Online Encyclopedia


Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V14, Page 110 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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HYDRAZINE (DIAMIDOGEN), N2H4 or H2 N•NH2, a compound of hydrogen and nitrogen, first prepared by Th. Curtius in 1887 from diazo-acetic ester, N2CH•CO2C2H5. This ester, which is obtained by the action of potassium nitrate on the hydrochloride of amidoacetic ester, yields on hydrolysis with hot concentrated potassium hydroxide an acid, which Curtius regarded as CIH3N6(CO2H)a, but which A. Hantzsch and 0. Silberrad (Ber., 190o, 33, p. 58) showed to be C2H2N4(CO2H)2, bisdiazoacetic acid. On digestion of its warm aqueous solution with warm dilute sulphuric acid, hydrazine sulphate and oxalic acid are obtained. C. A. Lobry de Bruyn (Ber., 1895, 28, p. 3085) prepared free hydrazine by dissolving its hydrochloride in methyl alcohol and adding sodium methylate; sodium chloride was precipitated and the residual liquid afterwards fractionated under reduced pressure. It can also be prepared by reducing potassium dinitrososulphonate in ice cold water by means of sodium amalgam :--
HYDRAULICS (Gr. iS&,p, water, and ai,Xos, a pipe)

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