capital of Finland and of the province of Nyland, centre of the administrative, scientific, educational and
See also:life of Finland . The
See also:harbour is divided into two parts by a promontory, and is protected at its entrance by a
See also:group of small islands, on one of which stands the fortress of Sveaborg . A third harbour is situated on the west side of the promontory, and all three have granite quays . The city, which in 1810 had only 4065 inhabitants,
See also:Abo the then capital having 10,224, has increased with
See also:great rapidity, having 22,228 inhabitants in 186o, 61,530 in 1890 and 111,654 in 1904 . It is the centre of an active
See also:trade with the Baltic ports and with England, and of a railway
See also:system connecting it with all parts of the
See also:grand duchy and with St
See also:Petersburg .
See also:Helsingfors is handsome and well laid out with wide streets, parks, gardens and monuments . The
See also:principal square contains the
See also:cathedral of St
See also:Nicholas, the
See also:House and the university, all str;
See also:king buildings of considerable architectural distinction . In the centre is the statue of the
See also:Alexander II., who is looked upon as the
See also:protector of the liberties of Finland, the
See also:monument being annually decorated with wreaths and garlands . The university has a teaching
See also:staff of 141 with (1906) 1921 students, of whom 328 were
See also:women . The university is well provided with museums and laboratories and has a library of over 250,000 volumes . Other public institutions are the
See also:Athenaeum, with picture gallery, a
See also:Swedish theatreand
See also:opera house, a Finnish theatre, the Archives, the Senate House, the *Nobles' House (Riddarhusel) and the House of the Estates, the German (Lutheran)
See also:church and the
See also:Russian church . Some of the scientific
See also:societies of Helsingfors have a wide repute, such as the academy of sciences, the
See also:historical, Finno-Ugrian, biblical, medical,
See also:law, arts and forestry societies, as also societies for the spread of popular
See also:education and of arts and crafts .
There are apolytechnic, ten high
See also:schools, navigation and trade schools, institutes for the
See also:blind and the mentally deficient, and numerous elementary schools . The general standard of education is high, the publication of books, reviews and
See also:newspapers being very active . The language of culture is Swedish, but owing to
See also:recent manufacturing developments the majority of the population is Finnish-speaking . Helsingfors displays great manufacturing and commercial activity, the imports being
See also:coal, machinery,
See also:grain and clothing . The manufactures of the city consist largely of
See also:beer and
See also:spirits, carpets, machinery and sugar .
BARTHOLOMAEUS VAN DER HELST
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