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HII

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Originally appearing in Volume V24, Page 922 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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They are able, however, to maintain a higher continuous speed, being fitted with water-tube boilers. In 1901 to 1902 there were laid down four sloops of the " Fant6me " class, which are larger vessels than the " Condors," being 1075 tons displacement and 185 ft. long. They are twin-screw vessels, built of steel, sheathed and coppered. They have water-tube boilers, giving 1400 H.P., and a speed of 13; knots. Their armament is similar to that of the " Condor." All the foregoing vessels are fitted as sailing vessels as well as steam. The " Beagle " is schooner-rigged, the others all barque-rigged. Of the gun-vessel or gunboat type, one of the earliest built for the British navy is represented by the " Staunch," a twin-screw (iunbonta. vessel designed by Mr G. W. Rendel, and built at Elswick in 1867. The guiding principle in the design of this vessel was that she should simply be a floating gun-carriage, propelled by steam and provided with plenty of manoeuvring power. The 9-in. 12-ton gun which constituted her armament was arranged to sink into and be raised from a well by means of hydraulic power. She was only 18o tons in displacement and 75 ft. long, and had a speed of 6i knots. The " Medina " class, consisting of twelve gunboats built about 1876, were twin-screw vessels of 363 tons displacement and to ft. length, and had a speed of 8t knots. Their armament was light, consisting only of three 64-pdrs. and three machine guns. They were fitted with bow rudders in addition to those at the stern, in order to increase their manoeuvring power. The " Paluma " and " Gayundah " were built at Elswick in 1884 for the Queensland government. They had a displacement of 36o tons and were 115 ft. in length, were schooner-rigged, but had twin-screws and a speed under steam of 10 knots. They carried one 8-in. B.L. gun forward, which was mounted behind a breastwork and had a considerable arc of training; one 6-in. gun, which was mounted aft; and three machine-guns. The " Protector " was a more important craft. Built for the government of South Australia in 1884, she was 920 tons in displacement and 180 ft. long, had twin screws and a speed of 14 knots under steam. She carried one 8-in. B.L. gun forward, mounted as in the " Paluma," five 6-in. 4-ton guns, and five Gatlings. The " Cock-chafer' class (1881) and the " Thrush " class (1889) are sea-going cruising vessels of a different type, carrying much lighter guns than in the Staunch class. The former, of which four were built, were composite-built, single-screw ships of 465 tons displacement and 125 ft. length, with a fore-and-aft rig and a speed under steam of 91 knots; the latter, of which there were nine, were schooner-rigged composite vessels of 805 tons displacement and 165 ft. length, with a single screw and a speed of 134 knots. The armament of the " Cockchafers " consisted of two 64-pdrs. R.M.L. guns, two-2o-pdrs. R.B.L. guns, and two machine-guns; that of the " Thrush " (fig. 109, Plate XXVI.) was of six 4-in. B.L. guns and four smaller guns (she was commanded by H.M. King George V. when he was on active service in the navy). The Bramble," launched in 1898, is a representative of what in 1910 was the most recent type of first-class gunboat. Her displacement is 710 tons, or coo less than the " Thrush." She is 180 ft. long and has a speed of 13} knots, is built of steel, sheathed and coppered, and carries two 4-in. Q.F. guns, four 12-pdrs. and ten machine-guns. She has 'later-tube boilers, twin screws and machinery of 1300 I.H.P. Four of these vessels have been built, named the " Bramble," Britomart," " Dwarf " (fig. It0, Plate XXVI.) and " Thistle." They were designed specially for service on rivers in hot climates; their draught is limited to 8 ft.; their sails are reduced to a very light fore-and-aft rig, and they are fitted with a complete shade deck of teak and felt. They were still on active service in 1910, but no new vessels had been laid down since 1897. A number of gun-vessels have been designed for special services, among which may be mentioned the " Mosquito " (fig III, Plate XX.) and " Herald," two stern-wheel steamers for the Zambezi built by Messrs Yarrow in 1890 They are of 8o tons displacement and 77 ft. long, having a speed of 10k knots and carrying an armament of four 3-pdrs. and eight machine-guns. They are built in sections, each of which forms a separate pontoon, so that the whole vessel can be readily taken to pieces for transport and easily put together in the water. These two gun-vessels were handed over to the Colonial authorities on the river Zambezi. Built for somewhat similar service, but of different design, are the four shallow-draught river gunboats of the " Sand-piper " class. They are steel twin-screw boats, built in 1897, also by Messrs Yarrow. They are 88 tons in displacement, 100 ft. long and 20 ft. broad, and carry an armament of two 6-pdrs. and four machine-guns. Their speed is 9 knots, and they draw only 2 ft. of water, their screws working in arched tunnels, the summits of which are above the water-level outside. These arches always remain full of water, and serve the double purpose of enabling sufficiently large screws to be fitted for the economical propulsion of the vessel without increasing the draught, and of protecting them from damage. The " Woodcock " and " Woodlark " are larger vessels of the same type, designed for service on the rapid and shallow rivers of China. They were built by Messrs Thornycroft in 1897, are 120 tons in displacement, 145 ft. long, 23 ft. beam and 2 ft. draught of water. They have twin screws, also carried in arched tunnels, and their speed is 15 knots. They carry the same armament as the " Sandpiper " class. In 1901 the " Teal. " and " Moorhen," designed for service in China, were also constructed in sections, but are considerably larger than either the " Mosquito " or the " Woodcock," being about 18o tons displacement. They are twin-screw vessels, the propellers being in tunnels, as in the " Woodcock," and their speed is over 13 knots. Their furnaces will burn wood. They carry two 6-pdrs. and four machine-guns. The latest vessel of this type in 1910 was the " Widgeon," of similar construction, built by Messrs Yarrow in 1904 and carrying the same armament. She is 16o ft. long, 24 ft. 6 in. beam, 2 ft. 5 in. draught, 195 tons displacement, 800 I.H.P. and 13 knots speed. Fig. 112 (Plate XX.) and fig. 113 show a light-draught gunboat of the " Sultan " class, of which several have been built for service on the Nile. She has a displacement of 140 tons, a length of 143 ft., a beam of 24 ft. 6 in., a draught of only 2 ft. and a speed of 12 knots. Her armament consists of one 12-pdr., one howitzer, and four Maxims, and she is protected by a Fin. bullet-proof breastwork. The gunboats of other navies are generally similar to those described above. The Brazilian twin-screw gunboat " Tiradentes," built in 1892, of steel, sheathed with teak and coppered, was 165 ft. long and 800 tons displacement, and attained a speed of 14.5 knots. She had an armament of four 4.7:in. guns, three 6-pdrs. and four machine-guns, and carried a considerable spread of canvas. In torpedo gunboats and torpedo craft generally, possibly the last thirty years of the 19th century showed more development and greater diversity than in any other type of war vessel then existing. The first small high-speed boat we have any record of is the " Miranda," built by Messrs Thornycroft in 1871. She was built of light steel, was 45 ft. in length, 6; ft. beam and 24 ft. draught, Torpedo and attained a speed of 16.4 knots with a single screw, craft. the engine running at 355 revolutions per minute and indi- cating 58 H.P. The results obtained with her attracted much attention, and in 1873 Thornycroft launched for the Norwegian government a somewhat larger boat, armed with a spar torpedo, which attained a speed of 15 knots. Owing to the introduction of machine-guns in warships as a defence against torpedo-boat attack, it was recognized that there was a very slight chance of a boat Table XVIII. gives particulars of many of the most notable torpedo-boats built between 1871 and 1910. The torpedo-boat---thus established was primarily a weapon of offence, the only two elements of a protective nature in its design being those of small size and high speed; but even these were also necessary for purposes of offence. The deadly nature of their attack, and the difficulty of meeting it in the ship attacked, led to the construction of special vessels intended, among other duties, to meet and destroy them. The French " Bombe" (1885) was one of the earliest of these; and the " Rattlesnake " and- three sister Vessel's Name. Country. Where Built. Principal Dimensions, &c. 0 Speed. Armament, &c. a x ° c m 8 A q v A S Aa zo Torpedo-boats— Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. Tons. Knots. Miranda . Great Britain Messrs Thornycroft, London. x871 45 0 6 6 2 6 .. x 58 16.4 Nil. Experimental boat. 1st torpedo-boat Norway . Messrs Thornycroft, London. 1873 57 0 7 6 3 0 .. x .. 15.0 I spar torpedo. built. . Lightning (after- Great Britain Messrs Thornycroft, London. 1877 75 0 10 10 5 0 34 I 477 18.5 Single torpedo tube. wards No.' T.B.) No. 10 T.B. Messrs Thornycroft, London. 1880 90 6 10 10 4 0 28 I 450 21.7 I torpedo tube. Swift (afterwards Messrs J. S. White & Co., Cowes. 1885 150 0 17 6 5 II 125 I 1300 20.5. 6—3 pdrs., 3 tubes. No. 81 T.B.) Falke. . Austria . . Messrs Yarrow, London. 1886 135 0 13 9 5 8 95 I 900 22.4 2 mach.-guns, 2 tubes. 1st class T.B. . China . . Elbing. 1886 144 4 16 5 7 6 128 I 1400 24.2 4—1 pdrs., 2 tubes. Forban France . . Messrs Normand. 1895 144 2 15 2 10 0 135 2 3200 31.2 2—1 pdrs., 2 tubes. No. 109 T.B. Great Britain Messrs Thornycroft, London. 1902 166 0 17 4 8 5 194 I 2900 25.0 3—3 pdrs., 3 tubes. No. a T.B. . Messrs Yarrow, London. 190( 172 0 18 0 5 9 263 3 3750 26.o 2—12 pdrs., 3 tubes. Goyaz . . Brazil . . Messrs Yarrow, London. 1907 152 6 15 q 130 3 26.5 2—3 pdrs., 2 tubes. Gabbiano . . Italy . Spezzia 1907 164 0 17 5 7 0 200 2 3000 26.0 3—3 pdrs., 3 tubes. No. 29 T.B. . . Great Britain Messrs Denny, Dumbarton. 1908 1So 0 i8 0 5 g 278 3 4000 26.0 2—12 pdrs., 3 tubes. approaching sufficiently near to a vessel to successfully attack her by means of a towing or a spar torpedo, and the Whitehead torpedo fired from a revolving tube on the deck was accordingly adopted as the armament of future torpedo-boats. This rendered it unnecessary for the torpedo-boat to approach nearer than say 400 yds., and also enabled the torpedo to be fired without stopping the boat, a point of great importance. The first torpedo-boat for the British navy was built by Messrs Thornycroft four years later; she was called the " Lightning," was 75 ft. in length and 34 tons displacement, had engines giving nearly 500 H.P., and obtained a speed of 19 knots. She was armed with a single torpedo tube. The boats which followed varied somewhat as regards size and speed, but on the whole pursued the usual course of growing larger and more powerful with each new design. By 1885 the length had gone up to 150 ft., the displacement to 125 tons and the speed to 20 knots. This last was not the highest that had been obtained, some of the earlier and smaller boats having reached 211 knots; but the boats of 1885 carried a heavier armament, consisting of six 3-pdrs. and three torpedo tubes, and were more serviceable and seaworthy craft. A very notable boat of this date was the " Swift," after-wards known as No. 81, built by J. S. White of Cowes; she marked a great advance in seaworthiness and fighting power in combination with high speed. Messrs Yarrow built for the Austrian navy in 1886 the " Falke," 135 ft. in length and 95 tons displacement, which obtained a speed of 22.4 knots on trial, and a similar boat for the British navy of 105 tons displacement, armed with 5 torpedo tubes and three 3-pdr. guns, which attained a speed of 23 knots on trial. About the same time Messrs Thornycroft built the " Ariete " and " Royo " for the Spanish navy. These vessels had twin screws and water-tube boilers. The former attained a speed of 26 knots on the measured mile and 24.9 knots on a 2 hours' run, and the latter 25.5 knots on the measured mile and 24.6 knots on the 2 hours' run. In 1895 M. Normand built the torpedo-boat " Forban " for the French navy, which attained a speed of 31.2 knots on trial, and the boats of the Normand type which followed her attained equally remarkable speeds. The maximum speeds for the British torpedo-boats up to the end of the 19th century were from 23 to 23; knots. From 1901 to 1904 larger and faster types of torpedo-boats were constructed. These boats were 16o ft. to 165 ft. in length, 17 ft. to 18 ft. beam, 8; ft. draught, 18o to zoo tons displacement, 2900 I.H.P., attained a speed of 25 knots and were armed with 3 torpedo tubes. In 1906 to 1909 boats of a new and still faster type were built with turbine machinery and burning oil fuel instead of coal. These boats, 36 in number, vary from 166 to 185 ft. in length. 172 to 19 ft. beans, 5± to 6; ft. draught and 243 to 308 tons in displacement. They have engines of 360o to 4000 H.P. giving speeds of 26 and 27 knots, and are armed with two 12-pdr. guns and three torpedo tubes. The first twelve ordered in 1905 were at first known as Coastal Torpedo-boat Destroyers, and given names such as the " Cricket," " Gadfly " and " Mayfly.'' They are now numbered throughout, i.e. from I to 36. The prefix 0 has been added to the numbers of such of the boats originally bearing these numbers as are still in existence, to distinguish them from the new type boats.vessels, the first of the English torpedo gunboats, came closely after her. The " Rattlesnake ' was launched in 1886, was of 525 tons displacement, and had a speed of Igo knots. She carried a more powerful armament than the torpedo-boats, namely, one 4-in. gun, six 3-pdrs. and torpedo tubes. She was followed in 1888 by the " Sharpshooter,' with ten sister vessels, still larger and more heavily armed. They were 230 ft. long and 735 tons displacement, had engines developing 3500 H.P., giving a speed of 19 knots, and carried two 4.7-in. Q.F. guns, four 3-pdrs. and two torpedo tubes. France built six vessels of the " Bombe " class, and the " Leger " (a slightly larger vessel), and in 1891 to 1896 built five other torpedo gunboats of about 900 tons and 21 knots. The last was named' La Hire," and was 241 ft. long, 27 ft. 6 in. beam, 12 ft. 9 in. draught,. 890 tons displacement ; was armed with six 9-pdr. and six 3-pdr. Q.F guns and was provided with engines of 6400 I.H.P. for 23, knots. These vessels have no torpedo tubes. The torpedo cruiser, " Fleurus," laid down in 1891, was armed- with four torpedo tubes as well as five 3.9-in. and six 3-pdr. guns. She was also protected by a II-in. protective deck and fitted with a belt of cellulose 3 ft. thick in the vicinity of the water-line. Her dimensions were: length 230 ft., beam 291 ft., draught aft 15 ft., displacement 1300 tons, I.H.P. 4000, and speed 18 knots. The " Niger " class of 1892, which included eleven vessels (fig. 114, Plate XX.), were repeats of the " Sharpshooters," except that they carried an additional torpedo tube and three machine-guns, with certain hull additions and more durable machinery, the displacement being increased by these causes to 810 tons, and the speed being reduced by a quarter of a knot. In 1893 a fourth series of this class of vessel was begun, known as the " Dryad " class, and considerably larger than the " Nigers," being 250 ft. long and of 1070 tons displacement. They are of 3500 I.H.P., have a speed of i8} knots, and carry an armament of two 4.7-in. Q.F. guns, four 6-pdrs., and three torpedo tubes. Five vessels of this class were! built, the difference between their general appearance and that of the preceding classes being illustrated by fig. 115 (Plate XX.), which shows the " Hazard," which in 1910 was employed on special service in connexion with the reception and trials of British sub-marines. In these thirty-one British vessels of the torpedo gunboat class the elements of strength and seaworthiness are developed at the expense of speed, and they combine in themselves some of the functions of the torpedo-boat with many of the most important features of the small cruiser. The successive increases of displace- - ment are very largely due to additions to the hull, giving greater ^ habitability and trustworthiness for continuous work at sea. It j will be noticed that the speed shows a continuous falling off; but the " Sharpshooter " class and subsequent vessels have been refitted with water-tube boilers in lieu of the locomotive boilers originally fitted, and some of them are in additi9n re-engined, with the result that a speed of 21 knots was obtained; this, in the ordinary weather met with at sea, would probably enable them to overtake craft of lighter types possessed of considerably greater smooth-water speeds. These vessels have not been repeated, many of them have been sold, but all those remaining are actively employed on a variety I of, subsidiary but important services. engines approaching 1200 and the power being estimated at about 12,000 H.P. At the time of their completion these were the fastest vessels of any type afloat, but both were unfortunately lost at sea, the " Viper " after a very short period of service being run upon the Renouquet Rock in the Channel Islands, and the " Cobra " being lost at sea on her first voyage after leaving the contractor's works. The results attained by these vessels led the British Admiralty to make further experiments with this type of machinery. The Velox," which had been launched in 1902, was purchased from the Parsons Company, and two experimental vessels were ordered from Messrs Hawthorn, Leslie & Co., both 220 ft. long, about 590 tons displacement'' and with similar boilers. Both vessels were launched in 1903. One, the " Eden," was fitted with Parsons turbines, and reached 26.1 knots on trial ; the other, the " Waveney," with reciprocating engines, reached 25.6 knots on trial; the " Waveney had twin screws; the " Eden " had six screws, two on each of three shafts, and at high speed showed a great saving in coal consumption. Experience with the 3o-knot boats led to a decision to order boats of stouter build and better sea-keeping qualities. In them the turtleback forward was replaced by a lofty forecastle, and it was laid down that the trials should be run with the boats more heavily loaded and more closely approaching their ordinary loaded condition on service. These changes were embodied in the " River " class, in which a trial speed of 251 knots under the modified conditions was provided for. In 1902—1904 thirty-four destroyers of the River" class were ordered, of the following dimensions, &c.: length 220 to 230 ft., breadth 231 to 24 ft., mean load draught 8 ft. 2 in. to 8 ft. 8 in., displacement 540 to 590 tons, I.H.P. 7000 to 7500, speed 2s1 knots. The 1904 Committee on Designs recommended two new types of destroyers called " ocean-going " and " coastal " respectively, and also one experimental vessel of the highest speed obtainable, all to be fitted with Parsons turbines, and to use oil only for fuel. The ocean-going destroyers include five of 33 knots and the special destroyer of 35 knots named the " Swift " (fig. 118), built by Messrs Laird & Co. She was the largest destroyer afloat in 1910. Fig. 119 (Plate XXVI.) gives a view of this vessel. From 1906 to 1908 eight ocean-going destroyers of, 33 knots of the " Tribal " class were ordered, ranging from 970 to 1045 tons displacement and armed with two 4-in. guns and two 18-in. torpedo tubes. In 1908–1909 sixteen ocean-going destroyers of the " Beagle " class Principal Dimensions, &c. m a Vessel's Name. Country. Where Built. a fil a s 0 Speed. Armament, &e. . P..4 -i q q6 Zo Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. Tons. Knots. Daring . . Great Britain Messrs Thornycroft, London. 1893 185 0 r9 0 6 6 275 2 4,200 27.0 1—12 pdr., 3—6 pdrs., 3 tubes. Swordfish Armstrong, Whitworth, Elswick. 1895 200 0 19 0 6 6 330 2 4,500 27.6 1—12 pdr., 5—6 pdrs., a tubes. Sokol . Russia . . Messrs Yarrow, London. x895 Igo 0 18 6 7 0 240 2 4,400 29.7 1—12 pdr., 8 others, 2 tubes. Corrientes . Argentina . Messrs Yarrow, London. 1896 Igo 0 19 6 7 4 280 2 4,000 27.4 1—14 pdr., 2 tubes. Chamois . Great Britain Messrs Palmer. 1896 215 0 20 9 7 3 360 2 6,200 30.0 1—12 pdr., 5—6 pdrs., 2 tubes. Express „ Messrs Laird Bros. 1897 235 0 22 0 9 0 465 2 9,250 31.0 1—12 pdr., 5—6 pdrs., 2 tubes. Gipsy '. Messrs Fairfield. 1897 227 6 22 0 9 0 380 2 6,300 30.0 1—12 pdr., 5—6 pdrs., 2 tubes. Turbinia „ Hon. C. A. Parsons. 1897 100 0 9 0 3 0 441 3 2,100 32.75 Nil. Experimental boat. Albatross Messrs Thornycroft, London. 1898 227 6 21 3 8 6 430 2 7,500 31.5 1—12 pdr., 5—6 pdrs., 2 tubes. Cobra Armstrong, Whitworth, Elswick. I899 210 0 21 0 6 9 350 8 x2,000 34.0 1—12 pdr., 5—6 pdrs., a Hotchkiss, 2 tubes. Bailey . United Stan Morris Heights. 1899 205 0 19 0 6 0 280 2 5,600 30.0 4—6 pdrs., a. tubes. Lawrence Weymouth, Mass. 1900 242 3 22' 3 6 2 400 2 8,400 30.0 2—14 pdrs., 5—6 pdrs., 2 tubes. Dement . Great Britain Messrs Hawthorn, Leslie. 1904 220 0 23 6 8 6 555 2 7,000 25.5 4—12 pdrs., 2 tubes. Swift „ Messrs Cammell, Laird. 1907 345 0 34 2 12 0 1800 4 30,000 35.0 4—4”, 2 tubes. Tartar Messrs Thornycroft, London. 1907 270 0 26 0 9 1 870 3 14,500 33.0 3—12 pdrs., 2 tubes. Para . Brazil . . Messrs Yarrow, London. 1908 240 0 23 7 so 0 550 2 8,000 27.5 2—4”, 4—3 pdre., 2 tubes. Zulu . Great Britain Messrs Hawthorn, Leslie. x909 28o 0 27 0 8 10 1000 3 15,500 33.0 2—4”, a tubes. Beagle Messrs J. Brown. 1909 269:0 26 7 8 3 86o 3 12,500 27.0 1—4", 3—12 pdrs., 2 tubes. S 167 . Germany Elbing. 1909 607 x2,000 30.0 2—24 pdrs., 2 machine, 3 tubes. Smith . . . United States Philadelphia. 1909 289 0 26 o 8 0 700 3 20,000 28.35 5—14 Pdrs., 2 machine, 3 tubes. Mameluck . . . France . . Nantes. 1909 210 7 21 9 t0 4 405 3 7,750 28.o 6-9 pdrs., 3 tubes. San Luis . Argentina Messrs Cannnell, Laird. 1910 285 0 28 0 9 0 960 2 20,000 32.0 4—4", 4 tubes. pressure, one intermediate and one low pressure. Each screw shaft at first carried three propellers, the total number of propellers thus being nine; the weight of main engines was approximately 3 tons 13 cwt., and the total weight of machinery and boiler, screws and shafting, tanks, &c., 22 tons. The boilers were of the water-tube type, with a working pressure of 225 lb per square inch. The " Turbinia " was followed by the " Cobra " and " Viper " torpedo-boat destroyers. The machinery of these boats consisted of two sets, one on each side of the ship; each set comprised two turbines, had two expansions, and drove two shafts (making four shafts in all). The outer shaft on each side was driven by a high-pressure turbine, from which the steam passed to a low-pressure turbine on the inner shaft and thence to the condenser; on the inner shaft also was a small turbine, added for going astern, the Parsons steam turbine not being adapted for reversal. ! Britain, and the first boats of the type were built for the British Steam was supplied by water-tube boilers of the express type. These I navy, foreign powers were not slow in availing themselves of the vessels attained a speed of upwards of 34 knots, the revolutions of the 1 results obtained, and large numbers of torpedo-boat destroyers have Torpedo-boat Destroyers were primarily, as their name implies, intended to meet and destroy torpedo-boats, their larger size, greater coal capacity, heavier armament, and higher speed enabling them to overtake such boats before they could complete their attack; but it soon became evident that these additional powers also enabled the destroyer to perform the duties of the torpedo-boat more efficiently than the boat herself, and with the advent of the destroyer the production of the smaller boat declined. The pioneers of this type of vessel were the " Daring," " Decoy," Havock " and " Hornet," the construction of which was entered upon in July 1892, the two first-named at Messrs Thornycroft's and the other two at Messrs Yarrow's. They were thus contemporary with the " Dryads," the last of the torpedo gunboats. The success of these four vessels was followed with great interest, and in the following year (1893) six others were begun. One of these, the " Boxer," built by Thornycroft, attained a speed of 29.2 knots. A much greater number of destroyers (32 in all), nearly the whole of which were of 27 knots speed, were laid down in 1894. The succeeding year (1895) saw a great advance in size, power and speed, thirteen destroyers being laid down, for each of which the contract speed was 30 knots. Similar vessels were constructed by various firms in England for foreign powers, and abroad by Messrs Schichau in Germany and M. Normand in France; the " Sokol " being constructed by Messrs Yarrow for the Russian navy. Over sixty destroyers of the 3o-knot type were built for the British navy between 1895 and 1905, and in only three vessels with reciprocating engines—the " Albatross," the " Express," and the " Arab "—were speeds exceeding 30 knots contracted for. In 1896 an attempt was made to realize greater speeds, but it was found that the power and cost necessary for the addition of a few knots were disproportionate to the value of the results obtained, and the attempt was not followed by any general increase of speed above 30 to 31 knots in destroyers fitted with reciprocating engines. The general appearance of a typical destroyer of this period is shown by fig. 116 (Plate XXVI.), which represents the " Albatross " at full speed. Particulars of destroyers will be found in Table XIX. Experience with the marine steam turbine, the invention of the Hon. C. A. Parsons, dates only from the time of the "Turbinia " (fig. 11'x, Plate XXV.), which made her successful trials in 1898 after much Investigation on the part of the inventor. The turbine machinery consisted of three separate turbines directly coupled to three screw shafts and working in series, one turbine being high were ordered, of 27 knots speed, coal being used as the fuel instead of oil as in the preceding classes. In 1909–1910 twenty more ocean-going destroyers of the " Acorn' class, designed by Sir Philip Watts, were laid down; in these oil was again adopted for fuel and a speed of 29 knots obtained. These vessels are of 780 tons displacement, 240 ft. long, 251 ft. beam, 71 ft. draught, 13,500 turbine H.P., and carry two 4-in., four I2-pdr. guns and two 21-in. torpedo tubes. The " Acorn," " Alarm " and " Brisk " are provided with Brown-Curtis turbines, all the others with Parsons turbines. The navy estimates for 1910 provided for laying down twenty-three destroyers. The three Australian destroyers of the Paramatta " class were designed by Professor Biles, and are of 700 tons displacement and 28 knots speed. While the idea of the torpedo-boat destroyer originated in Great been added to the fleets of foreign navies, the boats built by Messrs Schichau of Germany and Normand of France having especially achieved success in the attainment of high speeds on trial. The " Bainbridge " class (fig. 120, Plate XXV.), built for the U.S. navy in 1901, are 245 ft. long, 23 ft. 7 in. wide, draw 6 ft. 6 in. of water, and have a displacement of 420 tons. Their sea-going speed is 29 knots, and their armament consists of two 18-in. torpedo tubes, two 3-pdr. Q.F. guns, and five 6-pdrs. The destroyers building in 1910 are of 742 tons with a speed of 291 knots. German destroyers are numbered consecutively, the numbers being prefixed by letters indicating the yard where built, Thus, S for Schichau works, Elbing; G, Germania works, Kiel; V, Vulcan works, Stettin. Numbers below 90 are appropriated for torpedo-boats. Two destroyers only have names, viz. S. 97, which also bears the name " Sleipner," and is fitted to serve as the emperor's yacht; and one without a number named " Taku," late " Haijing," taken from China in 1900, but built at the Schichau works in 1898. (The British navy list also contains the name of a destroyer " Taku," built at the same works in 1898, and also taken from China in 1900.) The German torpedo-boat flotilla is divided up into sections, each section led by a division boat of much larger size than the others. These division boats increased in size, from 226 tons displacement, 1800 I.H.P. and 21 knots speed in 1887, to 374 tons, 5500 I.H.P. and 28 knots speed in 1898. Division boats are numbered D 1 to D To, and of these two bear names, D 1 that of " Carmen,"armed with two 3.9-in. and four 9-pdr. guns and four torpedo tubes; Russia was building vessels of about moo tons and of 35 knots speed. Submarine Boats.—About 188o much attention began to be paid by several of the naval powers to the development of the submarine boat, the United States and France in particular. The history of the subject goes back at least 300 years, but the first undoubted success with a submarine vessel was 'achieved by David Bushnell in America in 1775• It was worked by one man, for whom it provided just sufficient room; its general appearance, according to Bushnell's own description, bore some resemblance to two upper tortoise shells of equal size joined together, the entrance to the vessel being represented by the openings in the swellings of the shells at the animal's head; the body of the vessel was constructed of wood. The operations on board were entirely manual. By an oar in form of a screw with its spindle passing through the top the boat was sunk or raised, by another oar at the after end it was propelled; a rudder was used for guidance, and in some cases for propulsion; valves admitted water when submergence was required, and I i ie d :avw . 1- { = 1s>•IB/YV e TT. o L~ ®~i~ia z ter. -_~.~=asp FIG. I18.—Torpedo-boat Destroyer " Swift." 1, Fore peak. 6, Chain locker. 10, Boiler-room. 14, Ward-room. 18, 4-in. Q.F. gun. 2, Crew space. 7, Fresh-water tank. r1, Engine-room. I5, Magazine. 19, 18-in. torpedo tube 3, Oil-fuel tank. 8, Naval store. 12, Dynamo-room. 16, Spirit-room. 20, Boat stowed. 4, \V.T.compartment. 9, Magazine and shell- 13, Cabin. 17, Store. 21, Ventilator. 5, Paint-room. room. r 'S 'a eoo MEW aee and D 2 " Alice Roosevelt." Since 1898 torpedo-boat destroyers have been built in place of division boats. The first 46, built between 1898 and 1906, are of very similar type, the length gradually increasing from 207 to 216 ft., the displacement from 394 to 480 tons, engine-power from 5400 to 6500 I.H.P., speed from 261 to 28 knots, while the breadth remained at 23 ft., and the draught at 71 ft. G 137, built at Kiel in 1906, is 235 ft. long, 56o tons displacement, Il,000 I.H.P., and obtained 33.9 knots speed. The nominal speed of the 48 vessels which followed is 30 knots, but several have exceeded this speed on trial. Recent destroyers are about 62o tons displacement, 12,000 H.P., and speeds of 34 to 36 knots have been reported. They are armed with two 24-pdr. Q.F., two machine-fins and three torpedo tubes!' while two of 950 tons and 18,000 were launched in 1910. In 1902–1903 Japan built in her own yards three destroyers of 375 tons, 6000 I.H.P. and 29 knots, armed with two 12-pdr. and four 6-pdr. guns and two torpedo tubes. She had previously obtained a number of boats from Messrs Thornycroft & Yarrow. The " Niji" (fig. 121, Plate XXV.) was one of the " lkadzuchi " class built by Messrs Yarrow; of 340 tons displacement, 6000 I.H.P. and 31 knots speed, armed with two 12-pdr. and four 6-pdr. guns and two torpedo tubes, and may be taken as typical of all of the foreign built Japanese destroyers. Between 1904 and 1908 Japan built 35 destroyers of 375 tons, 6000 I.H.P. and 29 knots, carrying six 12-pdr. guns and 2 torpedo tubes; and in 1910 was building two ocean-going destroyers, the " Umikaze " and " Yamakaze," of 1150 tons, 20,500 H.P. and 35 knots, armed with two 4-in. and five 12-pdr. guns and three 18-in. torpedo tubes. The largest torpedo-boat destroyers building by France in 1910 were of 750 tons displacement, 14,000 H.P., 31 knots speed andhand pumps discharged this water when it was desired to come to the surface, and a detachable weight of 200 lb was also supplied for emergency use. The air in the boat was capable of supporting the operator for thirty minutes; and as soon as he brought the boat to the surface, two air pipes, for discharge of foul and supply of fresh air, opened automatically. A compass, a pressure-gauge, and a sounding-line and lead were among the fittings. Behind the vessel was a large magazine containing 15o lb of powder, and a time-control for exploding it. From the magazine was led a rope to a wood screw at the fore part of the crown of the boat, and this screw, being worked from within, could be driven into the object to be destroyed in such a manner as to keep the magazine required for the explosion in position after it had been detached from the boat. During the War of Independence the boat was submerged beneath the British warship " Eagle," and the operator attempted to attach the wood screw to her bottom planking: in this he failed, apparently simply because he did not let go his detachable weight and so get enough upward pressure to drive the screw into the plank. The magazine was released and exploded an hour afterwards, but at some distance from its intended position. The problem of submarine navigation received the practical attention of Fulton during the time that he was making his experiments upon steam propulsion, and even at an earlier 24 period. He constructed two submarine boats in France, and one in America. One of the former, the " Nautilus," was built with the direct encouragement of Napoleon in 18or. It was supplied with compressed air for respiration, and with it Fulton conducted a series of experiments under the direction of a commission of naval officers. He descended to a depth of 25 ft., and remained under water for fully four hours, placing below a vessel provided for the purpose a torpedo by which it was blown into fragments. As with his steam engine, so too with his submarine boats, the report of the commission charged with investigation was so unfavourable that Fulton was much discouraged, and though he afterwards continued his labours in this direction, the results achieved by him were practically lost. Fulton's boat, like Bushnell's, was propelled by manual power, two horizontal screws being employed for propulsion, and two vertical screws for descending and ascending: it was built of wood with iron ribs, and was sheathed with copper. The substitution of mechanical for hand power came later, and one of the first mechanically driven boats was the " Plongeur," built in France in 1863 from the designs of Charles Brun. This boat had a length of 146 ft. and a diameter of 12 ft., and was propelled by an 8o-horse-power compressed-air engine. During the American Civil War the Confederates built a number of iron cigar-shaped boats; some were propelled by steam engines and some by hand. Each was armed with a torpedo containing 5o to 70 lb of powder carried at the end of a spar. These boats were known as " Davids," from their diminutive size as compared with the size of the ships attacked, and in 1864 one of the hand-worked boats, 5o ft. long, manned by a crew of nine men, successfully attacked the Federal ship " Housatonic," and sank her by means of a spar torpedo, but in so doing was herself sunk. It is claimed that the loss of the boat was due to faulty handling and not to inherent defect. Against the protest of her builder, she was immersed only to the hatch coaming; and the cover being left open, she was swamped and sunk by the wave thrown up by the explosion. About the same time another hand-worked submarine, called the " Intelligent Whale, " 26 ft. in length and 9 ft. in diameter, attracted some attention in America. An officer with two other persons dived with her in water about 16 ft. deep; the officer, in diver's dress, left the boat through a manhole in the bottom, placed a torpedo under a scow and blew the latter to pieces. In 1875 Mr. J. P. Holland produced his first plan for a sub-marine vessel, and in 1877 he constructed a small experimental Holland's boat, which embodied features now accepted as boa[. essentials in American design. His plan ensured that when, for the purpose of diving, water was admitted into compartments of limited size, the total weight of the boat and its contents should still be a little less than the total buoyancy. Immersion was maintained by the action of horizontal rudders, which gave a downward tendency so long as the boat had any forward motion, and there always remained enough surplus buoyancy to bring the boat to the surface on the stoppage of her propelling machinery. Any weight consumed on board was automatically compensated for by admission of water, so that the total weight remained fixed and constant; while the confinement of the water to small compartments further secured a fixed centre of gravity. The securing of these qualities of fixed weight and fixed centre of gravity is essential, and the want of them has been the cause of failure in many other designs. With the necessarily slight longitudinal stability possessed by a submarine boat, any change of centre of gravity in the fore-and-aft direction has a no able effect on the angle of trim; and such a change may readily occur, for instance, from the surging of water in a large ballast-tank not completely full. An unintentional alteration of trim when the submarine boat is being propelled involves several possible dangers: in extreme cases the crew or some of the fittings may be thrown out of position, but in any case the path of the submarine is altered, and may tend either to too great immersion on the one hand, or ' breaking the surface of the water on the other. From therisk of these dangers it is claimed by Mr Holland that his design is free. The first of his boats now under discussion was steered down and up inclines by her horizontal rudders, and motive-power was obtained from a petroleum engine. The tests to which she was subjected showed that inefficiency of the engine, difficulty of vision and trouble with the compass tended to destroy the boat's usefulness. In 1883 Mr Nordenfeldt, famous as an inventor in many directions, built a submarine boat at Stockholm. She had a length of 64 ft., a main diameter of 9 ft. and a displacement of 6o tons; she was propelled by a compound surface-condensing engine indicating loo H.P., and on a measured-mile trial, not being submerged, attained a speed of 9 knots. Steam was supplied by an ordinary marine return-tube boiler, worked under forced draught, which could be fired as long as the boat was at the surface. Storage of steam was Noreen- feldf's effected at the surface, and the steam thus stored was boat. used to drive the engine in the submerged condition. To store sufficient steam two large tank reservoirs or cisterns were connected with the boiler, and the contents of boiler and tanks (8 tons of water in all) were raised to a temperature corresponding to 150 lb pressure. In preparing for submergence the firing of the boiler was stopped, and the steam given off by the heated water in boiler and tanks sufficed to propel the boat for a period. The smoke was driven out through two channels, which passed round the hull and pointed astern. The material of the hull was mild steel, the frames being 3 in. by 3 in. by a in., and the plating s in. to s in. in thickness; the depth to which she could safely descend was about 50 ft. When ballasted ready for a submerged trip, this boat showed only a very small dome for observation above the level of the water, the reserve buoyancy represented by this dome being but r cwt. To overcome this reserve two propellers working on vertical shafts were fitted in sponsons, one on each side of the boat, nearly amidships. These propellers were driven by a 6-horse-power engine, and drew the boat under water to the desired depth; an automatic contrivance, set in motion by the water pressure outside the boat, closing the throttle-valve when the safety limit of depth was approached. On coming to rest, the reserve buoyancy brought the boat again to the surface. When propelled by the main engines in the submerged condition, the boat was kept horizontal by means of two bow rudders operated by a plumb weight. The crew consisted of three men only, this small number rendering unnecessary the employment of artificial means of maintaining a pure atmosphere. The scheme of attack was to approach the hostile ship running at the surface until the danger of discovery was imminent, then to descend to the " awash " condition with only the dome above water, and finally to go below the surface and advance to striking distance entirely submerged, rising if necessary once or twice to allow the direction to be adjusted by observations made from the dome " awash." The weapon of offence employed was a Whitehead torpedo, carried outside on the bow and discharged mechanically. Several larger boats were subsequently built from Mr Nordenfeldt's designs; they all involved the same principles, but were in some details made more efficient both for attack and defence. - - - The three main points insisted* upon by Nordenfeldt were: (r) that his method of storing energy gave him a reservoir which was not liable to get out of order, could readily be repaired if necessary, and required for its manipulation no knowledge beyond that possessed by an ordinary engineer ; (2) that for submergence he relied on mechanical means easily controlled, adding, as a criticism upon the alternative method of descending by steering downwards, " I need only point out the great risk of allowing an object roo ft. long and of great weight to proceed in the downward direction even at a small angle, as the impetus gained would very easily carry it beyond a safe depth so quickly that they might not have time to check it "; (3) that the bow. rudders always secured a horizontal position when the boat was running submerged, which position he had found to be a sine qua non for a submarine boat. In response to an invitation for proposals for submarines, made by the U.S. government in 1887, designs by Holland and Noraenfeldt were submitted After much consideration the proposals of the former designer were accepted, and formed the basis of the designs for the " Plunger," the " Holland " and the six vessels of the " Adder " class. From what has been already stated, the criticism of Admiral Hichborn (chief constructor of the U.S. navy) will be understood when he characterizes Holland's method as a " steering-under" or " diving " device, and Nordenfeldt's as a " down-haul " or " sinking '' design. The great majority of modern boats are worked by the Holland method. The " Plunger " was authorized in 1903; she has a length of 85 ft., diameter Ill ft., light displacement 154 tons and load displacement 168 tons; she is of sufficient strength for a submergence of 75 ft., and when wholly submerged has a margin of buoyancy of 4 ton. In addition to her horizontal rudders for diving, she has two down-haul screws, fitted in opposition to Mr Holland's recommendations; she may there-fore be said to be a combination, for diving purposes, of both the Holland and the Nordenfeldt designs. The " Plunger's " main engines are used for propulsion when she is navigated at the surface of the water. As originally designed they were triple-expansion steam engines, driving triple screws, but have since been altered to gasolene internal-combustion engines driving a single screw. These engines are also used forcontrol in the vertical plane that she may be kept whilst moving within a few inches of any desired depth, and that she may be brought to the surface and submerged again in a very short time." A good idea of the general form of the " Holland " may be obtained from figs. 122, 123, 124 and 125 (Plate XXVII.), the last three of which represent this vessel when undergoing trials to test her driving qualities. The design of 'the six submersibles of the " Adder " class is shown in fig. 126. They are of the following dimensions: length 63 ft. 4 in., diameter ii ft. 9 in.; displacement for surface running 104 tons; submerged displacement 120 tons. The main features of this class are the same as for the " Plunger." The shell-plating is in. in thickness, and the frames 31 in. by 3 in., with a spacing of 18 in. The main machinery is a four-cylinder single-acting balanced Otto gasolene engine, which at 36o revolutions will develop 16o H.P. and give the boat a speed of about 8 knots. For propulsion in the submerged condition an electric motor is used, working at 800 revolutions, and giving a speed of 7 knots, a single left-handed propeller being employed. The current for the motor is provided by storage batteries capable of supplying 70 H.P. for four hours; and these batteries are charged by the main engine. The requisite air supply is obtained when the vessel is at the surface, and is stored under a pressure of 2000 lb by a pump driven by gearing off the main engine or main motor. Air at a pressure of 5o lb is used for the expulsion of torpedoes, and the same agent, at various degrees of pressure, works the trimming and ballast tanks and some parts of the machinery; while the exhaust air from the latter subserves the purpose of ventilation. The vessel is fitted with power and hand-steering gear, and there are automatic devices for securing a con- charging electric accumulators, from which alone motive-power can be obtained when the boat is submerged. The current for charging the accumulators is obtained from a dynamo of 70 H.P., which can always be run in the awash condition to keep the accumulators fully charged. In the awash condition, when the boat is otherwise air- and water-tight, communication is kept up with the outer air by means of ducts and a smoke-pipe, the former bringing in air for combustion and respiration, and the latter carrying off deleterious products of all kinds. For submergence special fittings are used to close these ducts and pipes, and to stop the gasolene generator. The main engine is then no longer available, and for propulsion power is drawn from the accumulators, the dynamo thus becoming a motor which derives current from the accumulators and itself drives the screw-shaft. As was the case with Mr Holland's earlier boats, great attention is given to automatic control of weights, and water-ballast is admitted to compensate for any change, such as would be produced by the discharge of a torpedo. With her original machinery the " Plunger " was to have had a surface speed of 15 knots; her anticipated speed awash or submerged is now 8 knots. To assist in determining the boat's direction a camera lucida is ordinarily provided, but for correcting this Mr Holland prefers trusting to observations made during occasional rises to the surface; for this purpose the boat is provided with a conning tower 4 ft. high, protected with 4-in. steel. The " Plunger " is armed with Whitehead torpedoes, and has two tubes for discharging them. After many trials it was at last decided to build a repeat of the " Adder " to take her place, and this second " Plunger " was completed in 1903. The " Holland " is a smaller boat, having a length of about 54 ft., and was purchased in 1900. The official report on this vessel is that " she has shown herself capable of such perfect stant depth during submergence. Five Whitehead torpedoes, 45 cm. (about 18 in.) in diameter and 11 ft. 8 in. long, are provided, and there is one expulsion tube placed forward about 2 ft. below the light water-line. The French submarine boat " Plongeur " has already been mentioned. A further advance in this direction was made in France in 1881, when a small submarine was completed by M. 6,oubet Goubet at Paris. An inspection of this vessel led to an ~y tem order for the mechanism of a number of boats from this engineer for the Russian government, and several sets were "built and delivered early in 1883. The length of a boat constructed by M. Goubet in 1885 was 16 ft. 5 in.; it had an oval section 5 ft. 9 in. in depth and 3 ft. 3 in. in breadth, and tapered to a point at each end. A longitudinal section of the boat is represented by fig. 127. The main portion of the hull was of bronze, cast in one piece, and at the centre of its length it was surmounted by a large dome having seven glazed openings: There was just sufficient room for an officer and a man seated back to back within it, their eyes in this position being level with the glass windows of the dome. All valves and other mechanism requiring regulation were brought within reach of these occupants, so that no movement on their part was required which might affect the trim; a reservoir of compressed air supplied the means of respiration, and an air-pump removed the vitiated atmosphere. The motive-power was furnished by accumulators, the electric energy stored therein driving a screw propeller by means of a motor. No means of recharging these accumulators when exhausted was provided on board. Submersion was effected by admitting water into tanks divided by transverse bulkheads at sufficient intervals to prevent the surging of the water in the fore and aft direction. A pump expelled this water again when desired, and . safety-weight attached to the bottom of the boat was ready for detachment in the presence of danger. A pressure gauge indicated the depth of water reached, and the officer could regulate the opening of the inlet valves or the action of the pumps to maintain or vary this depth as desired. For controlling the boat in a horizontal direction a specially devised pendulum was employed, by means of which a clutch was moved, and a constantly running shaft was thrown into gear with a pump as soon as the boat departed appreciably from the horizontal plane. The action of the pump was reversible, and the clutch engaged it always in such a way that it drew water from a tank at the low end of the boat, and delivered it to a tank at the high end. Several other devices of great ingenuity were employed in the boat; notably a special form of universal joint introduced into the line of shafting. At the after end, close to the propeller, this universal joint was fitted in such a way that the screw could be set at an angle to the line of motion, and steering effected without the aid of a vertical rudder. A torpedo containing 100 lb of dynamite or other explosive was carried outside the hull, and secured by a catch joint. This torpedo, on the submarine boat being manoeuvred into position, could be thrown off and allowed to rise and attach itself, by means of spikes, to some vulnerable part dome surmounts the boat, cutting through the external shell and carrying a short and narrow telescopic funnel, which, as in the case of the American boats, must be withdrawn preparatory to diving. Control in the vertical direction is obtained, when diving, by the use of two pairs of horizontal rudders, placed symmetrically—one pair forward, the other aft. By the above arrangement it is claimed that the horizontal direction of the boat is ensured, the American course of inclining the axis of the boat when diving being considered open to such grave objections that it is desirable to avoid it. The early American boats of the " Holland " type, and the French boats built in the last decade of the 19th century, were the earliest really practical submarine boats, in the sense that unlike the boats which preceded them they were instruments of war which could be used by ordinary trained crews with the average chances of success and failure which attend all warlike operations. They owe their practicability not to any discovery of the method of controlling the movements of a boat beneath the surface of the water, as has been sometimes supposed, since the ordinary method of steering by means of a rudder or a com- bination of rudders perfectly analogous to that used for manoeuvring a ship in the horizontal plane was well known and had been applied to steering submarines in the vertical plane before; but principally to the perfection of the accumulator cell as a means of storing energy for propulsion without the expenditure of air or other weight contained in the boat, and to the introduction of the optical tube. This latter instrument is a telescope with the optical axis twice bent through a right angle by totally reflecting prisms or mirrors; and under diverse forms and various names, such as periscope, cleptoscope, hyphydroscope, omniscope, &c., it affords the only practical means by which objects on the surface of the water can be seen at a distance from the interior of a submerged vessel. The problem of providing means for seeing at a distance through the water still awaits solution, and when solved, if it ever should be, will enormously add to the power of submarine boats as weapons of war. By far the greater number of submarine boats in existence in 1910 were developments through a process of continuous experiment and improvement of the " Gymnote " and of the early Holland boats, although the process of evolution had been so rapid and extensive that the parentage of these modern boats is barely recognizable. There are, however, a considerable number of submarines built by the Lake Submarine Boat Co. of Bridgeport, U.S.A., in the service of various naval powers. These boats are designed by Mr Simon Lake, who was also a pioneer in submarine boat construction, con-temporary with Mr J. P. Holland in the United States of America. His earliest boat, the " Argonaut," was intended rather for running along the bottom in shallow water than for ordinary navigation; and for sending out divers rather than for discharging torpedoes. For this purpose it was fitted with wheels for running along the bottom and with an air-tight chamber having a hatch at the bottom which could be opened when the air pressure in the chamber was made equal to that of the water outside. These features are still retained in many of the modern Lake boats, though these boats are now constructed like all other submarines, primarily for the purpose of submarine navigation. Other boats which should be mentioned as laying claims to distinctive features in matters of detail are those built by the Fiat San Giorgio Company of Spezia, designed by Colonel Laurenti, and those built by the Germania Werft of Kiel, which are under-stood to embody the patents of M. d'Equevilley. The Russian government also possesses several boats generally regarded as of a distinctive type designed by M. Drzwiecki. Perhaps the most outstanding distinction between different submarine boats is the amount of their submerged displacement which is devoted to carrying water ballast. This, of course, measures their reserve of buoyancy in the surface condition, which in different and is furnished with a triple-expansion steam engine, obtaining its steam from a water-tube boiler of special form and heated by petroleum. As irk, the American submarines, this engine propels the boat when at the surface, and also drives a dynamo which recharges accumulators, the latter giving the reserve power for use in the submerged condition. A speed of 11 knots is obtained at the surface, and 8 knots when submerged. A new departure in the " Narval " is her double hull, the inner shell of which is of steel plate of sufficient thickness to resist any water-pressure to which the boat may be subjected, and the outer shell, placed at varying distances from the inner, forms a protection to the inner against attack. An armoured of the ship doomed to destruction. Retiring then to a safe distance, the submarine boat could explode the torpedo by the agency of an electric current. Working in the light of his now considerable experience, M. Goubet built several other boats. These were of larger dimensions, having a length of 27 ft.; their material was also bronze, and they were cast in three pieces, the centre one having a thickness of 1 in., while the others were reduced to a little more than 1 in. at the ends. Possessing to a large extent the same contrivances as their predecessor, these improved boats were fitted also with an automatic apparatus for regulating the depth of submersion. In this regulator a piston is moved along a cylinder by the rotation of a rod with a screw thread cut in it, and so increases or diminishes the amount of water in the cylinder. The movement of the piston is effected by a small motor, and the direction of action of the motor is regulated by a commutator placed in juxtaposition to a pressure gauge. When the depth of submersion is too small, current is supplied to move the piston so as to admit more water; when the depth is too great, current is supplied in the opposite direction, and water is expelled. The speed attained by this boat was from 5 to 6 knots. Smaller boats of this type have been built for propulsion by manual power, but, however perfect the mechanism, the range of action of a submarine dependent on man-power for propulsion is very limited. Recent Goubet boats are being built; with motive-power, which it is proposed to carry on board ship and lower from davits when required. The "Gymnote " was constructed at Toulon in 1888. She is a steel vessel, with a length of 59 ft. and a displacement of 30 tons; being of an experimental character only, she has no weapon of attack. The maximum speed obtainable is 8 knots. The designs of the " Gustave Zede " and of the " Morse " were both based on those of the " Gymnote," the former having a length of 148 ft. and a displacement of 263 tons. In both of these the hull is of bronze; one great advantage of this metal being that, like the bronze of the Goubet boats, it is non-magnetic in character, and cannot therefore disturb the equilibrium of the compass. With their large dimensions they were intended to be formidable engines of war, and were furnished for attack with Whitehead torpedoes; of these tatter they each carry three of 45 cm. (nearly 18 in.) diameter, discharging them by means of a torpedo tube. The " Morse " and the " Gustave Zede," like the " Gymnote," possess only electric means of propulsion, the power being derived from batteries of accumulators. No power is provided in the vessels by which the accumulators can be recharged, so that the radius of action of these boats is necessarily very limited. The " Narval," designed by M. Laubeuf, and the outcome of a general competition in 1897, has a length of 112 ft. and a total displacement of 200 tons. She was built at Cherbourg in 1898, examples of boats varies from as little as 5% to as much as 60% of their surface displacement. It is obvious that, the more water ballast carried, the less of some other weight of machinery or equipment can be carried on a given submerged displacement, and the whole problem resolves itself into making the compromise which will best meet the requirements of the service for which the boat is intended. This fact has sometimes been lost sight of in discussions on this subject, which have tended sometimes to proceed on the assumption of a radical difference in character between boats of high reserve of buoyancy and those of low reserve, even to the extent of giving them the different names of " submersible " and " submarine." Another technical point in the design of submarines which has frequently been the subject of non-technical discussion is the desirability or otherwise of " bow-rudders " or " hydroplanes." This question depends on the form of the boat, and the manner in which it is proposed to handle her. and is unsuitable for discussion except in relation to the ascertained tendencies of a particular form under the vertical hydrodynamical forces which are set up by its propulsion through the water. Similar considerations apply to the questions whether a submarine boat should have a separate means of propulsion for surface-running distinct from that fitted for submerged propulsion, and if so, whether it should consist of steam or internal-combustion engines. On account of the very limited capacity of even the best modern electric accumulator, any submarine which is intended to have a considerable radius of action must necessarily have heat engines of some description for surface propulsion and for charging batteries. As to the type of heat engine, France was the only country which in 1910 had fitted steam engines in recently built submarines; and the general tendency was undoubtedly to use internal-combustion engines, of which those burning heavy oil are much less expensive in working than those using gasolene. The general tendency in 1910 was to increase the size of submarine boats. Improvements in the design, apart from increase in size, depend principally on the improvements which may be made in the internal-combustion engines required for their surface propulsion, and in the improvement or possible elimination of the electric accumulators and motors for submerged propulsion, the weight of which is exceedingly great for the power obtained when compared with that which is obtained from heat engines. It is the practice of all countries to keep secret the really important details of their submarine boats, to an even greater extent than those of ordinary warships. Some particulars, however, of the newer sub-marines of different countries are given below, principally to illustrate the progress in size and power. In France, in 1901, M. Romazzotti, already referred to as the designer of the " Morse " and " Gustave Zede," produced two other boats, the " Francais " and " Algerien," similar to the " Morse." Four vessels, the " Sirene," " Triton," "Siiure"and"Espadon,"of amodified "Norval" type, were built from M. Laubeuf's designs in 1901; two others of a similar type, the " Aigrette " and " Cigogne," but of 170 tons surface displacement, were built in 1904, and two other still larger boats, the " Circe" and " Calypso," in 1905. These two boats are (155 ft. long, 16 ft. beam, to ft. draught) of 350 tons displacement on the surface, 48o tons submerged. Two Diesel heavy oil engines are fitted to give III knots speed on the surface and two electric motors for use when submerged. Four boats of the " Gnome " type, of 200 tons and 28o H.P. and 135 ft. in length, designed by M. Maugas, were commenced in 1899. In 1901 twenty small submarines of the " Naiade " type were commenced to M. Romazzotti's design; they are 76 ft. in length and of 68 tons displacement, and have a surface speed of 8 knots and a speed of 4.5 knots when submerged. Their motive-power is electrical both for surface and submerged propulsion, except in the case of two boats which are provided with benzol motors for surface work. From 1905 to 1909, 34 boats of the " Pluviose " type of twin-screw submersibles designed by M. Laubeuf were laid down; they have a displacement on the surface of 392 tons, and have engines of 700 H.P. and a speed of 12 knots on the surface, and 440 H.P. and a speed of 7 knots when submerged. Eighteen boats of the class have triple-expansion engines, and each of the remainder has two Diesel heavy oil motors for surface propulsion, while all have electric motors for use when submerged. Some of the steam-driven boats have traversed 730 M. in 82 hours, while the " Papin " with oil motors ran 1200 M. from Rochefort to Oran in six days without calling at any intermediate port. In fig. 128 (Plate XXVII.) is shown the " Vendemiaire," one of the boats of this class. The twin-screw submarines of the " Emeraude " class, six in number, de-signed by M. Maugas and laid down in 1906, are of approximately the same displacement as the " Pluviose " class and of about the same speed; their motive-power consists of two Diesel heavy oil engines on surface and electric motors when submerged. A considerable advance in length and displacement was made in 1907, when the " Mariotte," 216 ft. in length, 522 tons displacement on the surface, and 615 tons submerged, the " Archimede," 199 ft. in length and 568 tons displacement_ In the surface and 797 tons submerged, and the " Admiral Bourgois.'' 181 ft. in length and 555 tons surface displacement, were laid down. The H.P.s of these three submersibles are 1400, 1700 and 1500 respectively at the surface, giving a speed of 15 knots (submerged speed lo knots). After the completion of the last boat of the " Adder " class already referred to, a period of about three years elapsed before the acquisi•• tion for the United States navy of any additional submarine boats. The " Octopus," which underwent extended trials in 1907, was designed by the Electric Boat Company, the successors of the Holland Boat Company, and marked a great advance in all respects over the earlier boats. She is a twin-screw boat, having two torpedo tubes instead of one, as in the previous boats; she is of about 273 tons displacement submerged and 255 tons on the surface, and is credited with maximum trial speeds of II knots on the surface and 10 knots submerged. Three other boats, the " Cuttlefish," " Tarantula " and " Viper," generally similar to but somewhat smaller and less powerful than the "Octopus," were also completed during 1907 and 1908, and the "Snapper," "Bonita," "Stingray" and "Tarpon," of the same size as the " Octopus," in 1909. The " Salmon," a boat similar to the " Octopus," but of 278 tons displacement on the surface, 36o tons submerged and carrying four torpedo tubes, was completed in 1910, and is credited with trial speeds of 13 knots on the surface and 9 knots submerged. In July 1910 this boat made the ocean passage of about 700 to Boo m. from Quincy, Mass., to Kingston, Bermuda, in four days, and returned in about the same time, proving herself remarkably seaworthy for so comparatively small a boat in the rough weather encountered. Several similar boats were in 1910 under construction. In 1900 Great Britain ordered five submarine boats from Messrs Vickers, Sons & Maxim, at Barrow, who, by arrangement with the Electric Boat Company of New York, were enabled to embody in their designs all the features of the Holland boats of the " Adder " class, which these first British submarines resembled in size and most other respects, the length being about 63 ft. and submerged displacement 12o tons. Subsequent British submarines of the A, B and C classes were designed by Messrs Vickers; Sons & Maxim under instructions from the Admiralty. The progress in size and power has been continuous, and the departure from the original Holland " type more and more marked with each successive new design. Table XX. indicates the various steps. All the boats there mentioned, except A13, which has heavy oil engines, are fitted with gasolene engines for surface propulsion. DI, which also has heavy oil engines, was completed in September 1909, and was the first of a new series of boats for the design of which Sir Philip Watts was personally responsible. She passed through her trials, and seven similar boats were in 1910 under construction. Fig. 129 (Plate XXVIII.') gives a view of C32, while fig. 130 shows Di under weigh on the surface, and fig. 131 a flotilla in Portsmouth Harbour. Russia purchased the Lake demonstration boat " Protector " in 1904. This boat is 65 ft. long, 115 tons displacement on the surface and 170 tons submerged. The surface speed is stated to be 9 knots and the submerged 6 knots. A larger boat, of 135 tons displacement—the " Simon Lake "—was also purchased, and four others of the same size built in 1904–1905. In 1907 another small " Lake boat of no tons was obtained, and in 1908 and 1909 seven larger vessels, 125 ft. long, 14 ft. beam, 450 tons on surface, 500 tons submerged, 16 knots speed on surface with petrol engines, and 61 knots sub-merged, with electric motors. Of the " Holland " type Russia has obtained a considerable number; fifteen of these are from 106 to 175 tons on the surface, and one is 184 ft. long, 12 ft. beam, 11 ft. deep and 36o tons on the surface. She has also obtained three boats of the " Germania " type, 131 ft. long, 197 tons on the surface, as well as a specimen of a small submarine of 17 tons hoisting weight driven by electric accumulators only, giving 8 knots on the surface and 6 knots submerged, and armed with one torpedo tube. The large boats of the " Lake " type are driven by engines of 1200 H.P., and are stated to carry an armament 0f two 3-pdr. and two machine guns in addition to their four torpedo tubes. Three of the Russian submarines under construction in 1910 were 500 tons displacement on the surface. Germany did not build submarines until 1906, when UI was launched at the Germania Works, Kiel. She is 139 ft. long, I I ft. 9 in. beam, 7 ft. 9 in. draught and 240 tons on the surface, being Name or Year o Submerged Horse- on Class g of Completion. Length. Breadth. Displacement. Power Surface. ace. Boat. s. Engines. Feet. Tons. Knots. AI 1903 loo I I' 9" 206 350 9 A2–A4 . . 1904–1905 99 12'8" 205 450 io4 A5 –Al2. . 1905–1906 99 12'8" 205 600 III A13 . . 1906–1907 99 12'8" 205 500 III B I–B , 1 . . 1905–1907 135 13' 6" 314 600 12I CI–C17. . 1907–1909 135 13'6" 314 600 I2I C19–C38 . 1908–1910 135 13'6" 320 600 I2I 922 slightly larger than the Russian boats built by the same firm. She is fitted with twin-screws driven by petroleum motors of 450 H.P., giving a speed of i i knots on the surface, and electric motors of 200 H.P., giving a speed of 9 knots when submerged. Three 18-in. torpedoes are carried, one bow tube only being provided. In 1908–1909 three larger boats were built at Dantzig, and in 1909–1910 three of 600 tons displacement at the Germania works. The boats were reported to have made very long sea passages without escort. Japan commenced building " Holland " boats in 1905. The first five were 87 ft. in length and 125 tons displacement. Two smaller boats of 86 tons were also built. In 1908 two boats of 320 tons were built at Barrow, and despatched by steamer to Japan; and three similar boats were in 1910 being built in Japan. In 1894 Italy launched the " Delfino," a single-screw boat of 105 tons and 150 H.P. The type has not been repeated, but in 1905 a fresh start was made with three boats of the " Glauco " type, twin-screw boats of 15o tons on the surface, 175 tons submerged, H.P. on surface 600 to 700, speed 14 knots on surface and 8 knots submerged. In 1908 three similar but larger boats followed, the largest being the " Foca," 137 ft. 9 in. long, 14 ft. beam, displacement 175 tons, 900 H.P. and 15 knots speed in surface condition, 225 tons displacement, 200 H.P. and 9 knots when submerged, fitted with two 18-in:torpedo tubes. In 1910 six similar but larger boats were laid down at Spezia. The increased interest in naval matters in Austria is shown by the expenditure on submarines as well as on battleships. - In 1907 two boats of the " Lake " type loo ft. long, 250 tons submerged, were laid down at the, government dockyard at Pola; between that date and 1910 two boats of modified " Holland " type, 138 ft. long, 300 tons submerged and 12 knots surface speed, were built at Fiume, and two of the " Germania " type ordered from Kiel The Swedish government began by building a submarine boat, the " Hojen," which is understood to have resembled the early " Holland " designs. In 1910 the Hvalen," a boat similar to the latest Italian submarines, was built for the Swedish government by the Fiat San Giorgio Company at Spezia, and acquired some notoriety by making the voyage from Spezia to Stockholm without escort, including a longest run of about 700 in. from Spezia to Cartagena. The Dykkeren," a submarine of the " Laurenti " type, but entirely electrically propelled both at the surface and submerged, was built by the Fiat San Giorgio Company at Spezia for the Danish government in 1909. She is credited with a maximum speed of 12 knots on the surface and 8 knots submerged, but, depending entirely on the energy stored in electric accumulators, her radius of action is necessarily restricted. Fleet Auxiliaries.—Various types of auxiliaries are provided in the principal navies to perform services of a supplementary, though frequently important character. In many cases fighting vessels of the older classes have been converted and adapted as well as is practicable for these services, but in other cases new vessels have been built or arrangements made with owners of suitable merchant ships for the adaptation and use of those ships when required by the navies. Amongst such auxiliaries the following. are found in the British navy :—Mine-laying vessels—second-class cruisers of the Apollo class modified for the purpose; fleet-repair ships—the modified merchant-built vessels " Assistance " of 9600 tons displacement and the " Cyclops " of 11,300 tons; distilling vessel Aquarius " of 366o tons, a modified merchant vessel, and a large number of tank vessels such as the " Provider" of 395 tons, specially built for distributing fresh water; depot and repair ships for destroyers—the modified. cruisers " Blake," " Blenheim," " Leander " and " St George," and the modified merchant vessels Hecla " and " Tyne "; depot ships for submarines—the modified "cruisers " Bonaventure," " Thames," &c., and the repair ship " Vulcan," as well as a new vessel the " Maidstone," of 3600 tons, laid down at Scott's Yard, Greenock, in 191o; oil tank vessels—the merchant built vessels " Petroleum," of 9900 tons and " Kharki " of 1430 tons, and a new vessel, the " Burma " of 3870 tons, laid down at the: .Greenock Dockyard Co.'s Yard in 1910. The hospital ship " Maine " of 4540 tons was fitted up for service of the United States in the Spanish-American War, and was presented to the British government in 1901 by the Atlantic Transport Co. Besides the foregoing, arrangements are made for fitting up fast vessels such as the " Mauretania " and " Lusitania " with a number of 6-in. or other Q.F. guns for service as merchant cruisers in time of war, when they would be used as ocean-going scouts, or for the protection of trade routes. Corresponding arrangements are made by several-other countries, while in Russia and Japan special mercantile cruisers have been built under the title of Volunteer steamers. A full account of the Russian Volunteer Fleet is to be found in a paper read by Mr H. Rowell at the Institute of Naval Architects 1905, later vessels being described in Engineering, 11th March 1910, and an account of the Japanese Volunteer vessels will be found in International Marine Engineering, June 1909. The writer is indebted to Mr J. H. Narbeth, M.V.O., for valuable assistance in preparing this article. (P. WA.)
End of Article: HII
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GEORGE HIGINBOTHAM (1827-1893)
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