FLAVIUS HONORIUS (384-423) , son of
See also:Theodosius I., ascended the
See also:throne as " emperor of the West " in 395 . The
See also:history of the first thirteen years of the reign of Honorius is inseparably connected with the name of
See also:Stilicho (q.v.), his
See also:guardian and
See also:law . During this
See also:period the revolt of the
See also:prince Gildo was suppressed (398); Italy was successfully defended against Alaric, who was defeated at
See also:Pollentia (402) and Verona (403); and the
See also:barbarian hordes under the Goth Radagaisus were destroyed (406) . After the downfall and
See also:murder of Stilicho (408), the result of palace intrigues, the emperor was under the
See also:control of incompetent favourites . In the same
See also:year Rome was besieged, and in 410, for the second
See also:time in its history, taken and sacked by Alaric, who for a
See also:short time set up the city
See also:prefect Attalus as a
See also:rival emperor, but soon deposed him as incapable . Alaric died in the same year, and in 412 Honorius concluded peace with his
See also:brother-in-law and successor,
See also:Ataulphus (
See also:Adolphus), who married the emperor's
See also:sister Placidia and removed with his troops to
See also:southern Gaul . A number of usurpers laid claim to the throne, the most important of whom was
See also:Constantine . In 409 Britain and
See also:Armorica declared their independence, which was confirmed by Honorius himself, and were thus practically lost to the
See also:empire . Honorius was one of the feeblest emperors who ever occupied the throne, and the dismemberment of the West was only temporarily averted by the efforts of Stilicho, and, later, of
See also:Constantius, a capable general who overthrew the usurpers and was rewarded with a
See also:share in the
See also:government . It was only as a supporter of the orthodox
See also:church and persecutor of the
See also:heathen that Honorius displayed any energy . In 399 the exercise of the
See also:pagan cult was prohibited, and the revenues of the temples, which were to be appropriated for the use of the public or pulled down, were confiscated to defray the expenses of the army . Honorius was equally severe on heretics, such as the
See also:Donatists and Manichaeans .
He is also to be credited with the abolition of the gladiatorial shows in 404 (although there is said to beevidence of their existence later), a reduction of the taxes, improvements in criminal law, and the reorganization of the defensores civitatum, municipal
See also:officers whose
See also:duty it was ;.a defend the rights of the
See also:people and set forth their grievances . Honorius at first established his
See also:court at Milan, but, on the
See also:report of the invasion of Italy, fled to Ravenna, where he resided till his
See also:death on the 27th of
See also:August 423 . See Gibbon, Decline and Fall, chs . 28-33 ; J . B . Bury, Later
See also:Roman Empire, i. chs . 1-5, ii. chs . 4, 6; E . A . Freeman, " Tyrants of Britain, Gaul and Spain" in Eng . His' . Review (
See also:January 1886); T .
See also:Hodgkin, Italy and her Invaders (
See also:Oxford, 1892), i. chs . 13, 15-18 .
HONOUR (Lat. honos or lwnor, honoris; in English th...
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