HUSSITES , the name given to the followers of
See also:Huss (1369–1415), the Bohemian reformer . They were at first often called Wycliffites, as the theological theories of Huss were largely founded on the teachings of Wycliffe . Huss indeed laid more stress on
See also:church reform than on theological controversy . On such matters he always writes as a
See also:disciple of Wycliffe . The Hussite
See also:movement may be said to have sprung from three
See also:sources, which are however closely connected . Bohemia, which had first received
See also:Christianity from the East, was from
See also:geographical and other causes long but very loosely connected with the Church of Rome . The connexion became closer at the
See also:time when the
See also:schism with its violent controversies between the
See also:rival pontiffs, waged with the coarse invective customary to
See also:medieval theologians, had brought
See also:great discredit on the papacy . The terrible rapacity of its representatives in Bohemia, which increased in proportion as it became more difficult to obtain
See also:money from western countries such as England and France, caused general indignation; and this was still further intensified by the
See also:gross immorality of the
See also:Roman priests . The Hussite movement was also a democratic one, an uprising of the peasantry against the landowners at a
See also:period when a third of the
See also:soil belonged to the
See also:clergy . Finally
See also:enthusiasm for the Slavic
See also:race contributed largely to its importance . The towns, in most cases creations of the rulers of Bohemia who had called in German immigrants, were, with the exception of the " new
See also:town " of
See also:Prague, mainly German; and in consequence of the regulations of the university, Germans also held almost all the more important ecclesiastical offices—a
See also:condition of things greatly resented by the natives of Bohemia, which at this period had reached a high degree of intellectual development . The Hussite movement assumed a revolutionary character as soon as the
See also:news of the
See also:death of Huss reached Prague .
The knights and nobles of Bohemia andMoravia, who were in favour of church reform, sent to the council at
See also:Constance (
See also:September 2nd, 1415) a protest, known as the " protestatio Bohemorum" which condemned the execution of Huss in the strongest language . The attitude of
See also:king of the Romans, who sent threatening letters to Bohemia declaring that he would shortly " drown all Wycliffites and Hussites," greatly incensed the
See also:people . Troubles broke out in various parts of Bohemia, and many Romanist priests were driven from their parishes . Almost from the first the Hussites were divided into two sections, though many minor divisions also arose among them . Shortly before his death Huss had accepted a
See also:doctrine preached during his
See also:absence by his adherents at Prague, namely that of " utraquism," i.e. the
See also:obligation of the faithful to receive communion in both kinds (sub utraque specie) . This doctrine became the watchword of the moderate Hussites who were known as the Utraquists or Calixtines (calix, the chalice), in Bohemian, podoboji ; while the more advanced Hussites were soon known as the Taborites, from the city of
See also:Tabor that became their centre . Under the influence of his
See also:brother Sigismund, king of the Romans, King
See also:Wenceslaus endeavoured to
See also:stem the Hussite movement . A certain number of Hussites lead by Nicolas of Hus—no relation of John Huss—left Prague . They held meetings in various parts of Bohemia, particularly at Usti, near the spot where the town of Tabor was founded soon afterwards . At these meetings Sigismund was violently denounced, and the people everywhere prepared for war . In spite of the departure of many prominent Hussites the troubles at Prague continued . On the 3oth of
See also:July 1419, when a Hussite procession headed by the
See also:priest John of 2elivo (in Ger .
Selau) marched through the streets of Prague, stones were thrown at the Hussites from the windows of the town-
See also:hall of the " new town." The people, headed by John 2iika (1376–1424), threw the burgomaster and several town-councillors, who were the instigators of this
See also:outrage, from the windows and they were immediately killed by the
See also:crowd . On
See also:hearing this news King Wenceslaus was seized with an apoplectic
See also:fit, and died a few days afterwards . The death of the king resulted in renewed troubles in Prague and in almost all parts of Bohemia . Many Romanists, mostly Germans—for they had almost all remained faithful to the papal cause—were expelled from the Bohemian cities . In Prague, in
See also:November 1419, severe fighting took place between the Hussites and the mercenaries whom
See also:Sophia (widow of Wenceslaus and
See also:regent after the death of her
See also:husband) had hurriedly collected . After a considerable
See also:part of the city had been destroyed a truce was concluded on the 13th of November . The nobles, who though favourable to the Hussite cause yet supported the regent, promised to
See also:act as mediators with Sigismund; while the citizens of Prague consented to restore to the royal forces the
See also:castle of Vysehrad, which had fallen into their hands . Ziika, who disapproved of this compromise,
See also:left Prague and retired to Plzen (
See also:Pilsen) . Unable to maintain himself there he marched to
See also:southern Bohemia, and after defeating the Romanists at Sudomef—the first pitched
See also:battle of the Hussite wars—he arrived at Usti, one of the earliest
See also:meeting-places of the Hussites . Not considering its situation sufficiently strong, he moved to the neighbouring new settlement of the Hussites, to which the biblical name of Tabor was given . Tabor soon became the centre of the advanced Hussites, who differed from the Utraquists by recognizing only two sacraments—Baptism and Communion—and by rejecting most of the ceremonial of the Roman Church . The ecclesiastical organization of Tabor had a somewhat puritanic character, and the
See also:government was established on a thoroughly democratic basis .
Four captains of the people (hejtmane) were elected, one of whom was Ziika; and a very strictly military discipline was instituted . Sigismund, king of the Romans, had, by the death of his brother Wenceslaus without issue, acquired a claim on the Bohemian
See also:crown; though it was then, and remained till much later, doubtful whether Bohemia was an hereditary or an elective
See also:monarchy . A
See also:firm adherent of the Church of Rome, Sigismund was successful in obtaining aid from the
See also:pope .
See also:Martin V. issued a bull on the 17th of
See also:March 1420 which proclaimed a crusade " for the destruction of the Wycliffites, Hussites and all other heretics in Bohemia." The vast army of crusaders, with which were Sigismund and many German princes, and which consisted of adventurers attracted by the hope of pillage from all parts of
See also:Europe, arrived before Prague on the 30th of
See also:June and immediately began the
See also:siege of the city, which had, however, soon to be abandoned (see 21iJA, JOHN) . Negotiations took place for a settlement of the religious differences . The
See also:united Hussites formulated their demands in a statement known as the " articles of Prague." This document, the most important of the Hussite period, runs thus in the wording of the
See also:con-temporary chronicler, Laurence of Brezova: I . The word of
See also:God shall be preached and made known in the
See also:kingdom of Bohemia freely and in an orderly manner by the priests of the
See also:Lord ... . II . The
See also:sacrament of the most
See also:Holy Eucharist shall be freely administered in the two kinds, that is
See also:bread and
See also:wine, to all the faithful in Christ who are not precluded by mortal sin—according to the word and disposition of Our Saviour . IV . All mortal sins, and in particular all public and other disorders, which are contrary to God's
See also:law, shall in every
See also:rank of
See also:life be duly and judiciously prohibited and destroyed by those whose
See also:office it is . These articles, which contain the essence of the Hussite doctrine, were rejected by Sigismund, mainly through the influence of the papal legates, who considered them prejudicial to the authority of the Roman see .
Hostilities therefore continued . Though Sigismund had retired from Prague, the castles of Vysehrad and Hradeany remained inpossession of his troops . The citizens of Prague laid siege to the Vysehrad, and towardsthe end of
See also:October (1420) the garrison was on the point of capitulating through
See also:famine . Sigismund attempted to relieve the fortress, but was decisively defeated by the Hussites on the 1st of November near the
See also:village of Pankrac . The castles of Vysehrad and Hradeany now capitulated, and shortly after-wards almost all Bohemia fell into the hands of the Hussites .
See also:Internal troubles prevented them from availing themselves completely of their victory . At Prague a demagogue, the priest John of Zelivo, for a time obtained almost unlimited authority over the
See also:lower classes of the townsmen; and at Tabor a communistic movement (that of the so-called
See also:Adamites) was sternly suppressed by Ziika . Shortly afterwards a new crusade against the Hussites was undertaken . A large German army entered Bohemia, and in
See also:August 1421 laid siege to the town of Zatec (
See also:Saaz) . The crusaders hoped to be joined in Bohemia by King Sigismund, but that
See also:prince was detained in Hungary . After an unsuccessful attempt to
See also:storm Zatec the crusaders retreated somewhat ingloriously, on hearing that the Hussite troops were approaching . Sigismund only arrived in Bohemia at the end of the
See also:year 1421 .
He took possession of the town of Kutna Hora (
See also:Kuttenberg), but was decisively defeated by Ziika at Nemecky
See also:Brod (Deutschbrod) on the 6th of
See also:January 1422 . Bohemia was now again for a time
See also:free from
See also:foreign intervention, but internal discord again broke out caused partly by theological strife, partly by the ambition of
See also:agitators . John of Zelivo was on the 9th of March 1422 arrested by the town council of.Prague and decapitated . There were troubles at Tabor also, where a more advanced party opposed Ziika's authority . Bohemia obtained a temporary
See also:respite when, in 1422, Prince Sigismund Korybutovie of Poland became for a
See also:short time ruler of the
See also:country . His authority was recognized by the Utraquist nobles, the citizens of Prague, and the more moderate Taborites, including Ziika . Korybutovie, however, remained but a short time in Bohemia; after his departure
See also:civil war broke out, the Taborites opposing in arms the more moderate Utraquists, who at this period are also called by the chroniclers the " Praguers," as Prague was their
See also:principal stronghold . On the 27th of
See also:April 1423, Ziika now again leading, the Taborites defeated at Horic the Utraquist army under Cenek of Wartemberg; shortly afterwards an armistice was concluded at Konopist . Papal influence had meanwhile succeeded in calling forth a new crusade against Bohemia, but it resulted in
See also:complete failure . In spite of the endeavours of their rulers, the Slays of Poland and Lithuania did not wish to attack the kindred Bohemians; the Germans were prevented by internal discord from taking joint
See also:action against the Hussites; and the king of Denmark, who had landed in Germany with a large force intending to take part in the crusade, soon returned to his own country . Free for a time from foreign aggression, the Hussites invaded Moravia, where a large part of the population favoured their creed; but, again paralysed by dissensions, soon returned to Bohemia . The city of
See also:Koniggratz (Kralove Hradec), which had been under Utraquist
See also:rule, espoused the doctrine of Tabor, and called
See also:Zizka to its aid .
After several military successes gained by Ziika (q.v.) in 1423 and the following year, a treaty ofpeace between the Hussites was concluded on the 13th of September 1424 at Liben, a village near Prague, now part of that city . In 1426 the Hussites were again attacked by foreign enemies . In June of that year their forces, led by
See also:Prokop the Great who took the command of the Taborites shortly after Ziika's death in October 1424—and Sigismund Korybutovie, who had returned to Bohemia, signally defeated the Germans at
See also:Aussig (Usti nad Labem) . After this great victory, and another at Tachau in 1427, the Hussites repeatedly invaded Germany, though they made no attempt to occupy permanently any part of the country . The almost uninterrupted series of victories of the Hussites now rendered vain all hope of subduing them by force of arms . Moreover, the conspicuously democratic character of the Hussite movement caused the German princes, who were afraid that such views might extend to their own countries, to
See also:desire peace . Many Hussites, particularly the Utraquist clergy, were also in favour of peace . Negotiations for this purpose were to take place at the
See also:oecumenical council which had been summoned to meet at
See also:Basel on the 3rd of March 1431 . The Roman see reluctantly consented to the presence of heretics at this council, but indignantly rejected the
See also:suggestion of the Hussites that members of the Greek Church, and representatives of all Christian creeds, should also be
See also:present . Before definitely giving its consent to peace negotiations, the Roman Church determined on making a last effort to reduce the Hussites to subjection . On the 1st of August 1431 a large army of crusaders, under
See also:margrave of
See also:Brandenburg, whom
See also:Cardinal Cesarini accompanied as papal
See also:legate, crossed the Bohemian frontier; on the 14th of August it reached the town of Domaklice (Tauss); but on the arrival of the Hussite army under Prokop the crusaders immediately took to
See also:flight, almost without offering resistance . On the 15th of October the members of the cc uncil, who had already assembled at Basel, issued a formal ii vitation to the Hussites to take part isl its deliberations .
Prolonged negotiations ensued; but finally a Hussite
See also:embassy, led ay Prokop and including John of Rokycan, the Taborite
See also:bishop Nicolas of Pelhiimov, the "
See also:English Hussite,"
See also:Payne and many others, arrived at Basel on the 4th of January 1433 . It was found impossible to arrive at an agreement . Negotiations were not, however, broken off; and a
See also:change in the
See also:political situation of Bohemia finally resulted in a settlement . In 1434 war again broke out between the Utraquists and the Taborites . On the 3oth of May of that year the Taborite army, led by Prokop the Great and Prokop the Less, who both fell in the battle, was totally defeated and almost annihilated at
See also:Lipan . The moderate party thus obtained the upper
See also:hand; and it formulated its demands in a document which was finally accepted by the Church of Rome in a slightly modified
See also:form, and which is known as " the compacts." The compacts, mainly founded on the articles of Prague, declare that: I . The Holy Sacrament is to be given freely in both kinds to all Christians in Bohemia and Moravia, and to those elsewhere who adhere to the faith of these two countries . 2 . All mortal sins shall be punished and extirpated by those whose office it is so to do . 3 . The word of God is to be freely and truthfully preached by the priests of the Lord, and by worthy deacons . 4 .
The priests in the time of the law of
See also:grace shall claim no owner-
See also:ship of worldly possessions . On the 5th of July 1436 the compacts were formally accepted and signed at
See also:Iglau, in Moravia, by King Sigismund, by the Hussite delegates, and by the representatives of the Roman Church . The last-named, however, refused to recognize as archbishop of Prague, John of Rokycan, who had been elected to that dignity by the estates of Bohemia . The Utraquist creed, frequently varying in its details, continued to be that of the established church of Bohemia till all non-Roman religious services were prohibited shortly after the battle of the
See also:Mountain in 162o . The Taborite party never recovered from its defeat at Lipan, and after the town of Tabor had been captured by
See also:George of
See also:Podebrad in 1452 Utraquist religious worship was established there . The Bohemian brethren, whose intellectual originator was Peter Chelcicky, but whose actual founders were Brother
See also:Gregory, a
See also:nephew of Archbishop Rokycan, and Michael, curate of Zamberk, to a certain extent continued the Taborite traditions, and in the 15th and 16th centuries included most of the strongest opponents of Rome in Bohemia . J . A . Komensky (Comenius), a member of the brotherhood, claimed for the members of his church that they were the genuine inheritors of the doctrines of Hus . After the beginning of the German Reformation many Utraquists adopted to a large extent the doctrines of
See also:Luther and
See also:Calvin; and in 1567 obtained the repeal of the compacts, which no longer seemed sufficiently far-reaching . From the end of the 16th century the inheritors of the Hussite tradition in Bohemia were included in the more general name of " Protestants "
See also:borne by the adherents of the Reformation . All histories of Bohemia devote a large amount of space to the Hussite movement .
SeeCount Lutzow, Bohemia; an
See also:Sketch (
See also:London, 1896); Palacky, Geschichte von Bohmen; Bachmann, Geschichte Bohmens; L . Krummel, Geschichte der bohmischen Reformation (
See also:Gotha, 1866) and Utraquisten and Taboriten (Gotha, 1870; Ernest Denis, Huss et la guerre
See also:des Hussites (
See also:Paris, 1878) ; H . Toman, Husitske Vdlecnictvi (Prague, 1898) .
HUSTING (O. Eng. hiesting, from Old Norwegian hzest...
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