See also:English biologist, was
See also:born on the 4th of May 1825 at
See also:Ealing, where his
See also:Huxley, was
See also:senior assistant-
See also:master in the school of Dr
See also:Nicholas . This was an
See also:establishment of repute, and is at any
See also:rate remarkable for having produced two men with so little in
See also:common in after
See also:life as Huxley and
See also:Cardinal Newman . The cardinal's
See also:William, had been " captain " of the school in 1821 . Huxley was a seventh
See also:child (as his father had also been), and the youngest who survived
See also:infancy . Of Huxley's ancestry no more is ascertainable than in the case of most
See also:middle-class families . He himself thought it sprang from the
See also:Cheshire Huxleys of Huxley
See also:Hall . Different branches migrated south, one, now
See also:extinct, reaching
See also:London, where its members were apparently engaged in commerce . They established themselves for four generations at Wyre Hall, near
See also:Edmonton, and one was knighted by
See also:Charles II . Huxley describes his paternal
See also:race as " mainly Iberian mongrels, with a
See also:good dash of Norman and a little Saxon."' From his father he thought he derived little except a
See also:temper and the
See also:faculty which proved of
See also:great service to him and reappeared in an even more striking degree in his daughter, the Hon . Mrs Collier . " Mentally and physically," he wrote, " I am a piece of my
See also:mother." Her
See also:maiden name was
See also:Rachel Withers . " She came of
See also:people," he adds, and describes her as " a typical example of the Iberian variety." He tells us that " her most distinguishing characteristic was rapidity of thought .
. . That peculiarity has been passed on to me in full strength " (Essays, i . 4) . One of the not least striking facts in Huxley's life is that of
See also:education in the formal sense he received none . " I had two years of a pandemonium of a school (between eight and ten), and after that neither help nor sympathy in any intellectual direction till I reached manhood " (Life, ii . 145) . After the
See also:death of Dr Nicholas the Ealing school broke up, and Huxley's father returned about 1835 to his native
See also:Coventry, where he had obtained a small
See also:appointment . Huxley was
See also:left to his own devices; few histories of boyhood could offer any parallel . At twelve he was sitting up in
See also:bed to read Hutton's Geology . His great
See also:desire was to be a
See also:mechanical engineer; it ended in his devotion to " the mechanical
See also:engineering of living 1 Nature, lxiii . 127.
See also:machines." His curiosity in this direction was nearly fatal; a
See also:post-mortem he was taken to between thirteen and fourteen was followed by an illness which seems to have been the starting-point of the
See also:health which pursued him all through life . At fifteen he devoured
See also:Sir William
See also:Hamilton's Logic, and thus acquired the taste for
See also:metaphysics, which he cultivated to the end .
At seventeen he came under theinfluence of
See also:Thomas Carlyle's writings . Fifty years later he wrote: " To make things clear and get rid of cant and shows of all sorts . This was the lesson I learnt from Carlyle's books when I was a boy, and it has
See also:stuck by me all my life " (Life, ii . 268) . Incidentally they led him to begin to learn German; he had already acquired French.; At seventeen Huxley, with his elder brother
See also:James, commenced
See also:regular medical studies at Charing
See also:Cross Hospital, where they had both obtained scholarships . He studied under Wharton
See also:Jones, a physiologist who never seems to have attained the reputation he deserved . Huxley said of him: " I do not know that I ever
See also:felt so much respect for a teacher before or since " (Life, i . 20) . At twenty he passed his first M.B. examination at the University of London, winning the gold medal for anatomy and physiology; W . H . Ransom, the well-known Nottingham physician, obtaining the
See also:exhibition . In 1845 he published, at the
See also:suggestion of Wharton Jones, his first scientific paper, demonstrating the existence of a hitherto unrecognized layer in the inner sheath of hairs, a layer that has been known since as " Huxley's layer." Something had to be done for a livelihood, and at the suggestion of a
See also:fellow-student, Mr (afterwards Sir
See also:Fayrer, he applied for an appointment in the
See also:navy .
He passed the necessary examination, and at the same
See also:time obtained the qualification of the Royal
See also:College of Surgeons . He was " entered on the books of Nelson's old
See also:ship, the ` Victory,' for
See also:duty at Haslar Hospital." Its chief, Sir
See also:Richardson, who was a well-known Arctic explorer and naturalist, recognized Huxley's ability, and
See also:pro-cured for him the post of surgeon to H.M.S . "
See also:Rattlesnake," about to start for
See also:work in Torres Strait . The
See also:commander, Captain
See also:Stanley, was a son of the
See also:bishop of Norwich and brother of Dean Stanley, and wished for an officer with some scientific knowledge . Besides Huxley the " Rattle-snake " also carried a naturalist by profession, John
See also:Macgillivray, who, however, beyond a dull narrative of the expedition, accomplished nothing . The " Rattlesnake " left England" on the 3rd of
See also:December 1846, and was ordered home after the lamented death of Captain Stanley at
See also:Sydney, to be paid off at Chatham on the 9th of
See also:November 185o . The tropical seas teem with delicate
See also:surface-life, and to the study of this Huxley devoted himself with unremitting devotion . At that time no known methods existed by which it could be preserved for study in museums at home . He gathered a magnificent
See also:harvest in the almost unreaped
See also:field, and the conclusions he drew from it were the beginning of the revolution in zoological science which he lived to see accomplished . Baron Cuvier (1769–1832), whose
See also:classification still held its ground, had divided the animal
See also:kingdom into four great embranchements . Each of these corresponded to an
See also:independent archetype, of which the " idea " had existed in the mind of the Creator . There was no other connexion between these classes, and the " ideas " which animated them were, as far as one can see, arbitrary .
Cuvier'sgroups, without their theoretical basis, were accepted by K . E. von Baer (1792–1876) . The " idea " of the
See also:group, or archetype, admitted of endless variation within it; but this was subordinate to essential conformity with the archetype, and hence Cuvier deduced the important principle of the " correlation of parts," of which he made such conspicuous use in palaeontological reconstruction . Meanwhile the " Naturphilosophen," with J . W . Goethe (1749–1832) and L .
See also:Oken (1779–1851), had in effect grasped the under-lying principle of correlation, and so far anticipated
See also:evolution by asserting the possibility of deriving specialized from simpler structures . Though they were still hampered by idealistic conceptions, they established
See also:morphology . Cuvier's four great groups were
See also:Articulata and
See also:Radiata . It was amongst the members of the last class that Huxley found most material ready to his
See also:hand in the seas of the tropics . It included organisms of the most varied kind, with nothing more in common than that their parts were more or less distributed
See also:round a centre . Huxley sent home "communication after communication to the Linnean Society," then a somewhat somnolent
See also:body, " with the same result as that obtained by Noah when he sent the raven out of the
See also:ark " (Essays, i .
13) . His important paper, On the Anatomy and the
See also:Affinities of the
See also:Family of Medusae, met with a better
See also:fate . It was communicated by the bishop of Norwich to the Royal Society, and printed by it in the Philosophical Transactions in 1849 . Huxley
See also:united, with the Medusae, the Hydroid and Sertularian polyps, to
See also:form a class to which he subsequently gave the name of
See also:Hydrozoa . This alone was no inconsiderable feat for a
See also:young surgeon who had only had the training of the medical school . But the ground on which it was done has led to far-reaching theoretical developments . Huxley realized that something more than superficial characters were necessary in determining the affinities of animal organisms . He found that all the members of the class consisted of two membranes enclosing a central cavity or stomach . This is characteristic of what are now called the Coelenterata . All animals higher than these have been termed Coelomata; they possess a distinct body-cavity in addition to the stomach . Huxley went further than this, and the most profound suggestion in his paper is the comparison of the two layers with those which appear in the germ of the higher animals . The consequences which have flowed from this prophetic generalization of the ectoderm and endoderm are
See also:familiar to every student of evolution .
The conclusion was the more remarkable as at the time he was not merely
See also:free from any evolutionary belief, but actually rejected it . The value of Huxley's work was immediately recognized . On returning to England in 185o he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society . In the following
See also:year, at the age of twenty-six, he not merely received the Royal medal, but was elected on the council . With absolutely no aid from any one he had placed himself in the front
See also:rank of English scientific men . He secured the friendship of Sir J . D .
See also:Hooker and John
See also:Tyndall, who remained his lifelong friends . The
See also:Admiralty retained him as a nominal assistant-surgeon, in
See also:order that he might work up the observations he had made during the voyage of the " Rattlesnake." He was thus enabled to produce various important
See also:memoirs, especially those on certain Ascidians, in which he solved the problem of Appendicularia—an organism whose place in the animal kingdom Johannes
See also:Muller had found himself wholly unable to assign—and on the morphology of the Cephalous Mollusca .
See also:Richard Owen, then the leading
See also:comparative anatomist in Great Britain, was a
See also:disciple of Cuvier, and adopted largely from him the deductive explanation of anatomical fact from idealistic conceptions . He superadded the evolutionary theories of Oken, which were equally idealistic, but were altogether repugnant to Cuvier . Huxley would have none of either .
Imbued with the methods of von Baer and Johannes Muller, his methods were purely inductive . He would not
See also:hazard any statement beyond what the facts revealed . He retained, however, as has been done by his successors, the use of archetypes, though they no longer represented fundamental " ideas " but generalizations of the essential points of structure common to the individuals of each class . He had not wholly freed himself, however, from archetypal trammels . " The
See also:doctrine," he says, " that every natural group is organized after a definite archetype . . . seems to me as important for zoology as the doctrine of definite pro-portions for chemistry." This was in 1853 . He further stated: " There is no progression from a
See also:lower to a higher type, but merely a more or less
See also:complete evolution of one type " (Phil . Trans., 18J3, p . 63) . As
See also:Mitchell points out, this statement is of great
See also:interest . Huxley definitely uses the word " evolution," and admits its existence within the great groups . He had not, however, rid himself of the notion that the archetype was a
See also:property inherent in the group .
See also:Spencer, whose acquaintance he made in 1852, was unable to convert him toevolution in its widest sense (Life, i . 168) . He could not bring himself to acceptance of the theory—owing, no doubt, to his rooted aversion from a priori reasoning—without a mechanical conception of its mode of operation . In his first interview with Darwin, which seems to have been about the same time, he expressed his belief " in the sharpness of the lines of demarcation between natural groups," and was received with a humorous smile (Life, i . 169) . The
See also:naval medical service exists for
See also:practical purposes . It is not surprising, therefore, that after his three years' nominal employment Huxley was ordered on active service . Though without private means of any kind, he resigned . The navy, however, retains the
See also:credit of having started his scientific career as well as that of Hooker and Darwin . Huxley was now thrown on his own resources, the immediate prospects of which were slender enough . As a
See also:matter of fact, he had not to wait many months . His friend,
See also:Forbes, was appointed to the
See also:chair of natural
See also:history in
See also:Edinburgh, and in
See also:July 18J4 he succeeded him as lecturer at the School of Mines and as naturalist to the
See also:Geological Survey in the following year .
The latter post he hesitated at first to accept, as he " did not care for fossils " (Essays, i . 15) . In 1855 he married
See also:Miss H . A . Heathorn, whose acquaintance he had made in Sydney . They were engaged when Huxley could offer nothing but the future promise of his ability . The confidence of his devoted helpmate was not misplaced, and her affection sustained him to the end, after she had seen him the recipient of every
See also:honour which English science could bestow . His most important
See also:research belonging to this
See also:period was the Croonian Lecture delivered before the Royal Society in 1858 on " The Theory of the Vertebrate
See also:Skull." In this he completely and finally demolished, by applying as before the inductive method, the idealistic, if in some degree evolutionary, views of its origin which Owen had derived from Goethe and Oken . This finally disposed of the " archetype," and may be said once for all to have liberated the English anatomical school from the deductive method . In 1859 The Origin of
See also:Species was published . This was a momentous event in the history of science, and not least for Huxley . Hitherto he had turned a
See also:deaf ear to evolution .
" I took my stand," he says, " upon two grounds: firstly, that . . theevidence in favour of transmutation was wholly insufficient; and secondly, that no suggestion respecting the causes of the transmutation assumed, which had been made, was in any way adequate to explain the phenomena " (Life, i . 168) . Huxley had studied
See also:Lamarck " attentively," but to no purpose . Sir Charles
See also:Lyell " was the chief
See also:agent in smoothing the road for Darwin . For consistent uniformitarianism postulates evolution as much in the organic as in the inorganic
See also:world " (l.c.); and Huxley found in Darwin what he had failed to find in Lamarck, an intelligible hypothesis good enough as a working basis . Yet with the transparent candour which was characteristic of him, he never to the end of his life concealed the fact that he thought it wanting in rigorous
See also:proof . Darwin, however, was a naturalist; Huxley was not . He says: " I am afraid there is very little of the genuine naturalist in me . I never collected anything, and species-work was always a
See also:burden to me; what I cared for was the architectural and engineering
See also:part of the business " (Essays, i. q) . But the solution of the problem of organic evolution must work upwards from the initial stages, and it is precisely for the study of these that " species-work " is necessary . Darwin, by observing the peculiarities in the distribution of the
See also:plants which he had collected in the Galapagos, was started on the path that led to his theory .
Anatomical research had only so far led to transcendental hypothesis, though in Huxley's hands it had cleared the decks of that
See also:lumber . He quotes with approval Darwin's remark that " no one has a right to examine the question of species who has not minutely described many " (Essays, ii . 283) . The rigorous proof which Huxley demanded was the production of species sterile to one another by selective breeding (Life, i . 193) . But this was a misconception of the question . Sterility is a physiological character, and the specific differences which the theory undertook to account for are morphological; there is no necessary nexus between the two. have perhaps ever fallen to the lot of a scientific man in England . Huxley, however, felt that he had at last a secure grip of evolution . From 1871 to 188o he was a secretary of the Royal Society . He warned Darwin: " I will stop at no point as long as clear From 1881 to 1885 he was
See also:president . For honours he cared reasoning will carry me further" (Life, i . 172) .
Owen, who had some evolutionary tendencies, was at first favourably disposed to Darwin's theory, and even claimed that he had to some extent anticipated it in his own writings . But Darwin, though he did not thrust it into the foreground, never flinched from recognizing that man could not be excluded from his theory . "
See also:Light will be thrown on the origin of man and his history " (Origin, ed. i . 488) . Owen could not
See also:face the wrath of fashionable orthodoxy . In his Rede Lecture he endeavoured to save the position by asserting that man was clearly marked off from all other animals by the anatomical structure of his
See also:brain . This was actually inconsistent with known facts, and was effectually refuted by Huxley in various papers and lectures, summed up in 1863 in Man's Place in Nature . This "
See also:monkey damnification " of mankind was too much even for the " veracity " of Carlyle, who is said to have never forgiven it . Huxley had not the smallest respect for authority as a basis for belief, scientific or other-wise . He held that scientific men were morally bound " to try all things and hold fast to that which is good " (Life, ii . 161) . Called upon in 1862, in the
See also:absence of the president, to deliver the presidential address to the Geological Society, he disposed once for all of one of the principles accepted by geologists, that similar fossils in distinct regions indicated that the strata containing them were contemporary .
All that could be concluded, he pointed out, was that thegeneral order of succession was the same . In 1854 Huxley had refused the post of palaeontologist to the Geological Survey; but the fossils for which he then said that he " did not care " soon acquired importance in his eyes, as supplying evidence for the support of the evolutionary theory . The
See also:thirty-one years during which he occupied the chair of natural history at the School of Mines were largely occupied with palaeontological research . Numerous memoirs on fossil fishes established many far-reaching morphological facts . The study of fossil
See also:reptiles led to his demonstrating, in the course of lectures on birds, delivered at the College of Surgeons in 1867, the fundamental
See also:affinity of the two groups which he united under the title of
See also:Sauropsida . An incidental result of the same course was his proposed rearrangement of the zoological regions into which P . L . Sclater had divided the world in 1857 . Huxley anticipated, to a large extent, the results at which botanists have since arrived: he proposed as
See also:primary divisions, Arctogaeato include the
See also:land areas of the
See also:northern hemisphere—and Notogaea for the
See also:remainder . Successive waves of life originated in and spread from the northern
See also:area, the survivors of the more
See also:ancient types finding successively a
See also:refuge in the south . Though Huxley had accepted the Darwinian theory as. a working hypothesis, he never succeeded in firmly grasping it in detail . He thought " evolution might conceivably have taken place without the development of groups possessing the characters of species " (Essays, v .
41) . His palaeontological researches ultimately led him to dispense with Darwin . In 1892 he wrote: " The doctrine of evolution is no
See also:speculation, but a generalization of certain facts . . . classed by biologists under the heads of
See also:Embryology and of Palaeontology " (Essays, v . 42) . Earlier in 1881 he had asserted even more emphatically that if the hypothesis of evolution " had not existed, the palaeontologist would have had to invent it " (Essays, iv . 44) . From 1870 onwards he was more and more
See also:drawn away from scientific research by the claims of public duty . Some men yield the more readily to such demands, as their fulfilment is not unaccompanied by public esteem . But he felt, as he himself said of Joseph
See also:Priestley, " that he was a man and a
See also:citizen before he was a philosopher, and that the duties of the two former positions are at least as imperative as those of the latter " (Essays, iii . 13) . From 1862 to 1884 he served on no less than ten Royal Commissions, dealing in every case with subjects of great importance, and in many with matters of the gravest moment to the community .
He held and filled with invariable dignity and distinction more public positions thanlittle, though they were within his reach; it is said that he might have received a
See also:peerage . He accepted, however, in 1892, a Privy Councillorship, at once the most democratic and the most aristocratic honour accessible to an English citizen . In 187o he was president of the
See also:British Association at Liverpool, and in the same year was elected a member of the newly constituted London School
See also:Board . He resigned the latter position in 1872, but in the brief period during which he acted, probably more than any man, he left his mark on the
See also:foundations of
See also:national elementary education . He made war on the scholastic methods which wearied the mind in merely taxing the memory; the
See also:children were to be prepared to take their place worthily in the community .
See also:Physical training was the basis; domestic
See also:economy, at any rate for girls, was insisted upon, and for all some development of the aesthetic sense by means of
See also:drawing and singing .
See also:Reading, writing and arithmetic were the in-dispensable tools for acquiring knowledge, and intellectual discipline was to be gained through the rudiments of physical science . He insisted on the teaching of the Bible partly as a great
See also:literary heritage, partly because he was " seriously perplexed to know by what practical
See also:measures the religious feeling, which is the essential basis of conduct, was to be kept up, in the
See also:present utterly chaotic state of opinion in these matters, without its use " (Essays, iii . 397) . In 1872 the School of Mines was moved to South
See also:Kensington, and Huxley had, for the first time after eighteen years, those appliances for teaching beyond the lecture
See also:room, which to the lasting injury of the interests of biological science in Great Britain had been withheld from him by the
See also:short-sightedness of
See also:government . Huxley had only been able to bring his influence to bear upon his pupils by oral teaching, and had had no opportunity by
See also:personal intercourse in the laboratory of forming a school . He was now able to organize a
See also:system of instruction for classes of elementary teachers in the general principles of
See also:biology, which indirectly affected the teaching of the subject throughout the
See also:country .
The first symptoms of physical failure to meet the
See also:strain of the scientific and public duties demanded of him made some
See also:rest imperative, and he took a long
See also:holiday in
See also:Egypt . He still continued for some years to occupy himself mainly with vertebrate morphology . But he seemed to find more interest and the necessary
See also:mental stimulus to exertion in lectures, public addresses and more or less controversial writings . His health, which had for a time been fairly restored, completely broke down again in 1885 . In 1890 he removed from London to East-
See also:bourne, where after a painful illness he died on the 29th of
See also:June 1895 . The latter years of Huxley's life were mainly occupied with contributions to periodical literature on subjects connected with philosophy and
See also:theology . The effect produced by these on popular opinion was profound . This was partly due to his position as a man of science, partly to his obvious earnestness and sincerity, but in the
See also:main to his strenuous and attractive method of exposition . Such studies were not wholly new to him, as they had more or less engaged his thoughts from his earliest days . That his views exhibit some
See also:process of development and are not wholly consistent was, therefore, to be expected, and for this reason it is not easy to summarize them as a connected body of teaching . They may be found perhaps in their most systematic form in the
See also:volume on Hume published in 1879 . Huxley's general attitude to the problems of theology and philosophy was technically that of scepticism .
" I am," he wrote, too much of a sceptic to deny the possibility of anything " (Life,lie 127) . " Doubt is a beneficent demon " (Essays, ix . 56) . He was anxious, nevertheless, to avoid the accusation of Pyrrhonism (Life, ii . 280), but the
See also:Agnosticism which he defined to
See also:express his position in 1869 suggests the Pyrrhonist Aphasia . The only approach to certainty which he admitted
See also:lay in the order of nature . "The conception of the constancy of the order of nature has become the dominant idea of
See also:modern thought . . Whatever may be man's speculative doctrines, it is quite certain that every intelligent
See also:person guides his life and risks his
See also:fortune upon the belief that the order of nature is
See also:constant, and that the chain of natural
See also:causation is never broken." He adds, however, that " it by no means necessarily follows that we are justified in expanding this generalization into the infinite past " (Essays, iv . 47, 48) . This was little more than a pious reservation, as evolution implies the principle of continuity (Lc. p . 55). appreciation of its historic effect as a civilizing agency . He thought Later he stated his belief even more absolutely:' If there is any- that " the exact nature of the teachings and the convictions of thing in the world which I do firmly believe in, it is the universal Jesus is extremely uncertain " (Essays, v .
348) . " What we are validity of the
See also:law of causation, but that universality cannot be usually pleased to
See also:call religion nowadays is, for the most part, proved by any amount of experience " (Essays, ix . 121) . The Hellenized Judaism " (Essays, iv . 162) . His final analysis of what assertion that " There is only one method by which intellectual truth " since the second century, has assumed to itself the title of Orthodox can be reached, whether the subject-matter of investigation belongs
See also:Christianity " is a " varying compound of some of the best and to the world of physics or to the world of consciousness " (Essays, ix. some of the worst elements of Paganism and Judaism, moulded in 126) laid him open to the
See also:charge of materialism, which he vigorously practice by the innate character of certain people of the Western repelled . His defence, when he rested it on the imperfection of the world " (Essays, v . 142) . He concludes " That this Christianity is physical analysis of matter and force (Lc. p . 131), was irrelevant; he doomed to fall is, to my mind, beyond a doubt; but its fall will was on sounder ground when he contended with
See also:Berkeley " that our neither be sudden nor speedy " (Lc.) . He did not omit, however, certain knowledge does not extend beyond our states of conscious- to do
See also:justice to " the bright side of Christianity," and was deeply ness " (i.e. p . 130) .
" Legitimate materialism, that is, theextension impressed with the life of Catherine of
See also:Siena . Failing Christianity, of the conceptions and of the methods of physical science to the he thought that some other "
See also:hypostasis of men's hopes " will arise highest as well as to the lowest phenomena of vitality, is neither (Essays, v . 254) . His latest speculations on ethical problems are more nor less than a sort of shorthand
See also:idealism " (Essays, i . 194). perhaps the least satisfactory of his writings . In 1892 he wrote: While " the substance of matter is a metaphysical unknown quality " The moral sense is a very complex affair—dependent in part upon of the existence of which there is no proof . . . the non-existence of associations of pleasure and
See also:pain, approbation and disapprobation, a substance of mind is equally arguable; . . . the result . . . is the formed by education in early youth, but in part also on an innate reduction of the All to co-existences and sequences of phenomena sense of moral beauty and ugliness (how originated need not be disbeneath and beyond which there is nothing cognoscible " (Essays, ix. cussed), which is possessed by some people in great strength, while 66) . Hume had defined a miracle as a " violation of the
See also:laws of some are totally devoid of it (Life, ii . 305) . This is an intuitional nature." Huxley refused to accept this .
While, on the one hand, he theory, and he compares the moral with the aesthetic sense, which he insists that " the whole fabric of practical life is built upon our repeatedly declares to be intuitive; thus: " All the understanding faith in its continuity " (Hume, p . 129), on the other " nobody in the world will neither increase nor diminish the force of the can presume to say what the order of nature must be "; this " knocksintuition that this is beautiful and this is ugly " (Essays, ix . 80) . In the bottom out of all a priori objections either to ordinary 'miracles' the
See also:Romanes Lecture delivered in 1894, in which this passage occurs, or to the efficacy of prayer " (Essays, v . 133) . " If by the
See also:term he defines " law and morals " to be " restraints upon the struggle miracles we mean only extremely wonderful events, there can be no for existence between men in society." It follows that " the ethical just ground for denying the possibility of their occurrence " (Hume, process is in opposition to the cosmic process," to which the struggle p . 134) . Assuming the chemical elements to be aggregates of
See also:uniform for existence belongs (Essays, ix . 31) . Apparently he thought that
See also:primitive matter, he saw no more theoretical difficulty in
See also:water the moral sense in its origin was intuitional and in its development being turned into
See also:alcohol in the miracle at
See also:Cana, than in
See also:sugar utilitarian . " Morality commenced with society " (Essays, v . 52), undergoing a similar conversion (Essays, v .
81) . The credibility of The " ethical process ' is the "gradual strengthening of the social miracles with Huxley is a question of evidence . It may be remarked bond " (Essays, ix . 35) . " The cosmic process has no sort of relation that a scientific explanation is destructive of the supernatural to moral ends " (i.e. p . 83) ; " of moral purpose I see no trace in character of a miracle, and that the demand for evidence may be nature . That is an article of exclusive human manufacture " (Life, so framed as to preclude the credibility of any historical event. ii . 268) . The cosmic process Huxley identified with evil, and the Throughout his life theology had a strong attraction, not without ethical process with good; the two are in necessary conflict . " The elements of repulsion, for Huxley . The circumstances of his early reality at the bottom of the doctrine of
See also:original sin " is the " innate training, when Paley was the " most interesting
See also:Sunday reading tendency to self-assertion " inherited by man from the cosmic order allowed him when a boy " (Life, ii . 57), probably had something to (Essays, ix .
27) . " The actions we call sinful are part andparcel of do with both . In 186o his beliefs were apparently theistic: " Science the struggle for existence " (Life, ii, 282) . " The prospect of attaining seems to me to teach in the highest and strongest manner the untroubled happiness " is " an illusion " (Essays, ix . 44), and the great truth which is embodied in the Christian conception of entire cosmic process in the long run will get the best of the contest, and surrender to the will of
See also:God " (Life, i . 219) . In 1885 he formulates " resume its sway " when evolution enters on its downward course " the perfect ideal of religion " in a passage which has become (i.e. p . 45) . This approaches pure pessimism, and though in Huxley's almost famous: " In the 8th century B.C. in the heart of a world of view the " pessimism of
See also:Schopenhauer is a nightmare " (Essays, ix. idolatrous polytheists, the
See also:Hebrew prophets put forth a conception 200), his own philosophy of life is not distinguishable, and is often of religion which appears to be as wonderful an inspiration of
See also:genius expressed in the same language . The cosmic order is obviously as the
See also:art of
See also:Pheidias or the science of Aristotle . And what doth non-moral (Essays, ix . 197) .
That it is, as has been said, immoral the
See also:Lord require of thee, but to do justly, and to love mercy, and to is really meaningless . Pain and suffering are affections which walk humbly with thy God ' " (Essays, iv . 161) . Two years later he imply a complex
See also:nervous organization, and we are not justified in was writing: " That there is no evidence of the existence of such a projecting them into nature
See also:external to ourselves . Darwin and A . R. being as the God of the theologians is true enough " (Life, ii . 162) .
See also:Wallace disagreed with Huxley in seeing rather the joyous than the He insisted, however, that " atheism is on purely philosophical suffering side of nature . Nor can it be assumed that the descending grounds untenable " (l.c.) . His theism never really advanced scale of evolution will reproduce the ascent, or that man will ever be beyond the recognition of " the passionless impersonality of the conscious of his
See also:doom . unknown and unknowable, which science shows everywhere under- As has been said, Huxley never thoroughly grasped the Darwinian lying the thin veil of phenomena " (Life, i . 239) .
In other respects principle . He thought ' transmutation may take place without his personal creed was a kind of scientific Calvinism . There is an transition " (Life, i . 173) . In other words, that evolution is ac-interesting passage in an
See also:essay written in 1892, " An Apologetic complished by leaps and not by the accumulation of small variations . Eirenicon," which has not been republished, which illustrates this: He recognized the " struggle for existence but not the gradual " It is the secret of the superiority of the best theological teachers to
See also:adjustment of the organism to its environment which is implied in the majority of their opponents that they substantially recognize " natural selection." In highly civilized
See also:societies he thought that the these realities of things, however
See also:strange the forms in which they former was at an end (Essays, ix . 36) and had been replaced by the clothe their conceptions . The doctrines of
See also:predestination, of original " struggle for enjoyment " (Lc. p . 40) . But a
See also:consideration of the sin, of the innate depravity of man and the evil fate of the greater stationary population of France might have shown him that the part of the race, of the primacy of Satan in this world, of the essential effect in the one case may be as restrictive as in the other . So far vileness of matter, of a malevolent Demiurgus subordinate to a from natural selection being in
See also:abeyance under modern social benevolent Almighty, who has only lately revealed himself, faulty conditions, " it is," as
See also:Professor Karl
See also:Pearson points out, " some-as they are, appear to me to be vastly nearer the truth than the thing we run up against at once, almost as soon as we examine a ' liberal ' popular illusions that babies are all born good, and that the mortality table " (Biometrika, i . 76) .
The inevitable conclusion, example of a corrupt society is responsible for their failure to remain whether we like it or not, is that the future evolution of humanity is so; that it is given to everybody to reach the ethical ideal if he will as much a part of the cosmic process as its past history, and Huxley's only try; that all partial evil is universal good, and other optimisticattempt to shut the
See also:door on it cannot be maintained scientifically.- figments, such as that which represents '
See also:Providence ' under the AuxxoxrrIEs.—Life and Letters of Thomas
See also:Henry Huxley, by his guise of a paternal philanthropist, and bids us believe that everything son Leonard Huxley (2 vols., 1900) ; Scientific Memoirs of T . H. will come right (according to our notions) at last." But his " slender Huxley (4 vols., 1898–1901) ; Collected Essays by T . H . Huxley definite creed," R . H . Hutton, who was associated with him in (9 vols., 1898) ; Thomas Henry Huxley, a
See also:Sketch of his Life and Work, the Metaphysical Society, thought—and no doubt rightly—in no by P . Chalmers Mitchell, M.A . (Oxon., 1900); a critical study respect " represented the cravings of his larger nature.' founded on careful research and of great value . (W . T . T.-D.) From 1880 onwards till the very end of his life, Huxley was continuously occupied in a controversial
See also:campaign against orthodox HUY (
See also:Lat . Hoium, and Flem .
Hoey), a town ofBelgium, beliefs . As Professor W . F . R .
See also:Weldon justly said of his earlier on the right
See also:bank of the Meuse, at the point where it is joined polemics: " They were certainly among the
See also:principal agents in by the Hoyoux . Pop . (1904), 14,164 . It is 19 M . E. of Namur winning a larger measure of toleration for the critical examination of and a trifle less west of Liege . Huy certainly
See also:dates from the fundamental beliefs, and for the free expression of honest reverent doubt." He threw Christianity overboard bodily and with little 7th century, a.nd,accordingto some, was founded by the emperor
See also:Antoninus in A.D . 148 . Its situation is striking, with its
See also:grey citadel crowning a grey
See also:rock, and the
See also:fine collegiate
See also:church (with a 13th-century gateway) of Notre
See also:Dame built against it .
The citadel is now used partly as a
See also:depot of military equipment and partly as a prison . The ruins are still shown of the abbey of Neumoustier founded by
See also:Peter the
See also:Hermit on his return from the first crusade . He was buried there in 1115, and a statue was erected to his memory in the abbey grounds in 1858 . Neumoustier was one of seventeen abbeys in this town alone dependent on the bishopric of Liege . Huy is surrounded by vineyards, and the
See also:bridge which crosses the Meuse at this point connects the fertile Hesbaye
See also:north of the
See also:river with the rocky and barren Condroz south of it .
RICHARD HOLT HUTTON (1826-1897)
CHRISTIAAN HUYGENS (1629-1695)
There are no comments yet for this article.
Do not copy, download, transfer, or otherwise replicate the site content in whole or in part.
Links to articles and home page are encouraged.