BEE, Bee-keeping) chiefly from the nectaries of
See also:flowers, i.e. those parts of flowers specially constructed for the elaboration of
See also:honey, and, after transportation to the hive in the proventriculus or
See also:crop of the
See also:insects, discharged by them into the cells prepared for its reception . Whether the
See also:nectar undergoes any alteration within the crop of the bee is a point on which authors have differed . Some wasps, e.g . Myrapetra scutellaris2 and the genus Nectarina, collect honey . A honey-like fluid, which consists of a nearly pure solution of uncrystallizable
See also:sugar having the
See also:formula C6H1407 after drying in vacuo, and which is used by the Mexicans in the preparation of a beverage, is yielded by certain inactive individuals of Myrmecocystus mexicanus, Wesmael, the honey-ants or pouched ants (hormigas mieleras or mochileras) of Mexico .3 The
See also:abdomen in these insects, owing to the distensibility of the membrane connecting its segments, becomes converted into a globular thin-walled
See also:sac by the accumulation within it of the nectar supplied to them by their working comrades (Wesmael, Bull. de l'Acad .
See also:Roy. de Brux. v . 766, 1838) . By the Rev . H . C . M'
See also:Cook, who discovered the
See also:insect in the
See also:Garden of the Gods,
See also:Colorado, the honey-bearers were found
See also:hanging by their feet, in groups of about
See also:thirty, to the
See also:roofs of
See also:chambers in their underground nests, their large globular abdomens causing them to resemble " bunches of small
See also:Delaware grapes" (Prot . Acad .
Nat . Sci . Philad., 1879, p . 197) . Abladder-like formation on the metathorax of another
See also:ant, Crematogaster inftalus (F .
See also:Smith, Cat. of Hymenoptera, pt. vi. pp . 136 and zoo, pl. ix. fig . 1), ' The
See also:term honey in its various forms is
See also:peculiar to the Teutonic
See also:group of
See also:languages, and in the
See also:Gothic New Testament is wanting, the Greek word being there translated melith . 2 See A .
See also:White, in
See also:Ann. and Mag . Nat . Hist. vii .
315, pl . 4 . ' Wetherill (Chem . Gaz. xi . 72, 1853) calculates that the
See also:weight of the honey is 8.2 times that of the
See also:body of the ant, or 0.3942 grammes.which has a small circular orifice at each posterior lateral
See also:angle, appears to possess a
See also:function similar to that of the abdomen in the honey-ant . It is a popular saying that where is the best honey there also is the best wool; and a pastoral
See also:district, since it affords a greater profusion of flowers, is
See also:superior for the production of honey to one under tillage.' Dry warm
See also:weather is that most favourable to the secretion of nectar by flowers . This they protect from
See also:rain by various
See also:internal structures, such as papillae, cushions of hairs and spurs, or by virtue of their position (in the
See also:raspberry, drooping), or the arrangement of their constituent parts . Dr A . W .
See also:Bennett (How Flowers are Fertilized, p . 31, 1873) has remarked that the perfume of flowers is generally derived from their nectar; the blossoms of some
See also:plants, how-ever, as ivy and
See also:holly, though almost scentless, are highly nectariferous . The exudation • of a honey-like or saccharine fluid, as has frequently been attested, is not a function exclusively of the flowers in all plants .
A sweet material, the
See also:manna of
See also:pharmacy, e.g. is produced by the leaves and stems of a
See also:species of ash, Fraxinus Ornus ; and honey-secreting glands are to be met with on the leaves, petioles, phyllodes, stipules (as in Vicia saliva), or bracteae (as in the Marcgraviaceae) of a considerable number of different
See also:vegetable forms . The origin of the honey-. yielding properties manifested specially by flowers among the several parts of plants has been carefully considered by Darwin, who regards the saccharine
See also:matter in nectar as a waste product of chemical changes in the
See also:sap, which, when it happened to be excreted within the envelopes of flowers, was utilized for the important
See also:object of
See also:cross-fertilization, and subsequently was much increased in quantity, and stored in various ways (see Cross and Self Fertilization of Plants, pp . 402 sq., 1876) . It has been noted with respect to the nectar of the
See also:fuchsia that it is most abundant when the anthers are about to dehisce, and absent in the unexpanded flower . Pettigrew is of opinion that few bees go more than 2 m. from home in
See also:search of honey . The number of blossoms visited in
See also:order to meet the requirements of a single hive of bees must be very
See also:great; for it has been found by A . S .
See also:Wilson (" On the Nectar of Flowers," Brit . Assoc .
See also:Rep., 1878, p . 567) that 125 heads of
See also:common red
See also:clover, which is a plant comparatively abundant in nectar, yield but one gramme (15.432 grains) of sugar; and as each
See also:head contains about 6o florets, 7,500,000 distinct flower-tubes must on this estimate be exhausted for each kilogramme (2.2041b) of sugar collected . Among the richer
See also:sources of honey are reckoned the
See also:asparagus, asters,
See also:barberry, basswood (Tilia americana), and the
See also:European lime or
See also:linden (T. europaea), beans, bonesets (Eupatorium), borage,
See also:buckwheat, catnip, or catmint (Nepeta Cataria),
See also:cherry, cleome, clover,
See also:eucalyptus, figwort (Scrophularia),
See also:rod (Solidago),
See also:gooseberry, hawthorn, heather, hepatica, horehound, hyacinth, lucerne,
See also:maple, mignonette, mint, motherwort (Leonurus),
See also:onion, peach,
See also:pear, poplar,
See also:quince, rape, raspberry,
See also:silver maple, snapdragon, sour-
See also:wood (Oxydendron arboreum, D.C.),
See also:strawberry, sycamore,
See also:tree (more especially
See also:rich in pollen),
See also:violet and willows, and the " honey-
See also:dew " of the leaves of the whitethorn (
See also:oak, linden,
See also:beech and some other trees .
Honey contains dextroglucose and laevoglucose (the former practically insoluble, the latter soluble ins pt. of
See also:cold strong
See also:cane-sugar (according to some), mucilage,
See also:wax, essential oil, colouring bodies, a minute quantity of
See also:mineral matter and pollen . By a species of
See also:fermentation, the cane-sugar is said to be gradually transformed into inverted sugar (laevoglucose with dextroglucose) . The pollen, as a source of nitrogen, is of importance to the bees feeding on the honey . It may be obtained for examination as a sediment from a mixture of honey and water . Other substances which have been.. discovered in honey are marmite (Guibourt), a
See also:free acid which precipitates the salts of silver and of lead, and is soluble in water and alcohol (Calloux), and an uncrystallizable sugar, nearly related to inverted sugar (Soubeiran, Comp' . Rend.
See also:xxviii . 774-775, 1849) .
See also:Brittany honey contains couvain, a ferment which determines its active decomposition (
See also:Diet. de Chem. ii . 430) . In the honey of Polybia apicipennis, a
See also:wasp ' Compare Isa. vii . 15, 22, where curdled milk (A.V . "
See also:butter ") and honey as exclusive articles of diet are indicative of
See also:foreign invasion, which turns rich agricultural districts into pasture lands or uncultivated wastes .
See also:America, cane-sugar occurs in crystals of large
See also:size (Karsten, Pogg . Ann., C . 550) . Dr J .
See also:Brown (" On the Composition of Honey,"
See also:Analyst iii . 267, 1878) is doubtful as to the presence of cane-sugar in any one of nine samples, from various sources, examined by him . The following average percentage numbers are afforded by his analyses: laevulose, 36.45 dextrose, 36.57; mineral matter, • 15; water expelled at too° C., 18.5, and at a much higher temperature, with loss, 7.8r: the wax, pollen and insoluble matter vary from a trace to 2.1% . The specific gravity of honey is about 1.41 . The rotation of a polarized ray by a solution of 16.26 grammes of crude honey in too c.c. of water is generally from -3.2° to -5° at 6o° F.; in the case of Greek honey it is nearly -5'5° . Almost all pure honey, when exposed for some
See also:time to
See also:light and cold, becomes more or less granular in consistency . Any liquid portion can be readily separated by straining through
See also:linen . Honey sold out of the
See also:comb is commonly clarified by
See also:heating and skimmimg; but according to Bonner it is always best in its natural state .
The mel depuratum of
See also:British pharmacy is prepared by heating honey in a water-bath, and straining through
See also:flannel previously moistened with warm water . The term " virgin-honey " (A.-S., hunigtear) is applied to the honey of
See also:young bees which have never swarmed, or to that which flows spontaneously from
See also:honeycomb with or without the application of
See also:heat . The honey obtained from old hives, considered inferior to it in quality, is ordinarily darker, thicker and less pleasant in taste and odour . The yield of honey is less in proportion to weight in old than in young or virgin combs . The far-famed honey of
See also:Narbonne is white, very granular and highly aromatic; and still finer honey is that procured from the Corbieres Mountains, 6 to 9 M. to the south-west . The honey of Gatinais is usually white, and is less odorous and granulates less readily than that of Narbonne . Honey from white clover has a greenish-white, and that from heather a rich golden-yellow
See also:hue . What is made from honey-dew is dark in
See also:colour, and disagreeable to the palate, and does not candy like
See also:good honey . " We have seen aphide honey from sycamores," says F .
See also:Cheshire (
See also:Pratt . Bee-keeping, p . 74), " as deep in
See also:tone as
See also:walnut liquor, and where much of it is stored the value of the whole crop is practically nil." The honey of the stingless bees (!lleliponia and Trigona) of Brazil varies greatly in quality according to the species of flowers from which it is collected, some kinds being black and sour, and others excellent (F .
Smith, Trans . Ent .
See also:Soc., 3d
See also:ser., i. pt. vi., 1863) . That of
See also:Apis Peronii, of India and Timor, is yellow, and of very agreeable flavour and is more liquid than the British sorts . A. unicolor, a bee indigenous to
See also:Madagascar, and naturalized in
See also:Mauritius and the
See also:island of
See also:Reunion, furnishes a thick and syrupy, peculiarly scented
See also:green honey, highly esteemed in Western India . A
See also:rose-coloured honey is stated (
See also:Gard . Chron., 187o, p . 1698) to have been procured by artificial feeding . The
See also:fine aroma of Maltese honey is due to its collection from orange blossoms . Narbonne honey being harvested chiefly from Labiate plants, as
See also:rosemary, an imitation of it is sometimes prepared by flavouring ordinary honey with infusion of rosemary flowers . Adulterations of honey are
See also:starch, detectable by the microscope, and by its blue reaction with iodine, also wheaten
See also:clay, added water, cane-sugar and common
See also:syrup, and the different varieties of manufactured
See also:glucose . Honey sophisticated with glucose containing copperas as an impurity is turned of an inky colour by liquids containing
See also:tannin, as
See also:tea .
See also:Elm leaves have been used in America for the flavouring of imitation honey .
See also:Stone jars should be employed in preference to common earthenware for the storage of honey, which acts upon the lead glaze of the latter . Honey is mildly laxative in properties . Some few kinds are poisonous, as frequently the reddish honey stored by the Brazilian wasp Nectarina (Foliates, Latr.t) Lecheguana, Shuck., the effects of which have been vividly described by Aug. de
See also:Saint-Hilaire,2 the
See also:spring honey of the
See also:wild bees of East Nepaul, said to be rendered noxious by collection from
See also:rhododendron ' Memoires du Museum, !ti . 313 (1824) . 3 lb. xii . 293, pl. xli. fig . B (1825) . The honey, according to [.assaigne (ib, ix . 319), is almost entirely soluble in alcohol.flowers (
See also:Hooker, Himalayan
See also:Journals, i . 19o, ed . 18551, and the honey of
See also:Trebizond, which from its source, the blossoms, it is stated, of
See also:Azalea pontica and Rhododendron ponticum (perhaps to be identified with Pliny's Aegolethron), acquires the qualities of an irritant and intoxicant narcotic, as described by
See also:Xenophon (Anab. iv .
8) . Pliny (Nat . Hist. xxi . 45) describes as noxious a livid-coloured honey found in
See also:Persia and
See also:Gaetulia . Honey obtained from Kalmia latifolia, L., the
See also:laurel or
See also:spoon-wood of the
See also:United States, and allied species, is reputed deleterious; also that of the sour-wood is by some good authorities considered to possess undeniable griping properties; and G . Bidie (
See also:Madras Quart . Journ . Med . Sci., Oct, 1861, p . 399) mentions urtication, headache, extreme prostration and
See also:nausea, and intense thirst among the symptoms produced by a small quantity only of a honey from
See also:jungle . A South
See also:African species of
See also:Euphorbia, as was experienced by the missionary Moffat (
See also:Miss . Lab. p .
32, 1849), yields a poisonous honey . The nectar of certain flowers is asserted to cause even in bees a fatalkind of vertigo . As a demulcent and flavouring
See also:agent, honey is employed in the oxymel, oxymel scillae, mel boracis, confectio piperis, conf. scammonii and conf. terebinthinae of the British Pharmacopoeia . To the ancients honey was of very great importance as an article of diet, being almost their only available source of sugar . It was valued by them also for its medicinal virtues; and in recipes of the Saxon and later periods it is a common ingredient.3 Of the eight kinds of honey mentioned by the great
See also:Indian surgical writer Susruta, four are not described by
See also:recent authors, viz. argha or wild honey, collected by a sort of yellow bee; chhatra, made by tawny or yellow wasps; audklaka, a bitter and acrid honey-like substance found in the
See also:nest of white ants; and dala or unprepared honey occurring on flowers . According to
See also:Hindu medical writers, honey when new is laxative, and when more than a
See also:year old astringent (U . C . Dutt,
See also:Mat . Med. of the
See also:Hindus, p . 277, 1877) . Ceromel, formed by mixing at a gentle heat one
See also:part by weight of yellow wax with four of clarified honey, and straining, is used in India and other tropical countries as a mild stimulant for ulcers in the place of animal fats, which there rapidly become rancid and unfit for medicinal purposes . The
See also:Koran, in the
See also:chapter entitled " The Bee," remarks with reference to bees and their honey: " There proceedeth from their bellies a liquor of various colour, wherein is a
See also:medicine for men " (Sale's Koran,
See also:chap. xvi.) .
Pills prepared with honey as an excipient are said to remain unindurated, howeverlong they may be kept (Med . Times, 1857, i . 269) . Mead, of yore a favourite beverage in England (vol. iv. p . 264), is made by fermentation of the liquor obtained by boiling in water combs from which the honey has been drained . In the preparation of
See also:sack-mead, an
See also:ounce of hops is added to each
See also:gallon of the liquor, and after the fermentation a small quantity of
See also:brandy . Metheglin, or hydromel, is maufactured by fermenting with yeast a solution of honey flavoured with boiled hops (see Cooley, Cyclop.) . A kind of mead is largely consumed in
See also:Abyssinia (vol. i. p . 64), where it is carried on journeys in large horns (Stern, Wanderings, p . 317, 1862) . In Russia a drink termed lipez is made from the delicious honey of the linden . The mulsum of the
See also:ancient Romans consisted of honey,
See also:wine and water boiled together .
The clarre, or piment, of
See also:Chaucer's time was wine mixed with honey and spices, and strained till clear; a similar drink was
See also:bracket, made with wort of
See also:ale instead of wine . L . Maurial (L'Insectologie Agricole for 1868, p . 2o6) reports unfavourably as to the use of honey for the production - of alcohol; he recommends it, however, as superior to sugar for the thickening of
See also:liqueurs, and also as a means Of sweetening imperfectly ripened vintages . It is occasionally employed for giving strength and flavour to ale . In ancient
See also:Egypt it was valued as an embalming material; and in the East, for the preservation of fruit, and the making of cakes, sweetmeats, 3 For a
See also:list of fifteen
See also:treatises concerning honey, dating from 1625 to 1868, see Waring, Bibl . Therap. ii . 559, New Syd . Soc . (1879) . On sundry ancient uses for honey, see
See also:Beckmann, Hist. of Invent. i . 287 (1846) .
and other articles of
See also:food, it is largely consumed . 'Grafts, seeds and birds' eggs, for transmission to great distances, are some-times packed in honey . In India a mixture of honey and milk, or of equal parts of curds, honey and clarified butter (Sansk., madhu-parka), is a respectful offering to a
See also:guest, or to a
See also:groom on his arrival at the
See also:door of the bride's
See also:father; and one of the purificatory ceremonies of the Hindus (Sansk., madhuprasana) is the placing of a little honey in the mouth of a new-
See also:born male
See also:infant . Honey is frequently alluded to by the writers of antiquity as food for
See also:children; it is not to this, however, as already mentioned, that Isa. vii . 15 refers . Cream or fresh butter together with honey, and with or without
See also:bread, is a favourite dish with the
See also:Arabs . Among the observances at the Fandroana or New Year's Festival, in Madagascar, is the eating of mingled
See also:rice and honey by the
See also:queen and her guests; in the same
See also:country honey is placed in the sacred water of sprinkling used at the blessing of the children previous to circumcision (Sibree, The Great African Is. pp . 219, 314, 188o) . Honey was frequently employed in the ancient religious ceremonies of the
See also:heathen, but was forbidden as a sacrifice in the Jewish ritual (Lev. ii . II) . With milk or water it was presented by the Greeks as a
See also:libation to the dead (Odyss. xi . 27; Eurip .
Orest . IIs) . A honey-cake was the monthly food of the fabledserpent-
See also:guardian of the Acropolis (Herod. viii . 41) . By the
See also:aborigines of
See also:Peru honey was offered to the
See also:sun . The
See also:Hebrew word translated " honey " in the authorized version of the
See also:English Bible is debash, practically synonymous with which are ja'ar or ja'arith had-debash (I Sam. xix . 25-27; cf . Cant. v . 1) and nopheth (Ps. xix . 10, &c.), rendered " honey-comb." Debash de-notes bee-honey (as in Deut. xxxii . 13 and
See also:Jud. xiv . 8) ; the manna of trees, by some writers considered to have been the " wild honey " eaten by
See also:John the Baptist (Matt. iii .
4) ; the syrup of
See also:dates or the fruits themselves; and probably in some passages (as Gen. xliii . 11 and Ez.
See also:xxvii . 17) the syrupy boiled juice of the
See also:grape, resembling thin
See also:molasses, in use in
See also:Palestine, especially at
See also:Hebron, under the name of dibs (see
See also:Kitto, Cyclop., and E .
See also:Robinson, Bibl . Res. ii . 81) .
See also:Joseph us (B.J., iv . 8, 3) speaks highly of a honey produced at
See also:Jericho, consisting of the expressed juice of the fruit of palm trees; and
See also:Herodotus (iv . 194) mentions a similar preparation made by the Gyzantians in
See also:North Africa, where it is still in use . The honey most esteemed by the ancients was that of
See also:Hybla in
See also:Sicily,' and of Mount Hymettus in
See also:Attica (iii . 59) .
See also:Mahaffy (Rambles in
See also:Greece, p .
148, 2nd ed., 1878) describes the honey of Hymettus as by no means so good as the produce of other parts of Greece—not to say of the heather hills ofScotland and
See also:Ireland . That of
See also:Thebes, and more especially that of Corinth, which is made in the thymy hills towards Cleonae, he found much better (cf. xi . 88) . Honey and wax, still largely obtained in
See also:Corsica (vi . 440), were in olden times the chief productions of the island . In England, in the 13th and 14th centuries, honey sold at from about 7d. to Is . 2d. a gallon, and occasionally was disposed of by the swarm or hive, or ruscha (
See also:Rogers, Hist. of Agric. and Prices in Eng., i . 418) . At Wrexham, Denbigh,
See also:Wales, two honey fairs are annually held, one on the
See also:Thursday next after the 1st of
See also:September, and the other—the more recently instituted and by far the larger--on the Thursday following the first Wednesday in
See also:October . In Hungary the amounts of honey and of wax are in favourable years respectively about 190,000 and 12,000 cwt., and in unfavourable years, as, e.g . 1874, about 12,000 and 3000 cwt . The hives there in 187o numbered 617,407 (or 40 per
See also:I000 of the population, against 45 in
See also:Austria) .
Of these 365,711 were in Hungary Proper, and 91,348 (87 per I000 persons) in the Military Frontier (Keleti, Ubersicht der Bevolk . Ungarns, 1871; Schwicker, Statistik d . K . Ungarn, 1877) . InPoland the
See also:system of bee-keeping introduced by Dolinowski has been found to afford an average of 40 lb of honey and wax and two new swarms per hive, the common
See also:peasant's hive yielding, with two swarms, only 3 lb of honey and wax . In forests and places remote from villages in
See also:Podolia and parts of
See also:Volhynia, as many as woo hives may be seen in one apiary . In the district of Ostrolenka, in the
See also:government of
See also:Plock, and in the woody region of Polesia, in Lithuania, a method is practised of rearing bees in excavated trunks of trees (Stanton, " On the Treatment of Bees in Poland," Technologist, vi . 45, 1866) . When, in
See also:August, in the loftier valleys of
See also:Bormio, Italy, flowering ceases, the bees in their wooden hives are by means of spring-carts transported at
See also:night to
See also:lower regions, where they obtain from the buckwheat crops the inferior honey which serves them for winter
See also:consumption (lb. p . 38) . In Palestine, " the
See also:land flowing with milk and honey "1 (Ex. iii . 17; Numb. xiii .
27), wild bees are very numerous, especially in the ' In
See also:Sanskrit, madhu-kulyci, a stream of honey, is sometimes used to
See also:express an overflowing abundance of good things (Monier
See also:Williams, Sattsk.-Eng . Diet., p . 736, 1872)•wilderness of
See also:Judaea, and the selling of their produce, obtained from crevices in rocks, hollows in trees and elsewhere, is with many of the inhabitants a means of subsistence . Commenting on i Sam. xiv . 26, J . Roberts (
See also:Oriental Illust.) remarks that in the East " the forests literally flow with honey; large combs may be seen hanging cn the trees, as you pass along, full of honey." In Galilee, and at
See also:Bethlehem and other places in Palestine, bee-keeping is extensively carried on . The hives are sun-burnt tubes of mud, about 4 ff. in length and 8 in. in diameter, and, with the exception of a small central aperture for the passage of the bees, closed at each end with mud . These are laid together in long rows, or piled pyramidally, and are protected from the sun by a covering of mud and of boughs . The honey is extracted, when the ends have been removed, by means of an iron
See also:hook . (See Tristram, Nat . Hist. of the Bible, pp . 322sgq., 2nd ed., 1868) .
See also:Apiculture in
See also:Turkey is in a very
See also:condition . The
See also:Bali-dagh, or ' Hooey Mount," in the plain of Troy, is so called on account of the numerous wild bees tenanting the caves in its precipitous rocks to the south . In various regions of Africa, as on the west, near the
See also:Gambia, bees abound .
See also:Cameron was informed by his guides that the large quantities of honey at the cliffs by the
See also:river Makanyazi were under the
See also:protection of an evil spirit, and not one of his men could be persuaded to gather any (Across Africa, i . 266) . On the precipitous slopes of the Teesta valley, in India, the procuring of honey from the pendulous bees'-nests, which are sometimes large enough to be conspicuous features at a mile's distance, is the only means by which the idle poor raise their
See also:rent (Hooker, Him . Journ. ii . 41) . To reach the large combs of Apps dorsata and A. testacea, the natives of Timor, by whom both the honey and young bees are esteemed delicacies, ascend the trunks of lofty
See also:forest trees by the use of a
See also:loop of creeper . Protected from the myriads of angry insects by a small
See also:torch only, they detach the combs from the under
See also:surface of the branches, and lower them by slender cords to the ground (
See also:Wallace, Journ . Linn . Soc., '
See also:tool., vol. xi.) .
(F . H .
WILLIAM HONE (1780-1842)
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