See also:born at Wesselburen in Ditmarschen, Holstein, on the 18th of
See also:March 1813 . Though only the son of a poor bricklayer, he early showed a
See also:talent for
See also:poetry, which was HEBBEL 165 first displayed to the
See also:world by the publication, in the
See also:Hamburg Modezeitung, of verses which he had sent to Amalie
See also:Schoppe (1791-1858), a then popular journalist and author of nursery tales . Through the kindness of this
See also:lady, who interested several of her friends on his behalf, he was enabled to go to Hamburg and there prepare himself for the university . A
See also:year later he went to
See also:Heidelberg to study
See also:law, but finding this uncongenial he passed on to the university of
See also:Munich, where he devoted himself to philosophy,
See also:history and literature . In 1839 Hebbel
See also:left Munich and wandered back to Hamburg on
See also:foot, where he resumed his relations with Elsie Lensing, whose self-sacrificing assistance had helped him over the darkest days in Munich . In the same year he wrote his first tragedy
See also:Judith (published 1841), which in the following year was performed in Hamburg and Berlin and made his name known throughout Germany . In 184o he wrote the tragedy Genoveva, and the following year finished a
See also:comedy, Der Diamant, which he had begun at Munich, In 1842 he visited
See also:Copenhagen, where he obtained from the
See also:king of Denmark a small travelling studentship, which enabled him to spend some
See also:time in
See also:Paris and two years (1844-1846) in Italy . In Paris he wrote his
See also:fine " tragedy of
See also:life," Maria Magdalene (1844) . On his return from Italy Hebbel met at Vienna two
See also:Polish noblemen, the
See also:brothers Zerboni di Sposetti, who in their
See also:enthusiasm for his
See also:genius urged him to remain, and supplied him with the means to mingle in the best intellectual society of the
See also:Austrian capital . The unwonted life of ease had its effect . The old
See also:precarious existence became a horror to him, he made a deliberate
See also:breach with it by marrying (in 1846) the beautiful and wealthy actress Christine Enghaus, ruthlessly sacrificing the girl who had given up all for him and who remained faithful till her
See also:death, on the ground that " a man's first
See also:duty is to the most powerful force within him, that which alone can give him happiness and be of service to the world ": in his case the poetical
See also:faculty, which would have perished "in the miserable struggle for existence." This "deadly sin," which, " if peace of
See also:conscience be the test of
See also:action," was, he considered, the best
See also:act of his life, established his fortunes . Elise, however, still provided useful inspiration for his
See also:art .
See also:late as 18J5, shortly after her death, he wrote the little epic Mutter and Kind, intended to show that the relation of
See also:parent and
See also:child is the essential factor which makes the quality of happiness among all classes and under all conditions equal . Long before this Hebbel had become famous . German sovereigns bestowed decorations upon him; and in
See also:foreign capitals he was feted as the greatest of living German dramatists . From the
See also:grand-duke of Saxe-
See also:Weimar he received a flattering invitation to take up his residence at Weimar, where several of his plays were first performed . He remained, however, at Vienna until his death on the 13th of
See also:December 1863 . Besides the
See also:works already mentioned, Hebbel's
See also:principal tragedies are Herodes and Mariamne (185o); Julia (1851); Michel Angelo (1851);
See also:Bernauer (1855);
See also:Gyges and
See also:Ring (1856), and the magnificently conceived trilogy Die Nibelungen (1862), his last
See also:work (consisting of a prologue, Der gehornte Siegfried, and the tragedies, Siegfrieds
See also:Tod and Kriemhilds Rache), which won for the author the Schiller prize . Of his comedies Der Diamant (1847), Der Rubin (185o), and the tragi-comedy Ein Trauerspiel in Sizilien (1845), are the more important, but they are heavy and hardly rise above mediocrity . All his dramatic productions, however, exhibit skill in characterization,
See also:great glow of passion, and a true feeling for dramatic situation; but their poetic effect is frequently marred by extravagances which border on the
See also:grotesque, and by the introduction of incidents the unpleasant character of which is not sufficiently relieved . In many of his lyric poems, and especially in Mutter and Kind, published in 1859, Hebbel showed that his poetic gifts were not restricted to the drama . His collected works were first published by E . Kuh (12 vols., Description of
See also:Building Temperature Cubic Feet of Air heated by to be heated. required. i sq. ft. of Radiator or
See also:Surface . Low Pressure Low Pressure
See also:Water .
Steam . Dwelling rooms 55°-6o° 85-90 115—125
See also:Schools . . 6o° 90-100 120-130 Churches and chapels 55°-6o° 100-120 135-160 Offices and shops 55°-60° 120-125 160-170 Public halls, workshops, waiting-rooms 130-150 175-200 Warehouses, stores 50 -55° 14o-16o 190-220 Hamburg, 1866-1868); revised by H . Krumm (12 vols., Hamburg, 1892) . The best critical edition is that by R . M .
See also:Werner (I2 vols., 19o1—19o3), to which have been added Hebbel's Diaries (4 vols.) and
See also:Correspondence (6 vols.) . Hebbel's Briefwechsel mit Freunden and bernhmten Zeitgenossen was issued by F .
See also:Bamberg (1890—1892) . The chief
See also:biographies of Hebbel are those by E . Kuh (1877) and R . M .
Werner (1905) . See also L., A .
See also:Frankl, Zur Biographic F . Hebbels (1884) ; T . Poppe, F . Hebbel and sein Drama (1900) ; A . Scheunert, Der Pantragismus als
See also:System der Weltanschauung and Asthetik Hebbels (1903); E . A . Georgy, Die Tragodie F . Hebbels nach ihrem Ideengehalt (1904) .
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