See also:Antipater, who supported
See also:Hyrcanus II. against
See also:Aristobulus II. with the aid first of the Nabataean
See also:Arabs and then of Rome . The
See also:family seems to have been of Idumaean origin, so that its members were liable to the reproach of being
See also:half-Jews or even foreigners .
See also:Martyr has a tradition that they were originally
See also:Philistines of
See also:Ascalon (
See also:Dial. c . 52), and on the other
See also:hand Nicolaus of
See also:Damascus (apud Jos .
See also:Ant. xiv. x . 3) asserted that Herod, his royal
See also:patron, was descended from the Jews who first returned from the Babylonian Captivity . The tradition and the assertion are in all probability equally fictitious and proceed respectively from the foes and the friends of the Herodian
See also:dynasty . Antipas (or Antipater), the
See also:father of Antipater, had been
See also:governor of
See also:Idumaea under
See also:Alexander Jannaeus . His son allied himself by
See also:marriage with the Arabian
See also:nobility and became the real ruler of
See also:Palestine under Hyrcanus II .. When Rome intervened in
See also:Asia in the
See also:person of
See also:Pompey, the younger Antipater realized her inevitable predominance and secured the friendship of her representative . After the capture of Jerusalem in 63 inc . Pompey installed Hyrcanus, who was little better than a figurehead, in the high-priesthood; and when in 55 B.C. the son of Aristobulus renewed the
See also:civil war in Palestine, the
See also:Roman governor of
See also:Syria in the exercise of his jurisdiction arranged a settlement " in accordance with the wishes of Antipater " (Jos .
Ant. xiv . 6 . 4) . To this policy of dependence upon Rome Antipater adhered, and he succeeded in commending himself toMark Antony and Caesar in turn . After the
See also:battle of Pharsalia Caesar made him procurator and a Roman
See also:citizen . At this point Herod appears on the scene as ruler of Galilee (Jos . Ant. xiv . 9 . 2) appointed by his father at the age of fifteen or, since he died at seventy, twenty-five . In spite of his youth he soon found an opportunity of displaying his mettle; for he arrested Hezekiah the arch-brigand, who had overrun the Syrian border, and put him to
See also:death . The Jewish nobility at Jerusalem . seized upon this high-handed
See also:action as a pretext for satisfying their
See also:jealousy of their Idumaean rulers . Herod was cited in the name of Hyrcanus to appear before the Sanhedrin, whose
See also:prerogative he had usurped in executing Hezekiah .
He appeared with a bodyguard, and the Sanhedrin was overawed . Only Sameas, a Pharisee, dared to insist upon the legal
See also:verdict of condemnation . But the governor of Syria had sent a demand for Herod's acquittal, and so Hyrcanus adjourned the trial and persuaded the accused to abscond . Herod returned with an army, but his father prevailed upon him to depart to Galilee without wreaking his vengeance upon his enemies . About this
See also:time (47–46 B.C.) he was created
See also:strategus of Coelesyria by the provincial governor . The
See also:episode is important for the
See also:light which it throws upon Herod's relations with Rome and with the Jews . In 44 B.C . Cassius arrived in Syria for the purpose of filling his war-chest: Antipater and Herod collected the sum of
See also:money at which the Jews of Palestine had been assessed . In 43 B.C . Antipater was poisoned at the instigation of one Malichus, who was perhaps a Jewish patriot animated by hatred of the Herods and their Roman patrons . With the connivance of Cassius Herod had Malichus assassinated; but the
See also:country was in a state of anarchy, thanks to the extortions of Cassius and the encroachments of neighbouring
See also:powers . Antony, who became
See also:master of the East after
See also:Philippi, was ready to support the sons of his friend Antipater; but he was absent in
See also:Egypt when the Parthians invaded Palestine to restore Antigonus to the
See also:throne of his father Aristobulus (40 B.C.) .
Herod escaped to Rome: the Arabians, his
See also:people, had repudiated him . Antony had made him
See also:tetrarch, and now with the assent of Octavian persuaded the
See also:Senate to declare him
See also:king of
See also:Judaea . In 39 B.C . Herod returned to Palestine and, when the presence of Antony put the reluctant Roman troops entirely at his disposal, he was able to
See also:siege to Jerusalem two years later . Secure of the support of Rome he was concerned also to legitimize his position in the eyes of the Jews by taking, for love as well as policy, the Hasmonaean princess Mariamne to be his second wife . Jerusalem was taken by
See also:storm; the Roman troops withdrew to behead Antigonus the usurper at
See also:Antioch . In 37 B.C . Herod was king of Judaea, being the client of Antony and the
See also:husband of Mariamne . The
See also:Pharisees, who dominated the bulk of the Jews, were content to accept Herod's
See also:rule as a
See also:judgment of
See also:God . Hyrcanus returned from his prison : mutilated, he could no longer hold
See also:office as high-
See also:priest; but his mutilation probably gave him the
See also:prestige of a martyr, and his influence—whatever it was worth— 380 seems to have been favourable to the new dynasty . On the other hand Herod's marriage with Mariamne brought some of his enemies into his own
See also:household . He had scotched the
See also:faction of Hasmonaean sympathizers by killing
See also:forty-five members of the Sanhedrin and confiscating their possessions .
But solong as there were representatives of the family alive, there was always a possible pretender to the throne which he occupied; and the people had not lost their affection for their former deliverers . Mariamne's mother used her position to further her plots for the overthrow of her son-in-
See also:law; and she found an ally in
See also:Cleopatra of Egypt, who was unwilling to be spurned by him, even if she was not weary of his patron, Antony . The events of Herod's reign indicate the temporary triumphs of his different adversaries . His high-priest, a Babylonian, was deposed in
See also:order that Aristobulus III., Mariamne's
See also:brother, might hold the place to which he had some ancestral right . But the
See also:enthusiasm with which the people received him at the Feast of
See also:Tabernacles convinced Herod of the danger; and the youth was drowned by order of the king at
See also:Jericho . Cleopatra had obtained from Antony a
See also:grant of territory adjacent to Herod's domain and even
See also:part of it . She required Herod to collect arrears of tribute . So it fell out that, when Octavian and the Senate declared war against Antony and Cleopatra, Herod was preoccupied in obedience to her commands and was thus prevented from fighting against the future emperor of Rome . After the battle of
See also:Actium (3r B.C.) Herod executed Hyrcanus and proceeded to wait upon the victorious Octavian at Rhodes . His position was confirmed and his territories were restored . On his return he took in hand to heal with the Hasmonaeans, and in 25 B.C. the old intriguers, their victims like Mariamne, and all pretenders were dead . From this time onwards Herod was
See also:free to govern Palestine, as a client-
See also:prince of the Roman
See also:Empire should govern his
See also:kingdom .
In order to put down the brigands who still infested the country and to check the raids of the Arabs on the frontier, he built or rebuilt fortresses, which were of material assistance to the Jews in the
See also:great revolt against Rome . Within and without Judaea he erected magnificent buildings and founded cities . He established
See also:games in
See also:honour of the emperor after the
See also:ancient Greek
See also:model in Caesarea and Jerusalem and revived the splendour of the Olympic games . At Athens and elsewhere he was commemorated as a benefactor; and as
See also:Jew and king of the Jews he restored the
See also:temple at Jerusalem . The emperor recognized his successful
See also:government by putting the districts of Ulatha and Panias under him in 20 B.C . But Herod found new enemies among the members of his household . His brother Pheroras and
See also:Salome plotted for their own
See also:advantage and against the two sons of Mariamne . The people still cherished a
See also:loyalty to the Hasmonaean lineage, although the
See also:young princes were also the sons of Herod . The enthusiasm with which they were received fed the suspicion, which their
See also:uncle instilled into their father's mind, and they were strangled at Sebaste . On his deathbed Herod discovered that his eldest son, Antipater, whom
See also:Josephus calls a "
See also:monster of iniquity," had been plotting against him . He proceeded to accuse him before the governor of Syria and obtained leave from
See also:Augustus to put him to death . The father died five days after his son in 4 B.C .
He had done much for the Jews, thanks to the favour he had won and kept in spite of all from the successive heads of the Roman state; he had observed the Law publicly—in fact, as the traditional
See also:epigram of Augustus says, " it was better to be Herod's
See also:swine than a son of Herod." Josephus, Ant. xv., xvi., xvii . 1-8, B.J. i . 18-33; Schiirer, Gesch. d.
See also:jud .
See also:Volk., 4th ed., i. pp . 360-418 .
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