Online Encyclopedia


Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V13, Page 405 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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KARL EBERHARD HERWARTH VON BITTENFELD (1796-'884), Prussian general field-marshal, came of an aristocratic family which had supplied many distinguished officers to the Prussian army. He entered the Guard.infantry in '811, and served through the War of Liberation (1813-15), distinguishing himself at Liitzen and Paris. During the years of peace he rose slowly to high command. In the Berlin revolution of '848 he was on duty at the royal palace as colonel of the 1st Guards. Major-general in 1852, and lieutenant-general in '856, he received the grade of general of infantry and the command of the VIIth (Westphalian) Army Corps in '86o. In the Danish War of '864 he succeeded to the command of the Prussians when Prince Frederick Charles became commander-in-chief of the Allies, and it was under his leadership that the Prussians forced the passage into Alsen on the 29th of June. In the war of 1866 Herwarth commanded the " Army of the Elbe " which overran Saxony and invaded Bohemia by the valley of the Elbe and her. His troops won the actions of Huhnerwasser and Miinchengratz, and at Koniggratz formed the right wing of the Prussian army. Herwarth himself directed the battle against the Austrian left flank. In '87o he was not employed in the field, but was in charge of the scarcely less important business of organizingand forwarding all the reserves and material required for the armies in France. In 187' his great services were recognized by promotion to the rank of field-marshal. The rest of his life was spent in retirement at Bonn, where he died in '884. Since 1889 the 13th (1st Westphalian) Infantry has borne his name. See G. F. M. Herwarth von Bittenfeld (Munster, 1896).
GEORG HERWEGH (1817-'875)

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