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Originally appearing in Volume V19, Page 959 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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HOLLAND AND BELGIUM Leiden, univ. ohs., lat. +52° 9' 20.0", long. o h. 17 M. 56.2 s. E. Founded already in 1632, but the instruments were always very small, and hardly any obs. were taken until F. Kaiser became director in 1837. In 1858-186o a new obs. was erected and furnished with a 7-in. refr. by Merz, and a meridian circle by Pistor and Martins of 6.3-in. ap. Later a Io1-in. refr. by Clarke and Repsold has been erected. Groningen, astron. laboratory of the univ., lat. +53° 13' 19.1", long. o h. 26 m. 15.2 s. E. Established 1896; instruments for measuring celestial photographs. Utrecht, univ. obs., lat. +52° 5' 9.5", long. o h. 20 M. 31.0 s. E. Erected in 1855; Io-in. refr. by Steinheil. Brussels, royal obs., lat. +50° 51' 10.7," long. o h. 17 M. 28.6 s. E. Erected in 1829-1834. Had a transit instrument by Gambey and a mural circle by Troughton, but the institution was, while under the direction of L. A. J. Quetelet, chiefly devoted to physics and meteorology. In 1877 a 6-in. refr. by Merz was mounted, and a meridian circle by Repsold and a 15-in. refr. by Cooke provided. A new obs. was erected in 1891 at Uccle, lat. +50° 47' 55'5", long. o h. 17 in. 26.9 s. E., with the instruments from Brussels, a 9-in. phot. refr. by Grubb, and a 13-in. phot. refr. by Gautier. Liege, univ. obs., lat. +50° 37' 6", long. o h. 22 M. 15.4 s. E.; Io-in. refr. and 7-in, transit circle by Cooke.
End of Article: HOLLAND AND

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