Online Encyclopedia


Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V07, Page 578 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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HOLOHEDRAL CLASS (Holohedral; Bipyramidal). Here there are three dissimilar dyad axes of symmetry, each coinciding with a crystallographic axis; perpendicular to them are three dissimilar planes of symmetry; there is also a centre of symmetry. There ape seven kinds of simple forms: Bipyramid (figs. 54 and 55). This is the general form and is bounded by eight scalene triangles ; the indices are { 111 } , 1211), {221} 11121, {3211, 11231, &c., or in general {hkl}. The crystallographic axes join opposite corners of these pyramids and in the fundamental bipyramid 111 1} the parametral plane has the intercepts a: b: c. This is the only closed form in this class; the others are open forms and can exist only in combination. Sulphur often crystallizes in simple bipyramids. Prism. This consists of four faces parallel to the vertical axis and intercepting the horizontal axes in the lengths a and b or in any multiples of these; the indices are therefore {110}, 12101, 11201 or {hko}. Macro-prism. This consists of four faces parallel to the macro- axis, and has the indices poll, {201} , . Or {hon. Brachy-prism. This consists of four faces parallel to the brachyaxis, and has the indices loll), 10211 . {okl}. The macro- and brachy-prisms are often called " domes." Basal pinacoid, consisting of a pail of parallel faces perpendicular to the vertical axis; the indices are loot). The macro-pinacoid{loo} and the brachy-pinacoid {oio} each consist of a pair of parallel faces respectively parallel to the macro- and the brachy-axis. Figs. 56-58 show combinations of these six open forms, and fig. 59 a combination of the macro-pinacoid (a), brachy-pinacoid (b), a prism (m), a macro-prism (d), a brachy-prism (k),and a bipyramid (u). Pinacoid. Hypersthene. Holohedral Orthorhombic Combinations. Examples of substances crystallizing in this class are extremely numerous; amongst minerals are sulphur, stibnite, cerussite, chrysoberyl, topaz, olivine, nitre, barytes, columbite and many others; and amongst artificial products iodine, potassium permanganate, potassium sulphate, benzene, barium formate, &c.
End of Article: HOLOHEDRAL
HOLOCENE (from Gr. iiXos, whole, uacvos, recent)

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