England theologian, was
See also:born, probably on the 7th of
See also:July 1586, at Marfield, in the
See also:parish of Tilton,
See also:County of
See also:Leicester, England . He graduated B.A. in 16o8 and M.A. in 1611 at
See also:College, Cambridge, the intellectual centre of
See also:Puritanism, remained there as a
See also:fellow for a few years, and then preached in the parish of Esher in Surrey . About 1626 he became lecturer to the
See also:church of St Mary at Chelmsford,
See also:Essex, delivering on market days and
See also:Sunday afternoons evangelical addresses which were notable for their moral fervour . In 1629 Archbishop Laud took
See also:measures to suppress church lectureships, which were an innovation of Puritanism .
See also:Hooker was placed under bond and retired to Little Baddow, 4 M. from Chelmsford . In 163o he was cited to appear before the
See also:Court of High Commission, but he forfeited his bond and fled to
See also:Holland, whence in 1633 he emigrated to the Colony of Massachusetts
See also:Bay in
See also:America, and became pastor at Newtowne (now Cambridge), Mass., of a
See also:company of Puritans who had arrived from England in the previous
See also:year and in expectation of his joining them were called " Mr Hooker's Company." Hooker seems to have been a
See also:leader in the formation of that sentiment of discontent with the Massachusetts
See also:government which resulted in the founding of
See also:Connecticut . He publicly criticized the
See also:limitation of
See also:suffrage to church members, and, according to a contemporary historian,
See also:William Hubbard (General
See also:History of New England), " after Mr Hooker's coming over it was observed that many of the freemen
See also:grew to be very jealous of their liberties." He was a leader of the emigrants who in 1636 founded
See also:Hartford, Connecticut . In a
See also:sermon before the Connecticut General Court of 1638, he declared that " the choice of public magistrates belongs unto the
See also:people by
See also:God's own
See also:allowance" and that " they who have the power to appoint
See also:officers and magistrates, it is in their power, also, to set the
See also:bounds and limitations of the power and place unto which they
See also:call them." Though this theory was in advance of the age, Hooker had no idea of the separation of church and state--" the
See also:privilege of election, which belongs to the people," he said, must be exercised " according to the blessed will and
See also:law of God." He also defended the right of magistrates to convene synods, and in the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (1639), which he probably framed, the union of church and state is presupposed . Hooker was pastor of the Hartford church until his
See also:death on the 7th of July 1647 . He was active in the negotiations which preceded the formation of the New England
See also:Confederation in 1643 . In the same year he attended the
See also:meeting of Puritan ministers at Boston, whose
See also:object was to defend
See also:Congregationalism, and he wrote a Survey of the Sumrne of Church Discipline (1648) in
See also:justification of the New England church
See also:system . His other
See also:deal chiefly with the experimental phases of religion, especially the experience precedent to
See also:con-version .
In The Smile's Humiliation (1637), he assigns as a test ofconversion a willingness of the convert to be damned if that be God's will, thus anticipating the
See also:doctrine of
See also:Hopkins in the following century . See
See also:George L .
See also:Thomas Hooker (New
See also:York, 1891); the appendix of which contains a bibliography of Hooker's published works .
SIR WILLIAM JACKSON HOOKER (1785–1865)
JOHN HOOLE (2727-1803)
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