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SAMSON RAPHAEL HIRSCH (r8o8-1888)

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Originally appearing in Volume V13, Page 526 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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SAMSON RAPHAEL HIRSCH (r8o8-1888), Jewish theologian, was born in Hamburg in 18o8 and died at Frankfort-on-the-Main in 1888. He opposed the reform tendency of Geiger (q.v.), and presented Jewish orthodoxy in a new and attractive light. His philosophical conception of tradition, associated as it was with conservatism in ritual practice, created what is often known as the Frankfort " Neo-Orthodoxy." Hirsch exercised a profound influence on the Synagogue and undoubtedly stemmed the tide of liberalism. His famous Nineteen Letters (1836), with which the Neo-Orthodoxy began, were translated into English by Drachmann (New York, 1899). Other works by Hirsch were was born in Kufa, but spent much of his life in Bagdad. Like his father, on whose authority he relied largely, he collected information about the genealogies and history of the ancient Arabs. According to the Filirist (see NADIM) he wrote 140 works. As independent works they have almost entirely ceased to exist, but his account of the genealogies of the Arabs is continually quoted in the Kitdb ul-Aghani. Large extracts from another of his works, the Kitab ul-Asnam, are contained in the Khizanat ul-Adab (iii. 242-246) and in the geography of Yaqut (q.v.). These latter have been translated with comments by J. Wellhausen in his Reste des arabischen Heidentums (2nd ed., Berlin, 1897). (G. W. T.)
End of Article: SAMSON RAPHAEL HIRSCH (r8o8-1888)
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