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JOHN HAY (1838–1905)

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Originally appearing in Volume V13, Page 106 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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JOHN HAY (1838–1905), American statesman and author, was born at Salem, Indiana, on the 8th of October 1838. He graduated from Brown University in 1858, studied law in the office of Abraham Lincoln, was admitted to the bar in Spring-field, Illinois, in 1861, and soon afterwards was selected by President Lincoln as assistant private secretary, in which capacity he served till the president's death, being associated with John George Nicola,/ (1832–1901). Hay was secretary of the U.S. legation at Paris in 1865–1867, at Vienna in 1867–1869 and at Madrid in 186q–1S7o. After his return he was for five years an editorial writer on the New York Tribune; in 1879–1881 he was first assistant secretary of state to W. M. Evarts; and in 18S1 was a delegate to the International Sanitary Conference, which met in Washington, D.C., and of which he was chosen president. Upon the inauguration of President McKinley in 1897 Hay was appointed ambassador to Great Britain, from which post he was transferred in 1898 to that of secretary of state. succeeding W. R. Day, who was sent to Paris as a member of the Peace C_ aference. Ile remained in this office until his death at Newburg, New Hampshire, on the 1st of July 1905. Ile directed the peace negotiations with Spain after the war of 189S, and not only secured American interests in the imbroglio caused by the Boxers in China, but grasped the opportunity to insist on " the administrative entity " of China; influenced the powers to declare publicly for the " open door " in China; challenged Russia as to her intentions in Manchuria, securing a promise to evacuate the country on the 8th of October 19o3; and in 1004 again urged " the administrative entity " of China and took the initiative in inducing Russia and Japan to " localize and limit " the area of hostilities. It was largely due to his tact and goad management, in concert with Lord Pauncefote, the British ambassador, that negotiations for abrogating the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty and for making a new treaty with Great Britain regarding the Isthmian Canal were successfully concluded at the end of tool; subsequently he negotiated treaties with Colombia and with Panama, looking towards the construction by the United States of a trans-isthmian canal. He also arranged the settlement of difficulties with Germany over Samoa in December The Welsh name of the town is Y Gelli (" the wood "), or formerly ip full (Y) Gelli ganddryll (literally " the wood all to pieces "), which roughly corresponds to Sepes Inscissa, by which name Walter Map (a native of the district) designates it. Its Norman name, La Haia (from the Fr. haie, cf. English " hedge "), was probably intended as a translation of Gelli. The same word is found in Urishay and Oldhay, both between Hay and the Golden Valley. The town is still locally called the Hay, as it also is by Leland. Even down to Leland's time Hay was surrounded by a " right strong wall," which had three gates and a postern, but the town within the wall has " wonderfully decayed," its ruin being ascribed to Owen Glendower, while to the west of it was a flourishing suburb with the church of St Mary on a precipitous eminence overlooking the river. This was rebuilt in 1834. The old parish church of St John within the walls, used as a school-house in the 17th century, has entirely disappeared. The Baptists, Calvinistic Methodists, Congregationalists and Primitive Methodists have a chapel each. The other public buildings are the market house (1833); a masonic hall, formerly the town hall, its basement still serving as a cheese market; a clock tower (1884); parish hall (1890); and a drill hall. The Wye is here crossed by an iron bridge built in 1864. There are also eighteen almshouses for poor women, built and endowed by Miss Frances Harley in 1832-1836, and Gwyn's almshouses for six aged persons, .founded in 1702 and rebuilt in 1878 Scarcely anything but provisions are sold in the weekly market, the farmers of the district now resorting to the markets of Brecon and Hereford. There are good monthly stock fairs and a hiring fair in May. There is rich agricultural land in the district. Hay was reputed to be a borough by prescription, but it never had any municipal institutions. Its manor, like that of Talgarth, consisted of an Englishry and a Welshery, the latter, known as Haya Wallensis, comprising the parish of Llanigon with the hamlet of Glynfach, and in this Welsh tenures and customs prevailed. The manor is specially mentioned in the act of Henry VIII. (1535) as one of those which were then taken to constitute the new county of Brecknock. (D. LL. T.)
End of Article: JOHN HAY (1838–1905)

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