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Originally appearing in Volume V28, Page 403 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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HORIZONTAL PRESSURES ON VERTICAL JOINTS. REKRYOIR n.uwulIIIlII lIIIII+u111IIII IIh%~~~'IIIIII iiiiijiii ' •IIIIII.. SHEARING STRESSES where P is the horizontal pressure of the earth against the wall limes have often been used in the past. Any stone of which exerted at one-third its height, w the weight of unit volume of the material, x the height of the wall, and the angle of repose of + it is desirable to build a masonry dam would certainly possess the material. That the pressure so given exceeds the maximum an average strength at least as great as the above figures fcr possible pressure we do not doubt; and, conversely, if we put concrete; the clay slate of the Lower Silurian formation, used in the case of the Vyrnwy dam, had an ultimate crushing strength of from 700 to rood tons per sq. ft. If, therefore, with such materials the work is well done, and is not subsequently liable to be wasted or disintegrated by expansion or contraction or other actions which in the process of time affect all exposed surfaces, it is clear that 15 to 20 tons per sq. ft, must be a perfectly safe load. There are many structures at present in existence bearing considerably greater loads than this, and the granite ashlar masonry of at least one, the Bear Valley dam in California, is subject to compressive stresses, reaching, when the reservoir is full, at least 40 to 50 tons per sq. ft., while certain brickwork linings in mining shafts are subject to very high circumferential stresses, due to known water-pressures. In one case which has been investigated this circumferential pressure exceeds 26 tons per sq. ft., and the brickwork, which is 18 in. thick and 20 ft. internal diameter, is perfectly sound and water-tight. In portions of the structure liable to important changes of pressure from the rise and•,fall of the water and subject to the additional stresses which expansion and contraction by changes of temperature and of moisture induce, and in view of the great difficulty of securing that the average modulus of elasticity in all parts of the structure shall be approximately the same, it is probably desirable to limit the calculated load upon any external work, even of the best kind, to 15 or 20 tons per sq. ft. It is clear that the material upon which any high masonry dam is founded must also have a large factor of safety against crushing under the greatest load that the dam can impose upon it, and this consideration unfits any site for the construction of a masonry dam where sound rock, or at least a material equal in strength to the strongest shale, cannot be had; even in the case of such a material as shale the foundation must be well below the ground. 'ill"""" „g %I~II11111111 m ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, P,=wx2•I +sin 2 I— Sin¢ we may have equal confidence that P' will be less than the maximum pressure which, if exerted by the wall against the earth, will be borne without disturbance. But like every pure theory the principles of conjugate pressures in earth may lead to danger if not applied with due consideration for the angle of repose of the material, the modifications brought about by the limited width of artificial embankments, the possible contraction away from the masonry, of clayey materials during dry weather for some feet in depth and the tendency of surface waters to produce scour between the wall and the embankment. Both the Neuadd and the Fisher Tarn dams arelargely dependent upon the support of earthen embankments with much economy and with perfectly satisfactory results. In the construction of the Vyrnwy masonry dam Portland cement concrete was used in the joints. When more than six months old, 9 in. cubes of this material never failed under compression below III tons per sq. ft. with an average of 167 tons; and the mean resistance of all the blocks tested between two and three years after moulding exceeded 215 tons per sq. ft., while blocks cut from the concrete of the dam gave from 181 to 32o tons per sq. ft. It has been shown that the best hydraulic lime, or volcanic puzzuolana and lime, if properly ground while slaking, and otherwise treated in the best-known manner, as well as some of the so-called natural (calcareous) cements, will yield results certainly not inferior to those obtained from Portland cement. The only objection that can in any case be urged against most of the natural products is that a longer time is required for induration; but in the case of masonry dams sufficient time necessarily passes before any load, beyond that of the very gradually increasing masonry, is brought upon the structure. The result of using properly treated natural limes is not to be judged from the careless manner in which such The actual construction of successful masonry dams has varied from the roughest rubble masonry to ashlar work. It Materials. is probable, however, that, all things considered, random rubble in which the flattest side of • each block of stone is dressed to a fairly uniform surface, so that it may be bedded as it were in a tray of mortar, secures the nearest approach to uniform elasticity. Such stones may be of any size subject to each of them covering only a small proportion of the width of the structure (in the Vyrnwy dam they reached 8 or 10 tons each), and the spaces between them, where large enough, must be similarly built in with smaller, but always the largest possible, stones; spaces too small for this treatment must be filled and rammed with concrete. All stones must be beaten down into their beds until the mortar squeezes up into the joints around them. The faces of the work may be of squared masonry, thoroughly tied into the hearting; but, in view of the expansion and contraction mentioned below, it is better that the face masonry should not be coursed. Generally speaking, in the excavations for the foundations springs are met with; these may be only sufficient to indicate a continuous dampness at certain beds or joints of the rock, but all such places should be connected by relief drains carried to visible points at the back of the darn. It should be impossible, in short, for any part of the rock beneath the dam to become charged with water under pressure, either directly from the water in the reservoir or from higher places in the mountain sides. For similar reasons care must be taken to ensure that the structure of the water face of the dam shall be the least permeable of any part. In the best examples this has been secured by bedding the stones near to the water face in somewhat finer mortar than the rest, and sometimes also by placing pads to fill the joints for several inches from the water face, so that the mortar was kept away from the face and was well held up to its work. On the removal of the pads, or the cutting out of the face of the mortar where pads were not used, the vacant joint was gradually filled with almost dry mortar, a hammer and caulking tool being used to consolidate it. By these means practical impermeability was obtained. If the pores of the water face are thus rendered extremely fine, the surface water, carrying more or less fine detritus and organic matter, will soon close them entirely and assist in making that face the least permeable portion of the structure. But no care in construction can prevent the compression of the mass as the superincumbent weight comes upon it. Any given yard of height measured during construction, or at any time after construction, will be less than a yard when additional weight has been placed upon it; hence the ends of such dams placed against rock surfaces must move with respect to those surfaces when the superincumbent load comes upon them. This action is obviously much reduced where the rock sides of the valley rise slowly; but in cases where the rock is very steep, the safest course is to face the facts, and not to depend for water-tightness upon the cementing of the masonry to the rock, but rather to provide a vertical key, or dowel joint, of some material like asphalt, which will always remain water-tight. So far as the writer has been able to observe or ascertain, there are very few masonry dams in Europe or America which have not been cracked transversely in their higher parts. They generally leak a little near the junction with the rock, and at some other joints in intermediate positions. In the case of the Neuadd dam this difficulty was met by deliberately omitting the mortar in transverse joints at regular intervals near the top of the dam, except just at their faces, where it of course cracks harmlessly, and by filling the rest with asphalt. Serious movement from expansion and contraction does not usually extend to levels which are kept moderately damp, or to the greater mass of the dam, many feet below high-water level. The first masonry dam of importance constructed in Great Britain was that upon the river Vyrnwy, a tributary of the Severn, in connexion with the Liverpool water-supply (Plate I.). Its height, subject to water-pressure, is about 134 ft., and a carriage-way is carried on arches at an elevation of about 18 ft. higher. As this dam is about 1180 ft. in length from rockito rock, it receives practic-ally no support from the sides of the valley. Its construction drew much attention to the subject of masonry dams in England—where the earthwork dam, with a wall of puddled clay, had hitherto been almost universal—and since its completion nine more masonry dams of smaller size have been completed. In connexion with the Elan and Claerwen works, in Mid-Wales, for the supply of Birmingham, six masonry dams were projected, three of which are completed, including the Caban Goch dam, 590 ft. long at the water level, and subject to a water-pressure of 152 ft. above the rock foundations and of 122 ft. above the river. bed, and the Craig-yr-alit Goch dam, subject to a head of •133 ft, The latter dam is curved in plan, the radius being 740 ft. and the chord of the arc 515 ft. In the Derwent Valley scheme, in connexion with the water supplies of Derby, Leicester, Nottingham and Sheffield, six more masonry dams have received parliamentary sanction. Of these the highest is the Hag-glee, on the Ashop, a tributary of the Derwent, which will impound water to about 136 ft. above the river bed, the length from rock to rock being 98o ft.. Two of these dams are now in course of construction, one of which, the Howden, will be io8o ft. in length and will impound water to a depth of 114 ft. above the river bed. In 1892 the excavation was begun for the foundations of a masonry dam across the Croton river, in -connexion with the supply of New York. The length of this dam from rock to rock at the overflow level is about 1500 ft. The water face, over the maximum depth at which that face cuts the rock foundations, is subject to a water :pressure of about 26o ft., while the height of the dam above the river bed is 163 ft. The section, shown in fig. 17, has been well considered. The hearting is of rubble masonry, and the faces are coursed ashlar. -t iv N. Iale s t I ttI I e. aS - Fin. 17.-Section of Croton Dam. So-called " natural cement " has been used, except during frosty weather, when Portland cement was substituted on account of its more rapid setting. An important feature in connexion with this dam is the nature of the foundation upon which it stands. Part of the rock is schist, but the greater portion limestone, similar in physical qualities to the Carboniferous limestone of Great Britain. The lowest part of the surface of this rock was reached after excavating through alluvial deposits to a depth of about 70 ft.; but owing to its fissured and cavernous nature it became necessary to excavate to much greater depths, reaching in places more than 120 ft. below the original bottom of the valley. Great pains appear to have been taken to ascertain that the cavernous portions of the rock had been cut out and built up before the building was begun. The Furens dam, already referred to as the earliest type of a scientifically designed structure of the kind, is subject to a pressure of about 166 ft. of water; the valley it crosses is only about 300 ft. wide at the water level, and the dam is curved in plan to a radius of 828 ft. Much discussion has taken place as to the utility of such curvature. The recent investigations already referred to indicate the desirability of curving dams in plan in order to reduce the possibility of tension and infiltration of water at the upstream face. In narrow rock gorges extremely interesting and complex problems relating to the combined action of horizontal and vertical stresses arise. and in some such cases it is evident that much may be done by means of horizontal curvature to reduce the quantity of masonry without reduction of strength. The Bear Valley dam, California, is the most daring example in existence of the employment of the arch principle. years after this, and about fifteen years after the dam was first Its height from the rock bed is 64 ft., and it is subject during floods brought into use, it overturned on its outer edge, at about the level to a head of water not much less. The length of the chord of the arc indicated by the dotted line just above the counterfort; and there is across the valley is about 250 ft. and the radius 335 ft. The dam was no good reason to attribute to the movement of 1884, or to the begun in 1883, with a base 20 ft. thick, narrowing to 13 ft. at a height vertical cracks it caused, any influence in the overturning of 1895. of 16 ft. The cost of this thickness being regarded as too great, it Someof the worst was abruptly reduced to 8 ft. 6 in., and for the remaining 48 ft. it cracks were, in-was tapered up to a final width of about 3 ft. The masonry is de- scribed by Mr Schuyler as " a rough uncut granite ashlar, with a hearting of rough rubble all laid in cement mortar and gravel." This dam has been in satisfactory use since 1885, and the slight filtration through the masonry which occurred at first is said to have almost entirely ceased. In New South Wales thirteen thin concrete dams, dependent upon horizontal curvature for their resistance to water pressure, have been constructed in narrow gorges at comparatively small cost to impound water for the use of villages. The depth of water varies from 18 ft. to 76 ft. and five of them have cracked vertically, owing apparently to the impossibility of the base of the dam partaking of the changes of curvature induced by changes of temperature and of moisture in the upper parts. It is stated, however, that these cracks close up and become practically water-tight as the water rises. Something has been said of the failures of earthen dams. Many masonry dams have also failed, but, speaking generally, we know less of the causes which have led to such failures. The Failures. examination of one case, however, namely, the bursting in 1895 of the Bouzey dam, near Epinal, in France, by which many lives were lost, has brought out several points of great interest. It is probably the only instance in which a masonry dam has slipped upon its foundations, and also the only case in which a masonry dam has actually overturned, while curiously enough there is every probability that the two circumstances had no connexion with each other. A short time after the occurrence of the catastrophe the dam was visited by Dr W. C. Unwin, F.R.S., and the writer, and a very careful examination of the work was made by them. Some of the blocks of rubble masonry carried down the stream weighed several hundred tons. The original section of the dam is shown by the continuous thick line in fig. 18, from which it appears that the work was subject to a pressure of only about 65 ft. of water. In the year 1884 a length ELEVATION iro. o'

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