land rises gradually to the Pyrenees, which on the Spanish border attain heights of upwards of 1o,000 ft. Two passes, the Port d'Oo, near the beautiful lake and waterfall of Oo, and the Port de Venasque, exceed 9800 and 7900 ft. in altitude respectively. Entering the department in the south-east, the Garonne flows in a northerly direction and traverses almost its entire length, receiving in its course the Pique, the Salat, the Louge, the Ariege, the Touch and the Save. Except in the mountainous region the climate is mild, the mean annual temperature being rather higher than that of Paris. The rainfall, which averages 24 in. at Toulouse, exceeds 40 in. in some parts of the mountains; and sudden and destructive inundations of the Garonne—of which that of 1895 is a celebrated example--are always to be feared. The valley of the Garonne is also frequently visited by severe hail-storms. Thick forests of oak, fir and pine exist in the mountains and furnish timber for shipbuilding. The arable land of the plains and valleys is well adapted for the cultivation of wheat, maize and other grain crops; and the produce of cereals is generally much more than is required for the local consumption. Market-gardening flourishes around Toulouse. A large area is occupied by vineyards, though the wine is only of medium quality; and chestnuts, apples and peaches are grown. As pasture land is abundant a good deal of attention is given to the rearing of cattle and sheep, and co-operative dairies are numerous in the mountains; but de-forestation has tended to reduce the area of pasture-land, because the soil, unretained by the roots of trees, has been gradually washed away. Haute-Garonne has deposits of zinc and lead, and salt-workings; there is an ancient and active marble-working industry at St Beat. Mineral springs are common, those of Bagneres-de-Luchon Encausse, Barbazan and Salies-du-Salat being well known. The manufactures are various though not individually extensive, and include iron and copper goods, woollen, cotton and linen goods, leather, paper, boots and shoes, tobacco and table delicacies. Flour-mills, iron-works and brick-works are numerous. Railway communication is furnished by the Southern and the Orleans railways, the main line of the former from Bordeaux to Cette passing through Toulouse. The Canal du Midi traverses the department for 32 M. and the lateral canal of the Garonne for 15 m. The Garonne is navigable below its confluence with the Salat. There are four arrondissements—Toulouse, Villefranche, Muret and St Gaudens, subdivided into 39 cantons and 588 communes. The chief town is Toulouse, which is the seat of a court of appeal and of an archbishop, the headquarters of the XVllth army corps and the centre of an academy; and St Gaudens, Bagneres-de-Luchon and, from an architectural and historical standpoint, St Bertrand-de-Comminges are of importance and receive separate treatment. Other places of interest are St Aventin,Montsaunes and Venerque, which possess ancient churches in the Romanesque style. Thechurch of St Just at Valcabrere is of still greater age, the choir dating from the 8th or 9th century and part of the nave from the lrth century. There are ruins of a celebrated Cistercian abbey at Bonnefont near St Martory. Gallo-Roman remains and works of art have been discovered at Martres. Near Revel is the fine reservoir of St Ferreol, constructed for the canal du Midi in the 17th century. HAUTE-LOIRE, a department of central France, formed in 1790 of Velay and portions of Vivarais and Gevaudan, three districts formerly belonging to the old province of Languedoc, of a portion of Forez formerly belonging to Lyonnais, and a portion of lower Auvergne. Pop. (1906), 314,770 Area, 1931 sq. m. It is hounded N. by Puy-de-Dome and Loire, E. by Loire and Ardeche, S. by Ardeche and Lozere and W. by Lozere and Cantal. Haute-Loire, which is situated on the central plateau of France, is traversed from north to south by four mountain ranges. Its highest point, the Mont Mezenc (5755 ft.), in the south-east of the department, belongs to the mountains of Vivarais, which are continued along the eastern border by the Boutieres chain. The Lignon divides the Boutieres from the Massif du M6gal, which is separated by the Loire itself from the mountains of Velay, a granitic range overlaid with the eruptions of more than one hundred and fifty craters. The Margeride mountains run along the western border of the department. The Loire enters the department at a point 16 m. distant from its source in Ardeche, and first flowing northwards and then north-east, waters its eastern half. The Allier, which joins the Loire at Nevers, traverses the western portion of Haute-Loire in a northerly direction. The chief affluents of the Loire within the limits of the department are the Borne on the left, joining it near Le Puy, and the Lignon, which descends from the Mezenc, between the Boutieres and 11 legal ranges, on the right. The climate, owing to the altitude, the northward direction of the valleys, and the winds from the Cevennes, is cold, the winters being long and rigorous. Storms and violent rains are frequent on the higher grounds, and would give rise to serious inundations were not the rivers for the most part confined within deep rocky channels. Cereals, chiefly rye, oats, barley and wheat, are cultivated in the lowlands and on the plateaus, on which aromatic and medicinal plants are abundant. Lentils, peas, mangel-wurzels and other forage and potatoes are also grown. Horned cattle belong principally to the Mezenc breed; goats are numerous. The woods yield pine, fir, oak and beech. Lace-making, which employs about 90,000 women, and coal-mining are main industries; the coal basins are those of Brassac and Langeac. There are also mines of antimony and stone-quarries. Silk-milling, caoutchouc-making, various kinds of smith's work, paper-making, glass-blowing, brewing, wood-sawing and flour-milling are also carried on. The principal imports are flour, brandy,wine, live-stock, lace-thread and agricultural implements. Exports include fat stock, wool, aromatic plants, coal, lace. The department is served chiefly by the Paris-Lyon-Mediterranee company. There are three arrondissements—Le Puy, Brioude and Yssingeaux, with 28 cantons and 265 communes. Haute-Loire forms the diocese of Le Puy and part of the ecclesiastical province of Bourges, and belongs to the academie (educational division) of Clermont-Ferrand. Its court of appeal is at Riom. Le Puy the capital, Brioude and La Chaise-Dieu the principal towns of the department, receive separate treatment. It has some notable churches, of which those of Chamalieres, St Paulien and Sainte-Marie-des-Chazes are Romanesque in style; Le Monastier preserves the church,in part Romanesque, and the buildings of the abbey to which it owes its origin. Arlempdes and Bouzols (near Coubon) have the ruins of large feudal chateaus. The rocky plateau overlooking Polignac is occupied by the ruins of the imposing stronghold of the ancient family of Polignac, including a square donjon of the 14th century. Interesting Gallo-Roman remains have been found on the site. HAUTE-MARNE, a department of north-eastern France, made up for the most part of districts belonging to the former province of Champagne (Bassigny, Perthois, Vallage), with smaller portions of Lorraine and Burgundy, and some fragments of Franche-Comte. Area, 2415 sq. m. Pop. (1906), 221,724. It is bounded N.E. by Meuse, E. by Vosges, S.E. by Haute-Saone, S. and S.W. by Cote d'Or, W. by Aube, and N.W. by Marne. Its greatest elevation (1693 ft.) is in the plateau of Langres in the south between the sources of the Marne and those of the Aube; the watershed between the basin of the Rhone on the south and those of the Seine and Meuse on the north, which is formed by the plateau of Langres continued north-east by the Monts Faucilles, has an average height of 1500 or 1600 ft. The country descends rapidly towards the south, but in very gentle slopes northwards. To the north is Bassigny (the paybas or low country, as distinguished from the highlands), a district characterized by monotonous flats of little fertility and extensive wooded tracts. The lowest level of the department is 361 ft. Hydrographically Haute-Marne belongs for the most part to the basin of the Seine, the remainder to those of the Rhone and the Meuse. The principal river is the Marne, which rises here, and has a course of 75 m. within the department. Among its more important affluents are, on the right the Rognon, and on the left the Blaise. The Saulx, another tributary of the Marne on the right, also rises in Haute-Marne. Westward the department is watered by the Aube and its tributary the Anjou, both of which have their sources on the plateau of Langres. The Meuse also rises in the Monts Faucilles, and has a course of 31 M. within the department. On the Mediterranean side the department sends to the Saone the Apance, the Amance, the Salon and the Vingeanne. The climate is partly that of the Seine region, partly that of the Vosges, and partly that of the Rhone; the mean temperature is 51° F., nearly that of Paris; the rainfall is slightly below the average for France. The agriculture of the department is carried on chiefly by small proprietors. The chief crops are wheat and oats, which are more than sufficient for the needs of the inhabitants; potatoes, lucerne and mange) wurzels are next in importance. Natural pasture is abundant, especially in Bassigny, where horse and cattle-raising flourish. The vineyards produce some fair wines, notably the white wine of Soyers. More than a quarter of the territory is under wood. The department is rich in iron and building and other varieties of stone are quarried. The warm springs of Bourbonne-les-Bains are among the earliest known and most frequented in France. The leading industry is the metallurgical; its establishments include blast furnaces, foundries, forges, plate-rolling works, and shops for nailmaking and smith's work of various descriptions. St Dizier is the chief centre of manufacture and distribution. The cutlery trade occupies thousands of hands at Nogent-en-Bassigny and in the neighbour-hood of Langres. Val d'Osne is well known for its production of fountains. statues, &c.. in metal-work. Flour-milling, glove-making (at Chaumont), basket-making, brewing, tanning and other industries are also carried on. The principal import is coal, while manufactured goods, iron, stone, wood and cereals are exported. The department is served by the Eastern railway, of which the line from Paris to Belfort passes through Chaumont and Langres. The canal from the Marne to the Saone and the canal of the Haute-_Marne, which accompany the Marne, together cover 9q m.; there is a canal 14 M. long from St Dizier to Wassy. There are three arrondissements (Chaumont, Langres and Wassy), with 28 cantons and 55o communes. Chaumont is the capital. Th_ department forms the diocese of Langres; it belongs to the \'II. military region and to the educational circumscription (academic) of Dijon, where also is its court of appeal. The principal towns---Chaumont, Langres, St Dizier and Bourbonneles-Rains --receive separate notice. At Montier-en-Der the remains of an abbey founded in the 7th century include a fine church witli nave and aisles of the rot and choir of the 13th century. A\ assy, the scene in 1562 of the celebrated massacre of Protestants by the troops of Francis, duke of Guise, has among its old buildings a church much of which dates from the Romanesque period. \ ignory has a church of the 11th century. Join-vine, a metallurgical centre, preserves a chateau of the dukes of Guise in the Renaissance style. Pailly, near Langres, has a fine chateau of the last half of the 16th century.

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