HYDRATE , inchemistry, a compound containing the elements of
See also:water in combination; more specifically, a compound containing the monovalent hydroxyl or OH
See also:group . The first and more general definition includes substances containing water of
See also:crystallization; such salts are said to be hydrated, and when deprived of their water to be dehydrated or anhydrous . Compounds embraced by the second definition are more usually termed hydroxides, since at one
See also:time they were regarded as combinations of an
See also:oxide with water, for example, calcium oxide or lime when slaked with water yielded calcium hydroxide, written formerly as CaO•H2O . The general formulae of hydroxides are: Mi OH, Mii(OH)2, Mili(OH)3, M1v(OH)4, &c., corresponding to the oxides M21O, M110, M2iiiO3, MivO2, &c., the
See also:index denoting the
See also:valency of the
See also:element . There is an important difference between non-metallic and metallic hydroxides; the former are invariably acids (oxyacids), the latter are more usually basic, although acidic metallic oxides yield acidic hydroxides . Elements exhibiting strong basigenic or oxygenic characters yield the most_
See also:stable hydroxides; in other words, stable hydroxides are associated with elements belonging to the extreme groups of the periodic
See also:system, and unstable hydroxides with the central members . The most stable basic hydroxides are those of the
See also:alkali metals, viz. lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium, and of the alkaline
See also:earth metals, viz. calcium, barium and strontium; the most stable acidic hydroxides are those of the elements placed in groups VB, VIB and VIIB of the periodic table .
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