See also:Swedish statesman, was
See also:born at Vuorentaka in Finland on the 6th of
See also:April 1664, of a
See also:noble but indigent
See also:family . After completing his studies at
See also:Abo, he entered the army and served for several years in the
See also:Netherlands, in Hungary under
See also:Eugene, and in
See also:Flanders under Waldeck (r69o–1695) . He stood high 3 " Reddle or Red Ochre from the
See also:Forest of Dean in
See also:shire is very little inferior to the Sort brought from the
See also:Island of Ormuz in the Persian Gulph and so much valued and used by our Painters under the name of
See also:Indian Red " (
See also:History of Stones,,
See also:London, 1774) . in the favour of the
See also:Charles XII. and was one of his fore-most generals in the earlier
See also:part of the
See also:Northern War . In 1704 he was entrusted with his first
See also:mission, the deposition of
See also:Augustus II. of Poland and the election of
See also:Stanislaus I., a mission which he accomplished with distinguished ability but absolute unscrupulousness . Shortly afterwards he was besieged by Augustus in Warsaw and compelled to surrender . In 1705 he was made a senator, in 1706 a count and in 1707
See also:governor of Charles XII.'s
See also:nephew, the young duke Charles
See also:Frederick of Holstein-Gottorp . In 1710 he succeeded Nils Gyldenstolpe as
See also:minister . Transferred to the central point of the administration, he had ample opportunity of regarding with other eyes the situation of the
See also:kingdom, and in consequence of his remonstrances he fell rapidly in the favour of Charles XII . Both in 1710 and 1713
See also:Horn was in favour of summoning the estates, but when in 1714 the
See also:diet adopted an
See also:anti-monarchical attitude, he gravely warned and ultimately dissolved it . In Charles XII.'s later years Horn had little to do with the administration . After the
See also:death of Charles XII .
(1718) it was Horn who persuaded the princess Ulrica Leonora to relinquish her hereditary claims and submit to be elected
See also:queen of Sweden . He protested against the queen's autocratic behaviour, and resigned both the premiership and his senatorship . He was elected landtmarskalk at the diet of 1720,- and contributed, on the resignation of Ulrica Leonora, to the election of Frederick of Hesse as
See also:king of Sweden, whose first
See also:act was to restore to him the
See also:office of prime minister . For the next eighteen years he so absolutely controlled both the
See also:foreign and the domestic affairs of Sweden that the
See also:period between 1720 and 1738 has well been called the Horn period . His services to his
See also:country were indeed inestimable . His strong
See also:hand kept the inevitable strife of the
See also:parliamentary factions within due limits, and it was entirely owing to his provident care that Sweden so rapidly recovered from the wretched
See also:condition in which the
See also:wars of Charles XII. had plunged her . In his foreign policy Horn was extremely wary and cautious, yet without compromising either the independence or the self-respect of his country . He was, however, the
See also:promoter of a new principle of administration which in later days proved very dangerous to Sweden under ministers less capable than he was . This was to increase the influence of the diet and its secret committees in the solution of purely diplomatic questions, which should have been
See also:left entirely to the executive, thus weakening the central
See also:government and at the same
See also:time facilitating the interference of foreign
See also:Powers in Sweden's domestic affairs . Not till 1731 was there any appearance of opposition in the diet to Horn's "
See also:system "; but Horn, piqued by the growing coolness of the king, the same
See also:year offered his resignation, which was not accepted . In 1734, however, the opposition was bold enough to denounce his
See also:neutrality on the occasion of the war of the
See also:Polish Succession, when Stanislaus I. again appeared upon the scene as a
See also:candidate for the Polish
See also:throne; but Horn was still strong enough to prevent a rupture with Russia . Hence-forth he was bitterly but unjustly accused of want of patriotism, and in 1738 was compelled at last to retire before the impetuous onslaught of the triumphant young
See also:Hat party .
See also:rest of his
See also:life he lived in retirement at his
See also:estate at Ekebyholm, where he died on the 17th of April 1742 . Horn in many respects greatly resembled his contemporary Walpole . The
See also:peculiar situation of Sweden, and the circumstances of his time, made his policy necessarily opportunist, but it was an opportunism based on excellent
See also:common sense . See V . E . Svedelius, Arvid
See also:Bernard Horn (
See also:Stockholm, 1879) ; R . N . Bain, Gustavus III., vol. i . (London, 1894), and Charles XII . (1895); C . F . Horn, A .
B . Horn: hans lefnad (Stockholm, 1852) . (R . N .
COUNT PHILIP DE MONTMORENCY HORN
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