city on the shores of the Persian Gulf, which occupied more than one position in the course of
See also:history, and has now long practically ceased to exist . The earliest mention of the name occurs in the voyage of
See also:Nearchus (325 B.c.) . When that
See also:admiral beached his
See also:fleet at the mouth of the
See also:river Anamis on the
See also:shore of Harmozia, a
See also:district of Carmania, he found the
See also:country to be kindly,
See also:rich in every product except the
See also:olive . The Anamis appears to be the river now known as the Minab, discharging into the Persian Gulf near the entrance of the latter . The name
See also:Hormuz is derived by some from that of the Persian
See also:god Hormuzd (Ormazd), but it is more likely that the
See also:original etymology was connected with khurma, " a date "; for the meaning of Moghistan the
See also:modern name of the territory Harmozia is " the region of date-palms." The foundation of the city of Hormuz in this territory is ascribed by one Persian writer to the
See also:Ardashir Babegan (c . 230 A.D.) . But it must have existed at an earlier date, for
See also:Ptolemy takes note of "Apµovi-a rats (vi . 8) . Hormuz is mentioned by
See also:Idrisi, who wrote c . 1150, under the title of Hormuz-al-sahiliah, " Hormuz of the shore " (to distinguish it from inland cities of the same name then existing), as a large and well-built city, the chief mart of Kirman . Siraf and Kish (Kais), farther up the gulf, had preceded it as ports of
See also:trade with India, but in the r3th century Hormuz had become the chief seat of this
See also:traffic . It was at this
See also:time the seat also of a
See also:dynasty of
See also:kings, of which there is a history by one of their number (Turan Shah); an abstract of it is given by the Jesuit Teixeira .
According to this history the founder of the dynasty was Shah Mohammed Dirhem-Kub (" the Drachma-coiner "), an Arab chief who crossed the gulf and established himself here . The date is not given, but it must have been before i too A.D., as Ruknuddin Mahmud, who succeeded in 1246, was the twelfth of the
See also:line . These princes appear to have been at times in dependence necessarily on the atabegs of Fars and on the princes of Kirman . About the
See also:year 1300 Hormuz was so severely and repeatedly harassed by raids of Tatar horsemen that the
See also:king and his
See also:people abandoned their city on the mainland and transferred themselves to the
See also:island of Jerun (Organa of Nearchus), about 12 M. westward and 4 M. from the nearest shore . The site of the
See also:continental or
See also:ancient Hormuz was first traced in modern times by Colonel (
See also:Lewis) Pelly when
See also:resident at
See also:Bushire . It stands in the
See also:present district of Minab, several
See also:miles from the
See also:sea, and on a creek which communicates with the Minab river, but is partially silted up and not now accessible for vessels . There remain traces of a long
See also:wharf and extensive ruins . The new city occupied a triangular plain forming the
See also:part of the island, the
See also:wall, as its remains still show, being about 2 M. in extent from east to west . A suburb with a wharf or
See also:pier, called Turan Bagh (
See also:garden of Turan) after one of the kings, a name now corrupted to Trumpak, stood about 3 M. from the
See also:town to the south-east .
See also:Odoric gives the earliest
See also:notice we have of the new city (c . 1320) . He calls it Ormes, a city strongly fortified and abounding in costly wares, situated on an island 5 m. distant from the
See also:main, having no trees and no fresh
See also:water, unhealthy and (as all evidence confirms) incredibly hot .
Some years later it was visited more than once by
See also:Ibn Batuta, who seems to speak of the old city as likewise still
See also:standing . The new Hormuz, called also Jerun (i.e. still retaining the original name of the island), was a
See also:great and
See also:fine city rising out of the sea, and serving as a mart for all the products of India, which were distributed hence over all
See also:Persia . The hills on the island were of
See also:salt, from which vases and pedestals for lamps were carved . Near the
See also:gate of the chief mosque stood an enormous
See also:skull, apparently that of a sperm-
See also:whale . The king at this time was Kutbuddin Tahamtan, and the traveller gives a curious description of him, seated on the
See also:throne, in patched and dirty raiment, holding a
See also:rosary of enormous pearls, procured from the Bahrein
See also:fisheries, which at one time or another belonged, with other islands in the gulf and on the
See also:Oman shores from
See also:Ras-el-had (C . Rosalgat of the Portuguese) on the ocean
See also:round to Julfar on the gulf, to the princes of Hormuz . Abdurazzak, the
See also:envoy of Shah Rukh on his. way to the
See also:court of Vijayanagar, was in Hormuz in 1442, and speaks of it as a mart which had no equal, frequented by the merchants of all the countries of
See also:Asia, among which he enumerates
See also:Java, Bengal,
See also:Tenasserim, Shahr-i-nao (i.e . Siam) and the Maldives .
See also:Nikitin, the
See also:Russian (c . 1470), gives a similar account; he calls it " a vast emporium of all the
See also:world." In
See also:September 1507 the king of Hormuz, after for some time
See also:hearing of the terrible foe who was carrying
See also:fire and sword along the shores of
See also:Arabia, saw the
See also:squadron of
See also:Alphonso d'Albuquerque appear before his city, an appearance speedily followed by extravagant demands, by refusal of these from the ministers of the
See also:young king, and by deeds of matchless daring and cruelty on the part of the Portuguese, which speedily broke down resistance . The king acknowledged himself tributary to
See also:Portugal, and gave leave to the Portuguese to build a
See also:castle, which was at once commenced on the northern part of the island, commanding the city and the anchorage on both sides . But the mutinous conduct and
See also:desertion of several of Albuquerque's captains compelled him suddenly to abandon the enterprise; and it was not till 1514, after the great
See also:leader had captured
See also:Goa and Malacca, and had for five years been
See also:viceroy, that he returned to Hormuz (or Ormuz, as the Portuguese called it), and without encountering resistance to a name now so terrible, laid his grasp again on the island and completed his castle .
For more than a century Hormuz remained practically in the dominions of Portugal, though the hereditary
See also:prince, paying from his revenues a tribute to Portugal (in lieu of which eventually the latter took the whole of the customs collections), continued to be the instrument of
See also:government . The position of things during the Portuguese
See also:rule may be understood from the description of Cesare de'
See also:Federici, a Venetian
See also:merchant who was at Hormuz about 1565 . After speaking of the great trade in spices, drugs,
See also:silk and silk stuffs, and pearls of Bahrein, and in horses for export to India, he says the king was a
See also:Moor (i.e .
See also:Mahommedan), chosen by and subordinate to the Portuguese . " At the election of the king I was there and saw the ceremonies that they use . . . The old king being dead, the captain of the Portugals chooseth another of the
See also:blood-royal, and makes this election in the castle with great ceremony . And when he is elected the captain sweareth him to be true ... to the K. of Portugal as his
See also:lord and
See also:governor, and then he giveth him the
See also:regal . After this ... with great pomp ... he is brought into the royal palace in the city . The king keeps a
See also:train and hath sufficient revenues, ... because the captain of the castle doth maintain and defend his right . . . he is honoured as a king, yet he cannot ride abroad with his train, without the consent of the captain first had " (in
See also:Hakluyt).' In
See also:Barros, Dec . II.
See also:book x. c .
7, there is a curious detail of therevenue and
See also:expenditure of the
See also:kingdom of Ormuz, which would seem to exhibit the former as not more than £ioo,000 . The rise of the
See also:English trade and factories in the
See also:locke in vol. viii.,
See also:Pell in vol. xxxiv.;
See also:Fraser, Narrative of a
See also:Journey seas in the beginning of the 17th century led to
See also:constant jealousies and broils with the Portuguese, and the successful efforts of the English
See also:company to open traffic with Persia especially embittered their rivals, to whom the possession of Hormuz had long given a
See also:monopoly of that trade . The
See also:officers of Shah Abbas, who looked with a covetous and resentful
See also:eye on the Portuguese occupation of such a position, were strongly desirous of the aid of English
See also:ships in attacking Hormuz . During 1620 and 1621 the ships of Portugal and of the English company had more than once come to
See also:action in the Indian seas, and in
See also:November of the latter year the council at
See also:Surat had resolved on what was practically maritime war with the Portuguese
See also:flag . There was hardly a step between this and the decision come to in the following
See also:month to join with " the duke of
See also:Shiraz " (
See also:Kali Khan, the governor of Fars) in the desired expedition against Hormuz . There was some pretext of being forced into the
See also:alliance by a Persian
See also:threat to
See also:lay embargo on the English goods at Jashk; but this seems to have been only brought forward by the English agents when, at a later date, their proceedings were called in question . The English crews were at first unwilling to take part in what they justly said was " no merchandizing business, nor were they engaged for the like," but they were persuaded, and five English vessels aided, first, in the attack of Kishm, where (at the east end of the large island so called) the Portuguese had lately built a fort,' and afterwards in that of Hormuz itself . The latter
See also:siege was opened on the 18th of
See also:February 1622, and continued to the 1st of May, when the Portuguese, after a gallant defence of ten
See also:weeks, surrendered . It is to be recollected that Portugal was at this time subject to the
See also:crown of Spain, with which England was at peace; indeed, it was but a year later that the prince of
See also:Wales went on his wooing adventure to the
See also:Spanish court . The irritation there was naturally great, though it is surprising how little came of it . The company were supposed (apparently without foundation) to have profited largely by the Hormuz
See also:booty; and both the duke of
See also:Buckingham and the king claimed to be " sweetened," as the record phrases it, from this supposed treasure . The former certainly received a large bribe (f,io,000) .
The conclusion of the transaction with the king was formerly considered doubtful; but entries in the
See also:calendar of East India papers seem to show that
See also:James received an equal sum.2 Hormuz never recovered from this
See also:blow . The Persians transferred their establishments to Gombroon on the mainland, about 12 M. to the
See also:north-west, which the king had lately set up as a royal
See also:port under the name of Bander Abbasi . The English stipulations for aid had embraced an equal division of the customs duties . This division was apparently recognized by the Persians as applying to the new Bander, and, though the trade with Persia was constantly decaying and
See also:precarious, the company held to their factory at Gombroon for the
See also:sake of this claim to revenue, which of course was most irregularly paid . In 1683–1684 the amount of
See also:debt due to the company in Persia, including their proportion of customs duties, was reckoned at a million sterling . As
See also:late as 1690–1691 their right seems to have been admitted, and a payment of 3495 sequins was received by them on this account . The factory at Gombroon lingered on till 1759, when it was seized by two French ships of war under Comte d'
See also:Estaing . It was re-established, but at the time of Niebuhr's visit to the gulf a few years later no
See also:European remained . Niebuhr mentions that in his time (c . 1765) Mulla '
See also:Ali Shah, formerly admiral of
See also:Nadir Shah, was established on the island of Hormuz and part of Kishm as an
See also:independent chief . into Khorasan (1825;
See also:Constable and Stiffe, Persian Gulf
See also:Pilot See also Barros, Asia; Commentaries of Albuquerque, trans. by Birch (Hak . Society); Relaciones de Pedro Teixeira (Antwerp, 161o) ; Narratives in Hakluyt's Collection (reprint in 1809, vol. ii.) and in
See also:Purchas's Pilgrims, vol. ii.; Pietro
See also:Valle, Persia, lett. xii.-xvii.; Calendar of E .
I . Papers, by Sainsbury, vol. iii.;Ritter, Erdkunde, xii.; Jour .
See also:Roy . Geog .
See also:Soc., Kempthorne in vol. v.,
See also:White- ' The attack on Kishm was notable in that one of the two English-men killed there was the great navigator
See also:Baffin . 2 Colonial Series, E . Indies, by Sainsbury, vol: iii. passim, especially see pp . 296 and 329 . (1864);
See also:Annals of the E . I . Company, &c . (181o) .
(H . Y.) The island has a circumference of 16 m. and its longest
See also:measures 4 m . The
See also:village is in 27° 6' N., 56° 29' E . The Portuguese fort still stands, but is sadly out of repair and much of its western wall has been undermined and washed away by the action of the sea . It is a bastioned fort with orillons and loopholed casemates under the ramparts and was separated from the town by a deep
See also:moat, now silted up, cut E.-W. across the
See also:isthmus and crossed by a
See also:bridge . It has three cisterns for
See also:collecting rainwater; two are 17-18 ft. deep, have a capacity of about 60,00o gallons and are covered by arched
See also:roofs supported on six
See also:stone pillars . The third cistern is smaller and has no roof . Five rusty old iron guns are lying prone on the roof; six others on the strand before the village are used for fastening boats, another serves as a socket for a flagstaff before the representative of the government . The island is under the jurisdiction of the governor of the Persian Gulf ports who resides t Bushire . Of the old city hardly anything stands except a
See also:minaret, 70 ft. high, with a winding
See also:staircase inside and much worn away at the
See also:base, part of a former mosque used by the Portuguese as a lighthouse, but the traces of buildings, massive
See also:foundations constructed of stone quarried in the hills on the island, of many cisterns (some say 300), &c., are numerous and extensive . The modern settlement, situated south of the fort on the eastern shore, has a population of about loco during the cool
See also:season, but less in the hot season, when many people go over to Millais on the mainland to the east . Most of the people live in huts constructed of the branches and leaves of the date palm .
They own about sixty small sailing vessels trading to
See also:Muscat and other ports and also do some pearl-fishing . At Turan Bagh on the east coast 4 m . S.E. of the fort are some considerable ruins, irrigation canals, an extensive
See also:burial ground and some huts occupied by a few families who cultivate a small garden on a terrace supported by old retaining walls . On a
See also:hill near the shore 11 m . S.E. of the fort is the ruin of a small
See also:chapel called "
See also:Lucia" on an old map in Astley's Collection of Voyages, and on the
See also:summit of a salt hill 1 m. south of the fort are the remains of another chapel called " N.S. de la Pena " on the same map, and a " Monastery " in a
See also:sketch of Hormuz made by
See also:Davies, a mate on
See also:board the East India Company's
See also:ship "
See also:Discovery " in 1627 . With the exception of the northern part, where the old city stood, and the little patch at Turan Bagh, the island is covered with reddish
See also:brown hills with
See also:sharp serrated ridges composed of
See also:gypsum, rock-salt and
See also:clay . These hills, which do not exceed 300 ft. in height, are broken through in four places by conical, whitish peaks of volcanic rocks (
See also:trachyte) ; the highest of these peaks with an altitude of 690 ft. is situated almost in the centre of the island . The island has extensive beds of red ochre in which nodules of very pure hematite are often found . The ochre, here called gzlek, has been an important article of export for centuries3 and great quantities of it are exported at the present time to England (in 1906–1907, 10,000 tons;
See also:local price 27s. the ton) . The
See also:climate of Hormuz, although hot, is, according to medical experts, the best in the Persian Gulf .
See also:Rain falls in
See also:January, February and
See also:March, and the
See also:annual rainfall is said to be about the same as that of Bushire, 12 to 13 in . Capt .
A . W . Stiffe in Geogr . Mag . (
See also:April 1874) ;
See also:Foster in Geogr . Journal (Aug . 1894); writer's notes taken on island . (A.H.-S.,) .
HORMIZD, or HORMIZDAS
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