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Originally appearing in Volume V13, Page 82 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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HAVERSTRAW, a village of Rockland county, New York, 1885). His first work in this province was Du sens du mot " remain" dans les lois franques (1876), a critical study on a theory of Fustel de Coulanges. In this he showed that the status of the home Romanus of the barbarian laws was inferior to that of the German freeman; that the Gallo-Romans had been subjected by the Germans to a state of servitude; and, consequently, that the Germans had conquered the Gallo-Romans. He aimed a further blow at Fustel's system by showing that the Frankish kings had never borne the Roman title of vir inluster, and that they could not therefore be considered as being in the first place Roman magistrates; and that in the royal diplomas the king issued his commands as rex Francorum and addressed his functionaries as viri inlustres. His attention having been drawn to questions of authenticity by the forgeries of Vrain Lucas, he devoted himself to tracing the spurious documents that en-cumbered and perverted Merovingian and Carolingian history. In his A propos des decouvertes de Jerome Vignier (i88o), he exposed the forgeries committed in the 17th century by this priest. He then turned his attention to a group of documents relating to ecclesiastical history in the Carolingian period and bearing on the question of false decretals, and produced Les Chartes de St-Calais (1887) and Les Actes de l'eveeche du Mans (2894). On the problems afforded by the chronology of Gerbert's (Pope Silvester II.) letters and by the notes in cipher in the MS. of his letters, he wrote L'Ecriture secrete de Gerbert (1877), which may be compared with his Notes tironiennes dans les diplomes merovingiens (1885). In 1889 he brought out an edition of Gerbert's letters, which was a model of critical sagacity. Each new work increased his reputation, in Germany as well as France. At the Bibliotheque Nationale, where he obtained a post, he rendered great service by his wide knowledge of foreign languages, and read voraciously everything that related, however remotely, to his favourite studies. He was finally appointed assistant curator in the department of printed books. He died pre-maturely at St Cloud on the 19th of August 1893. U.S.A., in a township of the same name, 32 M. N. of New York City, and finely situated on the W. shore of Haverstraw Bay, an enlargement of the Hudson river. Pop. of the village (1890), 5o70; (1900) 5935, of whom 1231 were foreign-born and 568 were negroes; (1905, state census) 6182; (19 so) 5669; of the town-ship (1910) 9335. Haverstraw is served by the West Shore, the New Jersey & New York (Erie), and the New York, Ontario & Western railways, and is connected by steamboat lines with Peekskill and Newburgh. The village lies at the N. base of High Tor (832 ft.). It has a public library, founded by the King's Daughters' Society in 1895 and housed in the Fowler library building. Excellent clay is found in the township, and Haver-straw is one of the largest brick manufacturing centres in the world; brick-machines also are manufactured here. The Minesceongo creek furnishes water power for silk mills, dye works and print works. Haverstraw was settled by the Dutch probably as early as 1648. Near the village of Haverstraw (in the township of Stony Point), in the Joshua Hett Smith House, or " Old Treason House," as it is generally called, Benedict Arnold and Major Andre met before daylight on the 22nd of September 1780 to arrange plans for the betrayal of West Point. In 1826 a short-lived Owenite Community (of about 8o members) was established near West Haverstraw and Garnerville (in the township of Haverstraw). The members of the community established a Church of Reason, in which lectures were delivered on ethics, philosophy and science. Dissensions soon arose in the community, the experiment was abandoned within five months, and most of the members joined in turn the Coxsackie Community, also in New York, and the Kendal Community, near Canton, Ohio, both of which were also short-lived. The village of Haverstraw was originally known as Warren and was incorporated under that name in 1854; in 1873 it became officially the village of Haverstrawboth names had previously been used locally. The village of West Haverstraw (pop. in 189o, 18o; in 'goo, 2079; and in 1910, 236g), also in Haverstraw township, was founded in 1830, was long known as Samsondale, and was incorporated under its present name in 1883. See F. B. Green, History of Rockland County (New York, 1886).
End of Article: HAVERSTRAW
HAVERSACK, or HAVRESACK (through the French from Ge...

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