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HISTORY AND ARCHAEOLOGY DOWN TO THE R...

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Originally appearing in Volume V07, Page 701 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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HISTORY AND ARCHAEOLOGY DOWN TO THE ROMAN OCCUPATION The Stone Age has left but few traces in Cyprus; no sites have been found and even single implements are very rare. The " megalithic " monuments of Agia Phaneromeni 1 and Hala Sultan Teke near Larnaca may perhaps be early, like the Palestinian cromlechs; but the vaulted chamber of Agia Katrina near Enkomi seems to be Mycenaean or later; and the perforated monoliths at Ktima seem to belong to oil presses of uncertain but probably not prehistoric date. The Bronze Age, on the other hand, is of peculiar importance in an area which, like Cyprus, was one of the chief early sources of copper. Its remains have been carefully studied both on 1 M. Ohnefalsch-Richter, Arch. Zeitung (188r), p. 311, pl. xviii. The principal publications respecting this and all sites and phases of culture mentioned in this section are collected in Myres and Ohnefalsch-Richter, Cyprus Museum Catalogue (Oxford, 1894), pp. 1-35. 698 settlement sites at Leondari Vouno and Kalopsida, and in tombs in more than thirty places, notably at Agia Paraskevi, Psemmatismeno, Alambra, Episkopi and Enkomi. Throughout this period, which began probably before 3000 B.C. and ended about 1000 B.C., Cyprus evidently maintained a large population, and an art and culture distinct from those of Egypt, Syria and Cilicia. The Cypriote temper, however, lacks originality; at all periods it has accepted foreign innovations slowly, and discarded them even more reluctantly. The island owes its importance, therefore, mainly to its copious supply of a few raw materials, notably copper and timber. Objects of Cypriote manufacture are found but rarely on sites abroad; in the later Bronze Age, however, they occur in Egypt and South Palestine, and as far afield as Thera (Santorin), Athens and Troy (Hissarlik). The Bronze Age culture of Cyprus falls into three main stages. In the first, the implements are rather of copper than of bronze, tin being absent or in small quantities (2 to 3%); the types are common to Syria and Asia Minor as far as the Hellespont, and resemble also the earliest forms in the Aegean and in central Europe; the pottery is all hand-made, with a red burnished surface, gourd-like and often fantastic forms, and simple geometrical patterns incised; zoomorphic art is very rare, and imported objects are unknown. In the second stage, implements of true bronze (9 to To;o tin) become common; painted pottery of buff clay with dull black geometrical patterns appears along-side the red-ware; and foreign imports occur, such as Egyptian blue-glazed beads (XIIth-XIIIth Dynasty, 2500—2000 B.C.),' and cylindrical Asiatic seals (one of Sargon I., 2000 B.c.) 2 In the third stage, Aegean colonists introduced the Mycenaean (late Minoan) culture and industries; with new types of weapons, wheel-made pottery, and a naturalistic art which rapidly becomes conventional; gold and ivory are abundant, and glass and enamels are known. Extended intercourse with Syria, Palestine and Egypt brought other types of pottery, jewelry, &c. (especially scarabs of XVIIIth and XIXth Dynasties, 1600-12oo B.C.), which were freely copied on the spot. There is, however, nothing in this period which can be ascribed to specifically " Phoenician " influence; the only traces of writing are in a variety of the Aegean script. The magnificent tombs from Enkomi and Episkopi illustrate the wealth and advancement of Cyprus at this time.3 It is in this third stage that Cyprus first appears in history, under the name Asi, as a conquest of Tethmosis (Thothmes) III. of Egypt (XVIIIth Dynasty, c. 1500 B.c.),4 yielding, tribute of chariots, horses, copper, blue-stone and other products. It was still in Egyptian hands under Seti I., and under Rameses III. a list of Cypriote towns seems to include among others the names of Salamis, Citium, Soli, Idalium, Cerynia (Kyrenia), and Curium, Another Egyptian dependency, Alasia, has by some been identified with Cyprus or a part of it (but may perhaps be in North Syria). It sent copper, oil, horses and cattle, ivory and timber; under Amenophis (Amenhotep) III. it exported timber and imported silver; it included a town Stn., traded with Byblus in North Syria, and was exposed to piratical raids of Lykki (? Lycians). The decline of Egypt under the XXth Dynasty, and the contemporary fall of the Aegean sea-power, left Cyprus isolated and defenceless, and the Early Iron Age which succeeds is a period of obscurity and relapse. Iron, which occurs rarely, and almost exclusively for ornaments, in a few .tombs at Enkomi, suddenly superseded bronze for tools and weapons, and its introduction was accompanied, as in the Aegean, by economic, and probably by political changes, which broke up the high civilization of the Mycenaean colonies, and reduced them to poverty, 1 Myres, Journ. Hellenic Studies, xvii. p. 146. s Sayce, Trans. Soc. Bibl. Arch. v. pp. 441-444. The exact provenance of these cylinders is not known, but there is every reason to believe that they were found in Cyprus. ' British Museum, Excavations in Cyprus (London, 1900). The official publication stands alone in referring these tombs to the Hellenic period (800—600 B.C.). ' E. Oberhummer, Die Insel Cypern (Munich, 1903), i. pp. 1-3 (all the Egyptian evidence).isolation and comparative barbarism. It is significant that the first iron swords in Cyprus are of a- type characteristic of the lands bordering the Adriatic. Gold and even silver become rare; 5 foreign imports almost cease; engraved cylinders and scarabs are replaced by conical and pyramidal seals like those of Asia Minor, and dress-pins by brooches (fibulae) like those of south-eastern Europe. Representative art languishes, except a few childish terra-cottas; decorative art becomes once more purely geometrical, but shows only slight affinity with the con-temporary geometrical art of the Aegean. Lingering thus in Cyprus (as also in some islands of the Aegean) Mycenaean traditions came into contact with new oriental influences from the Syrian coast; and these were felt in Cyprus somewhat earlier than in the West. But there is at present no clear proof of Phoenician or other Semitic activity in Cyprus until the last years of the 8th century. No reference to Cyprus has been found in Babylonian or Assyrian records before the reign of Sargon II. (end of 8th century B.C.), and the occasional discovery of Mesopotamian cylinders of early date in Cyprus is no proof of direct intercourse. Isaiah (xxiii. 1, 12), writing about this time, describes Kittim (a name derived from Citium, q.v.) as a port of call for merchantmen homeward bound for Tyre, and as a shelter for Tyrian refugees; but the Hebrew geographers of this and the next century classify Kittim, together with other coast-lands and islands, under the heading Javan, " Ionian " (q.v.), and consequently reckoned it as pre-dominantly Greek. Sargon's campaigns in north Syria, Cilicia and south-east Asia Minor (721—711) provoked first attacks, then an embassy and submission in 709, from seven kings of Yatnana (the Assyrian name for Cyprus); and an inscription of Sargon himself, found at Citium, proves an Assyrian protectorate, and records tribute of gold, silver and various timbers. These kings probably represent that " sea-power of Cyprus " which precedes that of Phoenicia in the Greek " List of Thalassocracies " preserved by Eusebius. Under Sennacherib's rule, Yatnana figures (as in Isaiah) as the refuge of a disloyal Sidonian in 702; but in 668 ten kings of Cypriote cities joined Assur-bani-pal's expedition to Egypt; most of them bear recognizable Greek names, e.g. Pylagoras of Chytroi, Eteandros of Paphos, Onasagoras of Ledroi. They are gazetted with twelve other " kings of the Hatti (S.E. Asia Minor). Citium, the principal Phoenician state, does not appear by name; but is usually recognized in the list under its Phoenician title Karti-hadasti, " new town." Thus before the middle of the 7th century Cyprus reappears in history divided among at least ten cities,. of which some are certainly Greek, and one at least certainly Phoenician: with this,' Greek tradition agrees.' The Greek colonists traced their descent, at Curium, from Argos; at Lapathus, from Laconia; at Paphos,. from Arcadia; at Salamis, from the Attic island of that name; and at Soli, also from Attica. The settlements at Paphos and. Salamis, and 'probably at Curium, were believed to date from, the period of the Trojan War, i.e. from the.' 13th century, and the latter part of the Mycenaean age; the name of Teucer, the legendary founder of Salamis, probably is a reminiscence 'of the piratical Tikkara who harried the Egyptian coast under Rameses III... (c. 1200 B.C.), and the discovery of late Mycenaean settlements on these sites, and also at Lapathus, suggests that . these legends rest upon history. The Greek dialect of Cyprus points in the same direction; it shows marked resemblances with that of Arcadia, and forms with it a " South Achaean " or " South Aeolic " group, related to the "Northern Aeolic " of Thessaly and other parts of north Greece .s Further e A. J. Evans, Journ. Anthrop. Inst. xxx. p. 199 ff.; J.Naue, Die vorromischen Schwerter (Munich, 1903), p. 25. e E. Oberhummer, Lc. p. 5 if. (all the Assyrian and biblical evidence). 7 W. H. Engel, Kypros (Berlin, 1841) (all the Greek traditions). 8 Moriz Schmidt, Z. f. vergl. Sprachw.(186o), p. 290 if., 361 ff.; H. W. Smith, Trans. Amer. Philol. Assoc. xviii. (1887) ; R. Meister, Zuni eleischen, arkadi.schen u. kyprischen Dialekte (Leipzig, 189o); O. Hoffmann, Die griechischen Dialekte, i. (Gottingen, 1891) ; C. D. Cobham, Bibliography of Cyprus, pp. 40-45.. evidence of continuity comes from the peculiar Cypriote script, a syllabary related to the linear scripts of Crete and the south Aegean, and traceable in Cyprus to the Mycenaean age.' It remained in regular use until the 4th century; before that time the Greek alphabet occurs in Cyprus only in a few inscriptions erected for visitors.2 In Citium and Idalium, on the other hand, a Phoenician dialect and alphabet were in use from the time of Sargon onward.3 Sargon's inscription at Citium is cuneiform.' The culture and art of Cyprus in this Graeco-Phoenician period are well represented by remains from Citium, Idalium, Tamassus, Amathus and Curium; the earlier phases are best represented round Lapathus, Soli, Paphos and Citium; the later 'Hellenization, at Amathus and Marion-Arsinoe. Three distinct foreign influences may be distinguished: they originate in Egypt, in Assyria, and in the Aegean. The first two pre-dominate earlier, and gradually recede before the last-named. Their effects are best seen in sculpture and in metal work, though it remains doubtful whether the best examples of the latter were made in Cyprus or on the mainland. Among a great series of engraved silver bowls,' found mostly in Cyprus, but also as far off as Nineveh, Olympia, Caere and Praeneste, some examples show almost unmixed imitation of Egyptian scenes and devices; in others, Assyrian types are introduced among the Egyptian in senseless confusion; in others, both traditions are merged in a mixed art, which betrays a return to naturalism and a new sense of style, like that of the Idaean bronzes in Crete.' From its intermediate position between the art of ,Phoenicia and its western colonies (so far as this is known) and the earliest Hellenic art in the Aegean, this style has been called Graeco-Phoenician. The same sequence of phases is represented in sculpture by the votive statues from the sanctuaries of Aphrodite at Dali and of Apollo at VSni and Fra gissa; and by examples from other sites in the Cesnola collection; in painting by a rare class of naively polychromic vases; and in both by the elaborately coloured terra-cotta figures from the " Toumba " site at Salamis. Gem-engraving and jewelry follow similar lines; pottery-painting for the most part remains geometrical throughout, with crude survivals of Mycenaean curvilinear forms. Those Aegean influences, however, which had been predominant in the later Bronze Age, and had never wholly ceased, revived, as Hellenism matured and spread, and slowly repelled the mixed Phoenician orientalism. Imported vases from the Aegean, of the " Dipylon," " proto-Corinthian " and " Rhodian " fabrics, occur rarely, and were imitated by the native potters; and early in the 6th century appears the specific influence of Ionia, and still more of Naucratis in the Egyptian delta. For the failure of Assyria in Egypt in 668—664, and the revival of Egypt as a phil-Hellene state under the XXVIth Dynasty, admitted strong Graeco-Egyptian influences in industry and art, and led about 56o B.C. to the political conquest of Cyprus by Amasis (Ahmosi) II.; 7 once again Cypriote timber maintained a foreign sea-power in the Levant. The annexation of Egypt by Cambyses of Persia in 525 B.C. ' G. Smith, Tr. Soc. Bibl. Arch. i. 129 ff. ; Moritz Schmidt, Monatsb. k. Ak. Wiss. (Berlin, 1874), pp. 614-615; Sammlung kypr. Inschriften (Jena, 1876); W. Deecke, Ursprung der kypr. Sylbenschrift (Strassburg, 1877) ; cf. Deecke-Collitz, Samml. d. gr. Dialektinschrif ten, i. (Gottingen, 1884) ; cf. C. D. Cobham, l.c. On its Aegean origin, A. J. Evans, " Cretan Pictographs " (1895), Journ. Hell. Studies, xiv., cf. xvii.; British Museum, Exc. in Cypr. (London, 1900), p. 27. 2 British Museum, Exc. in Cypr. (London, 1900), p. 95 (Ionic inscriptions of 5th century from Amathus). M. de Vogue, Melanges d'archeologie orientale (Paris, 1869) ; J: Eating, Sitzb. k. preuss. Ak. Wiss. (1887), pp. 115 ff.; Ph. Berger, C. R. Acad. Inscr. (1887), pp. 155 if., 187 if., 203 if. Cf. Corpus Inscr. Serail. (Paris, 1881), ii. 35 if. '"E. Schrader, Abh. d. k. preuss. Ak. Wiss. (1881). ' G. Perrot and C. Chipiez, Histoire de l'art duns l'antiquite, iii. (Paris, 1885), interpret these and most other Cypriote materials without reserve as " Phoenician." 6 F. Halbherr and P. Orsi, Antichitd dell' antro di Zeus Ideo in Creta (Rome, 1888). Cf. H. Brunn, Griechische Kunstgeschichte (Munich, 1893), i. 90 if. Herod. ii. 182; see also EGYPT: History (Dyn. XXVI.).699 was preceded by the voluntary surrender of Cyprus, which formed part of Darius's " fifth satrapy." 3 The Greek cities, faring ill under Persia, and organized by Onesilaus of Salamis, joined the Ionic revolt in Soo B.C.; 9 but the Phoenician states, Citium and Amathus, remained loyal to Persia; the rising was soon put down; in 48o Cyprus furnished no less than 15o ships to the fleet of Xerxes;10 and in spite of the repeated attempts of the Delian League to " liberate " the island, it remained subject to Persia during the 5th century." The occasion of the siege of Idalium by Persians (which is commemorated in an important Cypriote inscription) is unknown." Throughout this period, however, Athens and other Greek states maintained a brisk trade in copper, sending vases and other manufactures in return, and bringing Cyprus at last into full contact with Hellenism. But the Greek cities retained monarchical government throughout, and both the domestic art and the principal religious cults remained almost unaltered. The coins of the Greek dynasts and autonomous towns are struck on a variable standard with a stater of 170 to 18o grs.13 The principal Greek cities were now Salamis, Curium, Paphos, Marion, Soli, Kyrenia and Khytri. Phoenicians held Citium and Amathus on the south coast between Salamis and Curium, also Tamassus and Idalium in the interior; but the last named was little more than a sanctuary town, like Paphos. At the end of the 5th century a fresh Salaminian League was formed by Evagoras (q.v.), who became king in 410, aided the Athenian Conon after the fall of Athens in 404, and revolted openly from Persia in 386, after the peace of Antalcidas." Athens again sent help, but as before the Phoenician states supported Persia; the Greeks were divided by feuds, and in 38o the attempt failed; Evagoras was assassinated in 374, and his son Nicocles died soon after. After the victory of Alexander the Great at Issus in 333 B.C. all the states of Cyprus welcomed him, and sent timber and ships for his siege of Tyre in 332. After Alexander's death in 323 B.C. Cyprus, coveted still for its copper and timber, passed, after several rapid changes, to Ptolemy I., king of Egypt. Then in 306 B.C. Demetrius Poliorcetes of Macedon overran the whole island, besieged Salamis, and utterly defeated there the Egyptian fleet. Ptolemy, however, recovered it in 295 B.C. Under Ptolemaic rule Cyprus has little history. Usually it was governed by a viceroy of the royal line, but it gained a brief independence under Ptolemy Lathyrus (107—89 B.C.), and under a brother of Ptolemy Auletes in 58 B.C. The great sanctuaries of Paphos and Idalium, and the public buildings of Salamis, which were wholly remodelled in this period, have produced but few works of art; the sculpture from local shrines at Vbni and Vitscada, and the frescoed tomb-stones from Amathus, only show how incapable the Cypriotes still were of utilizing Hellenistic models; a rare and beautiful class of terra-cottas like those of Myrina may be of Cypriote fabric, but their style is wholly of the Aegean. It is in this period that we first hear of Jewish settlements," which later become very populous. In 58 B.c. Rome, which had made large unsecured loans to Ptolemy Auletes, sent M. Porcius Cato to annex the island, nominally because its king had connived at piracy, really because its revenues and the treasures of Paphos were coveted to finance a corn law of P. Clodius.'6 Under Rome Cyprus was at first appended to the province of Cilicia; after Actium (31 B.C.) it became a separate province, which remained in the hands of Augustus and was governed by a legatus Caesaris pro praetore as long as danger was feared from the East." No monuments 8 Herod. iii. 19. 91;-see also PERSIA: History. 9 Herod. v. 108, 113, 115. 10 Herod. vii. 90. 11 Thuc. i. 94, 112. 12 M. Schmidt, Die Inschrift von Idalion (Jena, 1874). 1s G. F. Hill, Brit. Mus. Cat. Coins of Cyprus (London, 1904). Earlier literature in Cobham, l.c. p. 39. 1" H. F. Talbot, Tr. Soc. Bibl. Arch. v. 447 if. (translation). For Evagoras and the place of Cyprus in later Greek history, see G. Grote, History of Greece (Index, s.v.), and W. H. Engel, Kypros (Berlin, 1841). 15 Mace. xv. 23. 16 Livy, Epit. 104; Cie. pro Sestio, 26, 57. 17 Dio Cass. liii. 12 ; Strabo 683, 840. remain of this period. In 22 B.C., however, it was transferred to the senate,' so that Sergius Paulus, who was governor in A.D. 46, is rightly called avBinraros (proconsul)? Of Paulus no coins are known, but an inscription exists. ° Other proconsuls are Julius Cordus and L. Annius Bassus who succeeded him in A.D. 52.4 The copper mines, which were still of great importance, were farmed at one time by Herod the Great.5 The persecution of Christians on the mainland after the death of Stephen drove converts as far as Cyprus; and soon after converted Cypriote Jews, such as Mnason (an " original convert ") and Joses the Levite (better known as Barnabas), were preaching in Antioch. The latter revisited Cyprus twice, first with Paul on his " first journey " in A.D. 46, and later with Mark.° In 116-117 the Jews of Cyprus, with those of Egypt and Cyrene, revolted, massacred 240,QOO persons, and destroyed a large part of Salamis. Hadrian, afterwards emperor, suppressed them, and expelled all Jews from Cyprus. For the culture of the Roman period there is abundant evidence from Salamis and Paphos, and from tombs everywhere, for the glass vessels which almost wholly supersede pottery are much sought for their (quite accidental) iridescence; not much else is found that is either characteristic or noteworthy; and little attention has been paid to the sequence of style. The Christian church of Cyprus was divided into thirteen bishoprics. It was made autonomous in the 5th century, in recognition of the supposed discovery of the original of Et Matthew's Gospel in a " tomb of Barnabas " which is still shown • at Salamis. The patriarch has therefore the title ,.aaapu races and the right to sign his name in red ink. A council of Cyprus, summoned by Theophilus of Alexandria in A.D. 401, prohibited the reading of the works of Origen (see CYPRUS, CHURCH OF). Of the Byzantine period little remains but the ruins of the castles of St Hilarion, Buffavento and Kantara; and a magnificent series of gold ornaments and silver plate, found near Kyrenia in 1883 and 1897 respectively. Christian tombs usually contain nothing of value. The Frank conquest is represented by the " Crusaders' Tower " at Kolossi, and the church of St Nicholas at Nicosia; and, later, by masterpieces of a French Gothic style, such as the church (mosque) of St Sophia, and other churches at Nicosia; the cathedral (mosque) and others at Famagusta (q.v.), and the monastery at Bella Pais; as well as by domestic architecture at Nicosia; and by forts at Kyrenia, Limasol and elsewhere. The Turks and British have added little, and destroyed much, converting churches into mosques and grain-stores, and quarrying walls and buildings at Famagusta. History of Excavation.—Practically all the archaeological discoveries above detailed have been made since 1877. A few chance finds of vases, inscriptions and coins; of a hoard of silver bowls at Dali (anc. Idalium)' in 1851; and of a bronze tablet with Phoenician and Cypriote bilingual inscriptions, 8 also at Dali, and about the same time, had raised questions of great interest as to the art and the language of the ancient inhabitants. T. B. Sandwith, British consul 1865-1869, had laid the foundations of a sound knowledge of Cypriote pottery; 9 his successor R. H. Lang (1870—1872) had excavated a sanctuary of Aphrodite at Dali; '° and at the time of the publication of the 9th ed. of the Ency. Brit.," General Louis P. di Cesnola (q.v.), American consul, was already exploring ancient sites, and opening tombs, in all parts of the island, though his results were not published till 1877.12 But though his vast collection, now ' Dio Cass. liv. 4; Strabo 685. 2 Acts xiii. 7. 2 D. G. Hogarth, Devia Cypria, pp. 114 if. and app. 4 Corp. Inscr. Lat. 2631-2632. 6 Jos. Ant. 16. 4, 5; 19. 26, 28. 6 Acts iv. 36, xi. 19, 20, xiii. 4-13, xv. 39, xxi. 16. 7 De Longperier, Atheneum fransais (1853), pp. 413 ff.;Musie Napole'on, pls. x. xi. 8 De Luynes, Numismatique et inscriptions chypriotes (1852). 9 Archaeologia, xlv. (1877), pp. 127-142. '° Trans. Roy. Soc. Literature, and ser: xi. (1878), pp. 30 if. 11 Article " Cyprus " ad. fin. 12 Cyprus: its Cities, Tombs and Temples ( London, 1877).in the Metropolitan Museum of New York, remains the largest series of Cypriote antiquities in the world, the accounts which have been given of its origin are so inadequate, and have provoked so much controversy,13 that its scientific value is small, and a large part of subsequent excavation has necessarily been directed to solving the problems suggested by its practically isolated specimens. From 1876 to 1878 Major Alexander P. di Cesnola continued his brother's work, but the large collection which he exhibited in London in 188o was dispersed soon afterwards.14 On the British occupation of Cyprus in 1878, the Ottoman law of 1874 in regard to antiquities was retained in force. Excavation is permitted under government supervision, and the finds are apportioned in thirds, between the excavator, the landowner (who is usually bought out by the former), and the government. The government thirds lie neglected in a " Cyprus Museum " maintained at Nicosia by voluntary subscription. There is no staff, and no effective supervision of ancient sites or monuments. A catalogue of the collections was published by the Oxford University Press in 1899.15 Since 1878 more than seventy distinct excavations have been made in Cyprus, of which the following are the most important. In 1879 the British government used the acropolis of Citium (Larnaca) to fill up the ancient harbour; and from the destruction a few Phoenician inscriptions and a proto-Ionic capital were saved. In 1882 tombs were opened by G. Hake at Salamis and Curium for the South Kensington Museum, but no scientific record was made. In 1883 the Cyprus Museum was founded by .private enterprise, and on its behalf Max Ohnefalsch-Richter, who had already made trial diggings for Sir Charles Newton and the British Museum, excavated sanctuaries at V6ni and Kythrea (Chytri), and opened tombs on some other sites.1B In 1885 Dr F. Dummler opened tombs at Dali, Alrambra and elsewhere, and laid the foundations of knowledge of the Bronze Age and Early Iron Age;'' and Richter, on behalf of officials and private individuals, excavated parts of Frrangissa (Tamassus), Episkopi and Dali.18 In the same year, 1885, and in 1886, a syndicate opened many tombs at P6li-tis-Khrysochou (Marium, Arsinoe), and sold the contents by auction in Paris. From Richter's notes of this excavation, Dr P. Herrmann compiled the first scientific account of Graeco-Phoenician and Hellenistic Cyprus." In 1886 also M. le vicomte E. de,Castillon de St Victor opened rich Graeco-Phoenician tombs at Episkopi, the contents of which are in the Louvre. 20 The successes of 1885-1886 led to the foundation of the Cyprus Exploration Fund, on behalf of which (1) in 1888 the sanctuary of Aphrodite at Paphos (Kouklia) was excavated by Messrs E. Gardner, M. R. James, D. G. Hogarth and R. Elsey Smith; 21 (2) in 1889-1890 more tombs were opened at P61i by Messrs J. A. R. Munro and H. A. Tubbs; 22 (3) in 189o-1891 extensive trials were made at Salamis, by the same; 23 (4) minor sites were examined at Leondari Vouno (1888), 24 Amargetti (1888), 25 and Limniti (1889);26 (5) in 1888 Hogarth made a surface-survey of the Karpass promontory; 27 and finally, (6) in 1894 the balance was expended by J. L. Myres in a series of trials, to settle special " See Cobham, An Attempt at a Bibliography of Cyprus (4th ed., Nicosia, 1900), Appendix, "Cesnola Controversy," p. 54. " 4 The Lawrence-Cesnola Collection (London, 1881); Salaminia, id. 1882. 's Myres and Ohnefalsch-Richter, A Catalogue of the Cyprus Museum, with a Chronicle of Excavations since the British Occupation, and Introductory Notes on Cypriote Archaeology (Oxford, 1899). 16 Mitt. d. arch. Inst. ii. (Athens, 1881). " Mitt. d. arch. Inst. vi. (Athens, 1886) ; Bemerkungen z. lilt. Kunsthandwerk, &c., ii. " Der kypr. geometrische Stil " (Halle, 1888). '6 Summarized in Cyprus, the Bible and Homer (London and Berlin, 1893). '9 Das Grdberfeld von Marion (Berlin, 1888). 2° Archives des missions scientifiques, xvii. (Paris, 1891). 21 Journal of Hellenic Studies, ix. (London, 1888). 22 Id. xi. (1890); xii. (1891). 22 Id. xii. (1891). 24 Id. ix. (1888), 26 Id. ix. (1888). 2° Id. xi. (189o). 22 Devia Cypria (Oxford, 1889). points, at Agia Paraskevi, Kalopsfda and Larnaca.' In 1894 also Dr Richter excavated round Idalium and Tamassus for the Prussian government: the results, unpublished up to 1902, are in the Berlin Museum? Finally, a legacy from Miss Emma T. Turner enabled the British Museum to open numerous tombs, by contract, of the Graeco-Phoenician age, in 1894, at Palaeo-Lemessd (Amathus); and of the Mycenaean age, in 1894-1895 at Episkopi, in 1895-1896 at Enkomi (near Salamis), and in 1897-1899 on small sites between Larnaca and Limasol.3 For ancient Oriental references to Cyprus see E. Oberhummer, Die Inset Cypern, i. (Munich, 1903); for classical references, W. H. Engel, Kypros (2 vols., Berlin, 1841); for culture and art, G. Perrot and C. Chipiez, Histoire de l'art dons l'antiquiti, vol. iii. Phenicie et Cypre " (Paris, 1885) ; L. P. di Cesnola, A Descriptive Atlas of the Cesnola Collection of Cypr. Antiquities in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (3 vols., Boston, U.S.A., 1884–1886) ; M. Ohnefalsch-Richter, Kypros, the Bible and Homer (2 vols., London and Berlin, 1893); J. L. Myres and M. Ohnefalsch-Richter, Cyprus Museum Catalogue (Oxford, 1899). The principal publications on special topics are given in the footnotes. For Cypriote coins see also NuMISMATICS. See further the general bibliography below. U. L. M.)
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