See also:herb (Cannabis saliva) having angular rough stems and alternate deeply lobed leaves . The bast
See also:fibres of Cannabis are the
See also:hemp of commerce, but, unfortunately, the products from many totally different
See also:plants are often included under the general name of hemp . In some cases the fibre is obtained from the
See also:stem, while in others it comes from the
See also:leaf . Sunn hemp,
See also:Manila hemp, Sisal hemp, and
See also:Phormium (New Zealand
See also:flax, which is neither flax nor hemp) are treated separately . All these, however, are often classed under the above general name, and so are the following:—Deccan or Ambari hemp, Hibiscus cannabinus, an
See also:Indian and East Indian malvaceous plant, the fibre from which is often known as
See also:brown hemp or Bombay hemp; Pite hemp, which is obtained from the
See also:Agave americana; and M.aotva or bowstring-hemp, Sansevieria zeylanica, which. is obtained from an aloe-like plant, and is a native of India and
See also:Ceylon . Then there are
See also:Canada hemp, Apocynum rannabinum,
See also:Kentucky hemp, Uttica cannabina, and others . The hemp plant, like the
See also:hop, which is of the same natural
See also:order, ;Cannabinaceae, is dioecious, i.e. the male and
See also:flowers are
See also:borne on
See also:separate plants . The female plant grows to a greater height than the male, and its foliage is darker and more luxuriant, but the plant takes from five to six
See also:weeks longer to ripen . When the male plants are ripe they are pulled, put up into bundles, and steeped in a similar manner to flax, but the female plants are allowed to remain until the seed is perfectly ripe . They are then pulled, and after the seed has been removed are retted in the ordinary way . The seed is also a valuable product; the finest is kept for
See also:sowing, a large quantity is sold for the
See also:food of cage birds, while the
See also:remainder is sent to the oil mills to be crushed . The extracted oil is used in the manufacture of
See also:soap, while the solid remains, known as oil-cake, are valuable as a food for
See also:cattle .
The leaves of hemp have five to seven leaflets, the
See also:form of which is lanceolate-
See also:acuminate, with a serrate margin . The loose panicles of male flowers, and the
See also:short spikes of female flowers, arise from the axils of theupper leaves . The height of the plant varies greatly with
See also:soil and manuring; in some districts it varies from 3 to 8 ft., but in the Piedmont province it is not unusual to see them from 8 to 16 ft. in height, whilst a variety (Cannabis sctiva, variety gigantea) has produced specimens over 17 ft. in height . All cultivated hemp belongs to the same
See also:species, Cannabis saliva; the
See also:special varieties such as Cannabis indica, Cannabis chinensis, &c., owe their differences to
See also:climate and soil, and they lose many of their peculiarities when cultivated in temperate regions . Rumphius (in the 17th century) had noticed these differences between Indian and
See also:European hemp .
See also:Wild hemp still grows on the
See also:banks of the
See also:lower Ural, and the
See also:Volga, near the
See also:Sea . It extends to
See also:Persia, the Altai range and
See also:northern and western
See also:China . The authors of the Pharmacographia say:—" It is found in
See also:Kashmir and in the
See also:Himalaya, growing 10 to 12 ft. high, and thriving vigorously at an
See also:elevation of 6000 to 1o,000 ft." Wild hemp is, however; of very little use as a fibre producer, although a
See also:drug is obtained from it . It would appear that the native
See also:country of the hemp plant is in some
See also:part of temperate
See also:Asia, probably near the Caspian-Sea . It spread westward throughout
See also:Europe, and southward through the Indian peninsula . The names given to the plant and to its products in different countries are of
See also:interest in connexion with the utilization of the fibre and
See also:resin . In Sans. it is called goni, sang, shanapu, banga and ganjika; in
See also:Bengali, ganga; Pers.
See also:bang and canna; Arab. kinnub or cannub; Gr. kannabis;
See also:Lat. cannabis; Ital. canappa; Fr. chanvre; Span. cdnamo; Portuguese, cdnamo; Russ. kon6pet; Lettish and Lithuanian, kannapes; Slay. konopi; Erse, canaib and canab; A .
See also:Sax. hoenep; Dutch, hennep; Ger . Hanf; Eng. hemp; Danish and
See also:Norwegian, hamp; Icelandic, hampr; and in Swed. hantpa . The
See also:English word
See also:canvas sufficiently reveals its derivation from cannabis . Very little hemp is now grown in the
See also:British Isles, although this variety was considered to be of very
See also:good quality, and to possess
See also:great strength . The chief
See also:continental hemp-producing countries are Italy, Russia and France; it is also grown in several parts of Canada and the
See also:United States and India . The Central Provinces, Bengal and Bombay are the chief centres of hemp cultivation in India, where the plant is of most use for narcotics .. The satisfactory growth of hemp demands a
See also:rich and fertile soil, but, unlike most substances, it may be reared for a few years in succession . The
See also:time of sowing, the quantity of seed per acre (about three bushels) and the method of gathering and retting are very similar to those of flax; but, as a
See also:rule, it is a hardier plant than flax, does not possess the same pliability, is much coarser and more brittle, and does not require the same amount of
See also:attention during the first few weeks of its - growth . The very finest hemp, that grown in the province of Piedmont, Italy, is, however, very similar to flax, and in many cases the two fibres are mixed in the same material . The hemp fibre has always been valuable for the rope
See also:industry, and it was at one time very extensively used in the production of yarns for the manufacture of
See also:cloth, sheeting, covers,
See also:bagging, sacking, &c . Much of the finer quality is still made into cloth, but almost all the coarser quality finds its way into
See also:ropes and similar material . A large quantity of hemp cloth is still made for the British
See also:navy .
The cloth, when finished, is cut up into lengths, made into bags and tarred . They are then used as
See also:coal sacks . There is also a quantity made into sacks which are intended to hold very heavy material . Hemp yarns are also used in certain classes of carpets, for special bags for use in cop dyeing and for similar special purposes, but for the ordinary bagging and sacking the employment of hemp yarns has been almost entirely supplanted by yarns made from the jute fibre . Hemp is grown for three products—(1) the fibre of its stem; (2) the resinous secretion which is
See also:developed in hot countries upon its leaves and flowering heads; (3) its oily seeds . Hemp has been employed for its fibre from
See also:ancient times .
See also:Herodotus (iv . 74) mentions the wild and cultivated hemp of
See also:Scythia, and describes the hempen garments made by the Thracians as equal to
See also:linen in fineness .
See also:Hesychius says the Thracian
See also:women made sheets of hemp . Moschion (about 200 B.C.) records the use of hempen ropes for rigging the
See also:ship Syracusia " built for
See also:Hiero II . The hemp plant has been cultivated in northern India from a considerable antiquity, not only as a drug but for its fibre . The Anglo-
See also:Saxons were well acquainted with the mode of preparing hemp .
Hempen cloth became
See also:common in central and
See also:southern Europe in the 13th century . Hemp-resin.—Hemp as a drug or intoxicant for smoking and chewing occurs in the three forms of
See also:bhang, ganja and charas . 1 . Bhang, the Hindustani siddhi or sabzi, consists of the dried leaves and small stalks of the hemp; a few fruits occur in it . It is of a dark brownish-
See also:colour, and has a faint
See also:peculiar odour and but a slight taste . It is smoked with or without
See also:tobacco; or it is made into a sweetmeat with
See also:sugar and aromatic spices; or it is powdered and infused in
See also:water, yielding a turbid drink, subdschi .
See also:Hashish is one of the Arabic names given to the Syrian and
See also:Turkish preparations of the resinous hemp leaves . One of the commonest of these preparations is made by
See also:heating the bhang with water and
See also:butter, the butter becoming thus charged with the resinous and active substances of the plant . 2 . Ganja, the guaza of the
See also:London brokers, consists of the flowering and fruiting heads of the female plant . It is brownish-green, and otherwise resembles bhang, as in odour and taste . Some of the more esteemed kinds of hashish are prepared from this ganja .
Ganja is met with in the Indian bazaars in dense bundles of 24 plants or heads apiece . The hashish in such extensive use in Central Asia is often seen in the bazaars of large cities in the form of cakes, 1 to 3 in. thick, 5 to 10 in. broad and so to 15 in.long . 3 . Charas, or churrus, is the resin itself collected, as it exudes naturally from the plant, in different ways . The best sort is gathered by the
See also:hand like opium; sometimes the resinous exudation of the plant is made to stick first of all to cloths, or to the
See also:leather garments of men, or even to their skin, and is then removed by scraping, and afterwards consolidated by kneading, pressing and
See also:rolling . It contains about one-third or one-
See also:fourth its
See also:weight of the resin . But the churrus prepared by different methods and in different countries differs greatly in appearance and purity . Sometimes it takes the form of
See also:egg-like masses of greyish-brown colour, having when of high quality a shining resinous fracture . Often it occurs in the form of irregular friable lumps, like pieces of impure
See also:linseed oil-cake . The medicinal and intoxicating properties of hemp have probably been known in
See also:Oriental countries from a very early
See also:period . An ancient
See also:Chinese herbal, part of which was written about the 5th century B.e., while the remainder is of still earlierdate, notices the seed and flower-bearing kinds of hemp . Other early writers refer to hemp as a remedy .
The medicinal and dietetic use of hemp spread through India, Persia and
See also:Arabia in the early
See also:middle ages . The use of hemp (bhang) in India was noticed by Garcia d'
See also:Orta in 1563 . Berlu in his
See also:Treasury of Drugs (169o) describes it as of " an infatuating quality and pernicious use." Attention was recalled to this drug, in consequence of
See also:Egyptian expedition, by de Sacy (1809) and Rouger (r81o) . Its
See also:modern medicinal use is chiefly due to trials by Dr O'Shaughnessy in
See also:Calcutta (1838-1842) . The plant is grown partly and often mainly for the
See also:sake of its resin in Persia, northern India and Arabia, in many parts of Africa and in Brazil .
See also:Pharmacology and Therapeutics.—The composition of this drug is still extremely obscure; partly, perhaps, because it varies so much in individual specimens . It appears to contain at least two alkaloids—cannabinine and tetano-cannabine—of which the former is volatile . The chief active principle may possibly be neither of these, but the substance cannabinon . There are also resins, a volatile oil and several other constituents . Cannabis indica—as the drug is termed in the pharmacopoeias—may be given as an extract (dose 4-1 gr.) or tincture (dose 5-15 minims) . The drug has no
See also:action . The effects of its absorption, whether it be swallowed or smoked, vary within wide limits in different individuals and races .
So great is this variation as to be inexplicable except on the view that the nature and proportions of the active principles vary greatly in different specimens . But typically the. drug in an intoxicant, resembling
See also:alcohol in many features of its action, but differing in others . The early symptoms are highly pleasurable, and it is for these, as in the case of other stimulants, that the drug is so largely consumed in the East . There is a subjective sensation of
See also:mental brilliance, but, as in other cases, this is not borne out by the
See also:objective results . It has been suggested that the incoordination of
See also:nervous action under the influence of Indian hemp may be due to
See also:independent. and non-concerted action on the part of the two halves of the cerebrum . Following on a decided lowering of the
See also:pain and
See also:touch senses, which may even lead to
See also:complete loss of cutaneous sensation, there comes a sleep which is often accompanied by pleasant dreams . There appears to be no evidence in the case of either the lower animals or the human subject that the drug is an aphrodisiac . Excessive indulgence in cannabis indica is very rare, but may lead to general
See also:health and occasionally to insanity . The apparent impossibility of obtaining pure and trustworthy samples of the drug has led to its entire
See also:abandonment in therapeutics . When a good sample is obtained it is a safe and efficient hypnotic, at any
See also:rate in the case of a European . The tincture should not be prescribed unless precautions are taken to avoid the precipitation of the resin which follows its dilution with water . See
See also:Dictionary of the Economic Products of India .
HEMLOCK (in O. Eng. hemlic or hymlice; no cognate i...
FRANCOIS HEMSTERHUIS (1721-1790)
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