Online Encyclopedia


Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V28, Page 817 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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I00.O It is said to be a most complex body of which the probable formula is C42H157N5SO15. If wool is burnt, it largely resolves itself into ammonia gas—whence it derives its characteristic odour—and carbon "beads" or "re-mains," which serve to distinguish wool from cotton, which, upon being burnt, does not smoulder but burns with a flash and leaves no beads. For further particulars on the organic nature of the wool-fibre see FIBRES. The bulk of the wool of commerce comes into the market in the form of fleece wool, the product of a single year's growth, cut from Lamb, the body of the living animal. The first and finest clip, Lamb, d called lambs' wool, may be taken from the young sheep at Hogg and about the age of eight months. When the animal is not wool. shorn till it attains the age of twelve or fourteen months the wool is known as hogg or hogget, and, like lambs' wool, is fine and tapers to a point. All subsequently cut fleeces are known as wether wool, and possess relatively somewhat less value than the first clip. Fleece wool as it comes into the market is " in the grease,” that is, unwashed and with all the dirt which gathers to the surface of the greasy wool present ; or it is received as " washed " wool, the washing being done as a preliminary to the sheep-shearing, or, in some few cases, it is scoured and is consequently stated as " scoured." Skin wool is that which is obtained from sheep which either die or are killed. Typical skin wool is that which has been removed by "a sweating process. The worst type of skin wool—technically known as " slipe "—is removed from the skins by lime, which naturally affects the handle of the wool and renders it difficult to bring into a workable condition later. Mazamet in France is the great continental centre for skin wools. Where there is abundance of water and other conveniences it is the practice to wash or half-wash sheep previous to shearing, and Sheep such wool comes into the market as washed or half-Sheep g. washed fleece. The surface of a fleece has usually a thick washin coating of dirt, and in the case of merino breeds the fleece surface is firmly caked together into solid masses, from the adhesion of dirt to the wool constantly moist with the exudation from the skin of the greasy yolk or " suint," so that in an unwashed very greasy fleece 30% of weight may represent dirt, arid about 40% the greasy suint which lubricates the wool, while the pure wool is not more than one-third part of the whole. Where running streams exist, the sheep are penned by the side of the water, and taken one by one and held in the stream while they are washed, one man holding and the other washing. The operation is objectionable in many ways, as it pollutes the stream, and it dissipates no mean amount of potash salts, valuable for manure or for other chemical purposes. Sheep washing appliances are now largely employed, the arrangement consisting of a pen into which the sheep are driven and subjected to a strong spray of water either hot or cold, which soaks the fleece and softens the dirt. This done, they are caused to swim along a tank which narrows towards the exit, and just as they pass out of the pen they are caught and subjected to a strong douche of pure water. They should then be kepton grass land free from straw, sand, &c., so that the woo. may be sheared free from vegetable matter, &c. After a few days the wool of a washed sheep is sufficiently dry for shearing or clipping. The relative advantages of shipping wool in the greasy or washed state have been fiercely debated. Although there are naturally exceptions, the superiority of greasy wool is now generally recognized. This is not only because the wool more fully retains its nature, but because it is more readily judged for " yield " and its spinning qualities are, perhaps, more readily estimated. The following list gives an idea of the yield in clean wool of the chief commercial varieties, from which it will be noted that roughly merino greasy wool yields about 5o% clean wool and English about 75% clean wool. Type of Wool. Yield per cent of Clean Wool. Australian Merino 5o% Cape 48 % South American Merino 45 New Zealand Cross-bred 75% South American Cross-bred 75 % English Southdown 8o% Shropshire 8o% Lincoln 75% Mohair 850/ Alpaca 85 % A skilful shearer will clip the fleece from a sheep in one unbrokei continuous sheet, retaining the form and relative positions of the mass almost as if the creature had been skinned. In this Sheep unbroken condition each fleece is rolled up by itself and sheering, tied with its own wool, which greatly facilitates the sorting or stapling which all wool undergoes for the separation of the several qualities which make up the fleece. Mechanical shears have almost revolutionized the shearing industry, a good shearer shearing from loo to 200 sheep per day. On the great Australian sheep stations wool classing is one of the most important operations, largely taking the place of sorting in the English wcol trade. This is no doubt due to the wonderful Wool success which has attended the efforts of the Australian classing' sheep breeders to breed a sheep of uniform staple through- out. Thus the fleeces as taken from the sheep are skirted and trimmed on one table and then passed on to the classer, who places them in the 56's, 6o's, 64's, 70's, 80's or 90's class according to their fineness, these numbers approximately indicating the worsted counts to which it is supposed they will spin. The shorter Australian wools not coming under any of these heads are classed as super-clothing, ordinary clothing, &c., being more suitable for the woollen industry. The art of sheep shearing, skirting, classing, packing and trans-porting has been brought up to a wonderful state of perfection in Australia, and the " get up ' of the wool is usually much superior to the " get up " of the " home-clip." Of late there has been an outcry against the prevalence of vegetable matter in colonial wools, but it seems probable that with the adoption of a suitable woolpack, and the exercising of a little more care in sorting at the home end, this difficulty will be satisfactorily surmounted. Sorting or stapling was formerly a distinct industry, and to some extent it is so still, though frequently the work is done on the premises of the comber or spinner. Carding wools are Wool separated and classed differently from combing wools, and soro! in dealing with fleeces from different breeds, the classifica- tion of the sorter varies, In the woollen trade short-staple wool is separated into qualities, known, in descending series from the finest to the most worthless, as picklock, prime, choice, super, head, seconds, abb and breech, and the proportions in which the higher and lower qualities are present are determined by the " class " of the fleece. In the worsted trade the classification goes, also in descending series, from fine, blue, neat, brown, breech, downright, seconds, to abb for English wools. The last three are short and not commonly used in the worsted trade. The greater proportion of good English long wool will be classified as blue, neat and brown; it is only in exceptional cases that more than from 5 to 8 % is " fine " on the one hand, or of lower quality than breech on the other. Generally speaking, the best portion of a fleece is from the shoulders and side of the animal. The quality decreases towards the tail end of the sheep, the britch " being frequently long, strong and irregular. The belly wool is short, worn and dirty, as is also the front of the throat, while on the head and shins the product is short, stiff and straight, more like hair than wool and is liable to contain grey hairs. The colonial wools come " classed," and consequently are only as a rule sorted into three or four qualities. Thus a 6o's fleece may be sorted into 56's, ordinary 6o's, super 6o's and skirtings. The sorter works at a table or frame covered with wire netting through which dust and dirt fall as he handles the wool. Fleeces which have been hard packed in bales, especially if unwashed, go into dense hard masses, which may be heated till the softening of the yolk and the swelling of the fibres make them pliable and easily opened up. When the fleece is spread out the stapler first divides it into two equal sides; then he picks away all straws, large burrs, and tarry fragments which are visible; and then with marvellous precision and certainty he Dicks out his separate qualities, throwing each lot into its allotted receptacle. Sorting is very far removed from being a mere mechanical process of selecting and separating the wool from certain parts of the fleece, because in each individual fleece qualities and proportions differ, and it is only by long experience that a stapler is enabled, almost as it were by instinct, rightly to divide up his lots, so as to produce even qualities of raw material. Cleanliness is most essential if the wool sorter is to keep his health and not succumb to the dread disease known as " anthrax " or " wool-sorters' disease." Certain wools such as Persian, Van mohair, &c., are known to be very liable to carry the anthrax bacilli, and must be sorted under the conditions imposed by government for " dangerous wools." Ordinary or non-dangerous wools are perfectly harmless from this point of view. The washing which a fleece may have received on the live sheep is not sufficient for the ordinary purposes of the manufacturer. On the careful and complete manner in which scouring is Scouring. effected much depends. The qualities of the fibre may be seriously injured by injudicious treatment, while, if the wool is imperfectly cleansed, it will dye unevenly, and the manufacturing operations will be more or less unsatisfactory. The water used (or scouring should be soft and pure, both to save soap and still more because the insoluble lime soap formed in dissolving soap in hard water is de-posited on the wool fibres and becomes so fixed that its removal is a matter of extreme difficulty. In former times stale urine was a favourite medium in which to scour wool; but that is now a thing of the past, and a specially prepared potash soap is the detergent principally relied on. Excess of alkali has to be guarded against, since uncombined caustic acts energetically on the wool fibre—especially in the presence of heat—and is indeed a solvent of it. A soap solution of too great strength leaves the wool harsh and brittle, and the same detrimental result arises when the soapy solution is applied too hot. In former days, when the method of hand-scouring prevailed, the wool to be washed was placed with hot soap-sud in a large scouring " bowl " or vat, and two men with long poles kept stirring it gently about till the detergent loosened and separated the dirt and dis- sociated the grease. The wool was then lifted out and drained, after which it was rinsed in a current of clean water to remove the " scour " and then dried. These operations are now performed in scouring machines. Many firms now steep the wool previous to the true scouring operation, the object being to scour the wool with its own potash salts, to obtain wash-waters so fully charged with the potash salts that these salts, &c., may be readily extracted and put to some good use, and lastly to save the artificial scouring agent employed in the true scouring operation. The scouring of wool has passed through many vicissitudes during the past fifty years, but to-day the principle upon which all scouring machines are based is that wool naturally opens out in water. The mechanical arrangements of the machines are such as to ensure the passage of the wool without undue lifting and " stringing," to obviate the mixing of wool grease, sand, dirt, &c., once taken out of the wool with that wool again, to give time for the thorough action of the scouring agents, so that neither too strong a solution nor too great a heat be employed, and to allow of the ready cleansing of the machines so that there is no unnecessary waste of time. In England the recognized type of merino wool-washing machine is the fork-frame bowl. Three to five of these machines are employed. The " scour " is strongest and hottest in the first bowl (unless this is used as a " steeper ' ) as the wool at first is protected from the caustic by the wool-fat, &c., present. The last bowl is simply a rinsing bowl. With modern " nip rollers " botany wool is sufficiently dry to be passed on directly—say by pneumatic conveyers —to the carding. This the worsted spinner does, thereby saving time and money. The woollen spinner, however, may require the wool for blending, and so may require it dry and in a fit state for oiling. He, therefore, will employ one or other of the drying pro- cesses to be immediately described. For English and cross-bred wools more agitation in the scouring bath may be desirable. If so, the eccentric fork action machine is employed, in which the agitation of the bath is satisfactorily controlled by the setting of the forks which propel the wool forward. An average wool will be in the scouring liquor about eight minutes, the temperature will vary from 120° F. to 1Io° F., and the length of bath through which it will have passed will be from 48 to 6o ft. It is interesting to note that the " emulsion " method of wool scouring as described above is practically universal in England. In the United States of America the " solvent " method is largely in use, for the two points aimed at are quantity of production and cheapness. Quality is sacrificed to quantity and cheapness results from the ease with which the agent employed—say carbon disulphide —is recovered by volatilizing and condensing, thus being used over and over again. Botany wools should leave the wool-washing machine in a fit condition to be fed immediately on to the carder, provided that the first cylinders are clothed with galvanized wire. Cross-bred and English wool, however, require artificially drying. The more gently and uniformly the drying can be effected the better is the result attained; over-drying of wool has to be specially guarded against. By some manufacturers the wool from wool the squeezing rollers is whizzed in a hydro-extractor, drying. which drives out so much of the moisture that the further drying is easily effected. The commonest way, however, of drying is to spread the wool as uniformly as possible over a framework of wire netting, under or over which is a range of steam-heated pipes. A fan blast blows air over these hot pipes, and the heated air passes up and is forced upwards through the layer of wool which rests on the netting or downwards, as the case may be. In this case, unless the wool is spread with great evenness, it gets unequally dried, and at points where the hot air escapes freely it may be much over-dried. A more rapid and uniform result may be obtained by the use of the mechanical wool drier, a close chamber divided into horizontal compartments, the floors of which have alternate fixed and movable bars. Under the chamber is a tubular heating apparatus, and a fan by which a powerful current of heated air is blown up the side of the chamber, and through all the shelves or compartments successively, either following or opposing the wool in its passage through the machine. The wool is introduced by a continuous feed at one side of the chamber; the strength of the blast carries it up and deposits it on the upper shelf, and by the action of the movable bars, which are worked by cranks, it is carried forward to the opposite end, whence it drops to the next lower shelf, and so on it travels till at the extremity of the lower shelf it passes out by the delivery lattice well and equally dried. Another drying machine in extensive use is what is known as the " Jumbo Dryer." This consists of a large revolving cylinder or churn which turns over the wool—as a churn turns butter—and owing to its inclination passes it from one end to the other. A hot air blast follows the wool through the machine. In this and in all drying machines it is more important to get the moisture laden air away from the wool than to develop a great heat. The dried wool may be in a partially matted condition. If so, it must be opened out and the whole material brought into a uniformly free and loose condition. This effected in the Willey, Teasing. which consists of a large drum and three small cylinders mounted in an enclosed frame. The drum is armed with ranges of powerful hooked teeth or spikes, and is geared to rotate with great rapidity, making about 500 revolutions per minute. The smaller cylinders, called workers, are also provided with strong spikes; they are mounted over the drum and revolve more slowly in a direction contrary to the drum, the spikes of which just clear those of the workers. The wool is fed into the drum, which carries it round with great velocity; but, as it passes on, the locks are caught by the spikes of the workers, and in the contest for possessing the wool the matted locks are torn asunder till the whole wool is delivered in a light, free and disentangled condition. It is a debatable point as to whether willowing should precede scouring. Some scourers always willow prior to scouring, while others never subject the wool to this opera. tion, which is advantageous in some cases and not in others. For certain classes of wool, notably Buenos Aires, still another preparing operation is essential at this stage—that is, the removal of burrs or small persistently adherent seeds and other Burring. fragments of vegetable matter which remain in the wool. Two methods of effecting this—one chemical, the other mechanical—may be pursued. The chemical treatment consists in steeping the wool in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid (or other carbonizing agent), draining off the dilute acid by means of the hydro extractor, and then heat-drying in a temperature of about 25o° F. The acid leaves the wool practically uninjured, but is concentrated on the more absorbent vegetable matter, and the high heat causes it to act so that the vegetable matter becomes completely carbonized. The burrs are then crushed and the wool washed in water rendered sufficiently alkaline to neutralize any free acid which may remain, and dried. The same burr-removing effect is obtained by the use of a solution of chloride of aluminium, a method said to be safer for the wool and less hurtful to the attendant workmen than is the sulphuric acid process. For mechanical removing of burrs, a machine some-thing like the Willey in appearance is employed. The main feature of this apparatus is a large drum or swift armed with fine short spikes curved slightly in the direction in which it rotates. By a series of beaters and circular brushes the wool is carried to and fed oh these short spikes, and in its rotation the burrs, owing to their weight, hang out from the swift. The swift as it travels round is met by a Tail The numbers indicate the quality of wool taken from the respective sections of the fleece. Thus the finest quality 44's—is found on the shoulders, while the coarsest " britch " is found on the hind-quarters of the sheep. series of three burring rollers rotating in an opposite direction, the be a blending of various materials, such as noils, rnungo, cotton, &c., projecting rails of which knock the burrs off the wool. The burrs to obtain a cheap blend which may be spun into a satisfactory warp fall on a grating and are ejected, with a certain amount of wool ad- or weft yarn. The blender proceeds as follows: first a layer of No. 1 hering to them, by another rotating cylinder. With wools not too material—say wool—is spread over the required area on the floor; it burry the worsted spinner largely depends upon burring rollers is then lightly oiled. A layer of No. 2 material—say noils—is now placed upon the first cylinder of the " carder," and possibly to one added to the first layer; then another layer of wool with rather more or other of the patent pulverizing processes applied further on in the oiling; then No. 2, then No. 1 with still more oil until all the material card. In the latter process a complete pulverizing of the burrs is is built up into layers in the stack. The stack is now beaten down aimed at, this being effected by the introduction of specially con- sideways with sticks, and then the more or less mixed mass is passed structed pulverizing rollers between the first doffer and the last swift through the willow and fearnaught still further to mix it prior to of the carding engine. carding, where the true and really fine mixing takes place. After The processes hitherto described are common to merino, cross-bred passing through the fearnaught the material is sheeted and left to or botany wools be they intended for woollen or worsted yarns " mellow," this no doubt consisting in the oil applied distributing Woollens From this point, however, differentiation starts. Wool itself throughout the material. If wool and cotton are blended and may now be manipulated with the idea of converting it together the wool must be oiled first, or the blend will not work to the worsteds. into felt (q.v.), woollen or worsted fabrics. In a general greatest advantage. The oil may be best Gallipoli olive oil—which way it may be said that woollen yarns are those made from should not turn rancid—but there are many good oils—and unshort wools possessed of high felting qualities, which are prepared by fortunately many bad oils—placed on the market at a reasonable the process' of carding; whereby the fibres are as far as possible rate which the really skilled judge may use to advantage. The per-crossed and interlaced with each other, and that the carded-slivers, centage of oil varies from 2 % to to %—this remark applies both to though perhaps hard spun on the mule frame, form a light fluffy the woollen and worsted trades—and there is no guide as to the yarn, which suits the conditions when woven into cloth for being amount required, saving and excepting experience, observation and brought into the semi-felted condition by milling which is the dis- common sense. Automatic oiling arrangements have been applied tinguishing characteristic of woollen cloth. On the other hand, in the woollen trade with only a moderate amount of success, the worsted yarns are generally made from the long lustrous varieties of sprinkling of the oil by means of a watering-can on the stack, made wool; the fibres are so combed as to bring them as far as possible as described above, still being most in favour. The oil serves to parallel to each other; the spinning is usually effected on the frame, lubricate the fibres, and to render them more plastic and consequently and the yarn is spun into a compact, smooth and level thread, which, more workable, and to bind the fibrous mass together and thus pre-when woven into, cloth, is not necessarily milled or felted. At all vent " fly " during the passage through the cards. points, however, woollen and worsted yarns as thus defined overlap Carding was originally effected by hand, two_flat boards with con- each other, some woollens being made from longer wool than certain worsteds, and some worsteds made from short staple wool, carded as well as combed. Worsted yarn is now largely spun on the mule frame, while milling or felting is a process done in all degrees—woollen being sometimes not at all milled, while to some worsteds a certain milled finish is given. The fundamental distinction between the two rests in the crossing and interlacing of the Dr fibres in preparing woollen yarn—an operation confined to this alone among all textiles, while for worsted yarn the fibres are treated, as in the case of all other textile materials, by processes designed to V R t 4w~ bring them into a smooth parallel relation- ship to each other. To obtain a sliver which can be satisfactorily spun into a typical woollen thread Woollen the following operations are yarn necessary: willowing, oiling and FIG. 8.—Sectional View of Carder; illustrating the principles of carding. menu- blending, teasing, carding (two facture. or three operations), condensing and roving. Spinning venient handles, covered with teeth or card clothing, serving as a upon the woollen mule completes the series of operations means of teasing out lock by lock, fibre by fibre, reversing root to tip all of which are designed to lead up to the desired result. Of and tip to root, so that a perfect mixing of the fibres re- carding the foregoing operations the carding is perhaps the most important suited. It was but natural that,whenanattemptwasmade as it is certainly one of the most interesting. At the same time it must to render the carding operation more.mechanical, the operation should be fully realized that deficiencies in any one of these operations will be converted into a continuous one through the adoption of rollers result in bad work at every subsequent process. For example, let an in place of flats. FIats combined with rollers still maintain their unsatisfactory combination of materials be blended together and position in cotton carding, but in wool carding the pure roller card is there will be trouble in both carding and spinning. The roving opera- employed. The factors of carding are size of rollers, speeds of tion included above is not always necessary. In the old days, if a rollers, inclination of teeth and density of card clothing. Probably really fine thread were required, roving was absolutely necessary, as no operation in the textile industries is so little understood as carding. the carder could not turn off a sliver fine enough to be spun at one Thus the long wool carder would think a man an idiot who suggested operation. To-day, however, with the " tape " condensers, such fine the running of the teeth of the various cylinders actually into one slivers can be turned off the condenser that there is no difficulty in another, while the short mungo carder regularly carries out this idea, spinning directly to the required count. In some few cases, however, and so on. The underlying principle of carding, however, is shown iq it may be cheaper to rove than to condense fine; again, certain fig. 8, in which a sectional drawing of part of a card is given. The physical characteristics appertain to the roved thread, as distinct wool is carried into the machine on a travelling lattice and de' from the condensed thread, which may occasionally be of use to the livered to the feed rollers A, A', A" of which A and A" in turn are cloth constructor. stripped by the ticker-in B working at a greater speed point to smooth At the beginning of the 19th century woollen cloths were made of side. This in turn is stripped by the angle stripper C again working wool—some of them of the very finest wool obtainable. To-day at a greater speed point to smooth side, which in its turn is stripped Blending woollen cloths are made from any and every kind of by the swift D—the " carrying-forward " and swiftest carding and material, of which the following are the most important: cylinder in the machine. The swift carries the wool forward past oiling noils (botany, cross-bred, English, alpaca and mohair), the stripper E—which as a matter of fact is stripped by the swift mungo, shoddy, extract, flocks, fud (short mill waste), still working point to smooth side—into the slowly retreating cotton sweeping, silk waste, &c., &c.; in fact it is said that anything teeth of the first worker F, which, being set a fair distance from which has two ends to it can be incorporated into a woollen thread • the swift, just allows well laid-down wool to pass, but catches and cloth. It does not follow, however, that all woollen cloth is any projecting and uncarded staples. The worker in its turn is cheap and nasty. On the contrary the west of England still pro- stripped by the stripper E', which in turn is stripped by the swift as duces the finest woollen fabrics of really marvellous texture and already described. The passage of the wool forward through the beauty, and Batley, Dewsbury, &c., produce many fabrics which are machine depends upon its being carried past each worker in turn. certainly cheap and yet anything but nasty. The first essential for Thus from beginning to end of a machine the workers are set closer blending is that the materials to be blended should be fairly finely and closer to the swift, so that the last worker only allows come divided. This is effected by passing each material, if necessary, pletely carded wool to pass it. Immediately on passing the last through the willow or through the " fearnaught "—a machine coming worker F' the wool is brushed up on the surface of the swift by the between the willow and card—prior to beginning the "blend-stack." " fancy " G—as a rule the only cylinder whose teeth actually work Sometimes it may be that a blending of different colours of wools to into the teeth of the swift and the only cylinder with a greater obtain a definite " colour mixture " is necessary, more often it will surface speed than the swift. The swift then throws its brushed-uk coating of wool into the slowly retreating teeth of the doffer H, which carries it forward until angle stripper C' strips the doffer, to be in its turn stripped by swift D' and soon. The speeds of the cylinders are in the first place obviously dependent upon the principle of carding adopted, the greater speed always stripping (save in the case of the fancy). As to whether the speed shall be obtained by actual revolutions or by a larger diameter of cylinder depends upon the nature of the wool to be carded (long or short), the part which each cylinder has to play in the card, and upon the question of wear of clothing and power consumed. As a rule the strippers are all driven from a smaller circumference of the swift to obtain conveniently the necessary reduction in speed, and the slowly revolving workers are chain driven from the doffer, which indirectly receives its motion from the swift. The principles involved In the relative inclinations of teeth are very apparent, but the principles involved in the relative densities of teeth on the respective cylinders are again much involved and little understood. A complete scribbler or first card engine consists of a breast, or small swift, and two swifts with the accompanying workers, strippers, fancies, doffers, &c. The wool is stripped from this card as a thin film by means of the doffing comb. This is usually weighed on to the next machine—whether intermediate or condenser—a given weight giving a definite count of condensed sliver. Should an intermediate be employed, there must be an automatic feed, taking the wool, as stripped from the last doffer of the intermediate, and feeding it perfectly evenly on to the feed sheet of the condenser. The con-denser is usually a one-swifted card, the only difference in principle being that, whereas the sliver comes out of the scribbler or inter-mediate in one broad film, it is broken up into a number of small continuous slivers or films, each one of which will ultimately be drafted or drawn out and twisted into a more or less perfect thread. These slivers—which are delicate and pith-like in substance—are wound on to light bobbins, and these bobbins are placed on the mule for the final roving and spinning operations. There are many forms of condensing mechanisms such as the single-doffer, the doubledoffer and the tape-condensers, but their construction is too complex to be described here. Whatever the type may be, the result is that noted above, but it should be noted that the tape enables a much finer sliver to be taken from the card than is possible with either the single- or double-doffer condenser. The principles involved in mule spinning are comparatively simple, but the necessary machinery is very complex; indeed it is question- able able if a more ingenious machine than the mule exists. spinning. The pith-like slivers received from the card-loom must be attenuated until the correct count of yarn is obtained; they must be twisted while this attenuation or drafting is in process, otherwise they would at once break; and after being attenuated to the required finenessthe requisite number of turns must be inserted. Great stress must be laid on the effects of what is termed the " draft- ing-twist " noted above; it is probably this simultanerus drafting and twisting which develops the most pronounced characteristics of the woollen yarn and cloth, and differentiates it entirely from the F worsted yarn and cloth. The mule (see fig. 9) consists of the de-livery cylinders A, upon which the sliver bobbins B from the con-denser are placed, which deliver the slivers as required to the front delivery rollers C (these rollers controlling perfectly the delivery of sliver for each stretch of the carriage), and the carriage EE carrying the spindles which may be run close up to the front de-livery rollers and about two yards away from them to effect the " spin, " which is of an intermittent character. The spindles D are turned by bands passing round a tin drum K in the carriage, but this motion, and every other motion in the mule, is controlled perfectly from the headstock. In brief, the operation of spinning is as follows: as the carriage begins to recede from the delivery rollers these rollers deliver condensed sliver at about the same rate as the carriage moves out, the spindles putting in a little twist. When the carriage has perhaps completed half its traverse (say 36") away from the front rollers these suddenly stop delivering the condensed sliver, the carriage goes more and more slowly outwards until it completes its traverse, drafting the sliver out to perhaps double the length. This drafting could not be effected but for the." drafting-twist, " which, running into the thin parts of the yarn during drafting, strengthens them and thus from beginning to end equalizes the thread. Upon the completion of drafting the spindles are thrown on to " double speed " to complete the twisting of the 72" of yarn just spun as rapidly as possible, the carriage being allowed to run inwards for a few inches, to allow for the take-up due to twisting. The mule now stops dead, backs-off the turns of yarn from the bottom of the spindle to the top, the faller H wire falls into position to guide the thread on to the spindle to form the required cop G, and the counter-faller I wire rises to maintain a nice tension on the yarn. The carriage now runs in, the spindles being revolved to wind up the yarn, and, in conjunction with the guiding on of the faller wire, builds up a firm cop or spool, as the case may be. Woollen mules are made with several hundred spindles and of varying pitch to suit particular requirements. Thus if the mules are to follow a set of say three carders with a tape condenser, and are required to spin fine counts, the pitch of the spindles may be much finer than ordinary, but a greater number will be required to work up the sliver delivered by the set of machines. There are many other details which require careful consideration; the inclination of the spindles, for example, must be suited to the material to be spun. And when all the mechanical arrangements are perfect there is still the necessity of correct judgment as to the qualities of the blend in hand, for in this case perhaps more than in any other the machine must be adjusted to the material and not the material to the machine. A is the back-shaft receiving its motion from the driving shaft upon which are the pulleys. This back-shaft A drives the back-rollers B at a slow speed by the reducing train of wheels C; also the front rollers D at a much quicker speed through the train of wheels E, and the fallers F at an intermediary speed by means of the levels and screws G. G. The wool is " made up " on the feed sheet and on emerging from the front rollers is built up layer by layer into the lap H, which is finally broken across and feeds up at the next machine. The yarn as delivered by the mule is " single " and will serve as warp or weft for the great bulk of woollen cloths, warp being as a rule twisted harder than weft. Sometimes for strength, sometimes for colour, however, it will be necessary to twist two or more of these single strands together. This is best effected on a twisting frame of the ring type, which consists of delivery rollers, to deliver a specified length of yarn in relationship to the turns of the spindles, and the spindles, which serve to put in twist and to wind the yarn upon the bobbin or tube, which they carry by reason of the retarding action of the traveller. Fancy twists such as knops, loops, slubs, &c., may also be produced if the frame is fitted up with two pairs of delivery rollers and two or three special but simple appliances. The essential feature of a worsted yarn is straightness of fibre. Prior to the introduction of automatic machinery there was little difficulty in attaining this characteristic, as long wool was invariably employed and the sliver was made up by hand and then twisted. With the introduction of Arkwright's " water frame " or " throstle " the necessity for prepared slivers became apparent, and with the later introduction of cap and mule spinning the necessity for perfectly prepared slivers has been so accentuated that the preparatory machinery has quite Worsted yarn manufacture. exceeded the actual spinning machine in extent and complexity. scour the slivers again, this being effected in what is termed a back-To-day there are three distinct methods of producing worsted yarn. washing machine. This machine as shown in fig. i t usually consists A are the delivering rollers, B, B are the immersing rollers in the first tank, C, C are the press rollers to squeeze out superfluous liquors, D is the immersing roller in the second tank, and C', C' are the press rollers for the second tank. Drying cylinders E to E" may be arranged as " live-heat " cylinders, as secondary heated cylinders or as air drying cylinders. The roller F directs the slivers into the back rollers G of the gill-box, which in turn delivers up the slivers to the fallers H, which in turn delivers the wool to the front rollers I. Firstly, there is the preparing and spinning of the true worsted thread, this being made from long English and colonial wool. In this class should also be included mohair and alpaca. Secondly, there is the preparing and spinning of what are known as cross-bred and botany yarns, these being made from cross-bred and botany wools. Thirdly, there is the preparing and spinning of short botany wools on the French system. There is a fourth class of worsted yarns, principally carpet and knitting yarns, which are treated in a much readier manner than any of the foregoing, but as the treatment is analogous—with the elimination of certain processes—to the second of the foregoing, it is not necessary to refer specially to it. To obtain a sliver or " roving " which can be satisfactorily spun into a typical worsted thread the following operations are necessary :—preparing (five or six operations), back-washing, straightening, combing, straightening and drawing (say six operations), and finally spinning on the flyer frame. After long wool has been scoured and dried it is necessarily considerably entangled, and if it were to preparing be combed straight away a large propor- tion of the long fibres would be broken and combed out as " noil " or short fibre. To obviate this the wool is fed as straight as possible into a sheeter gill-box; after this it passes through other two sheeter gill-boxes, then through say three can gill-boxes. As shown in fig. to the main features of a preparing or gill-box are the following: the feed sheet upon which the wool is " made up," the back rollers B which take hold of the wool and deliver it to the fallers F which, working away from the back rollers more quickly than the wool is delivered, comb it out. The fallers in turn deliver the wool to the front rollers D, which, 'taking in the wool more quickly than the fallers delivering it, again draft and comb it, but with a reversing of the former combing operation. The wool emerges from the front rollers as thin attenuated continuous fibre about 12 in. wide, which is wound upon an endless leather sheet H from which the box takes its name. When a sliver of sufficient thickness has been wound upon the sheet, it is broken across and fed up at the next gill-box. The fourth gill-box delivers into cans instead of on to a sheet. A number of cans are then placed behind the fifth box and the slivers from these fed up into the back rollers, and similarly with the sixth. The primary object of " preparing " or Billing is to straighten and parallelize the fibres in the sliver. This is effected by means of the combining or doubling and drafting to which the slivers are subjected. In addition to this, how-ever, a level sliver suitable for combing is formed by the combined action of the drafting and doubling which has taken place at each box. Oil will have been added to the wool at the first preparing-box to cause the fibres to work well. Back- Were this all, there would perhaps not washing, be the necessity for back-washing. But the slivers during their passage through the preparing-boxes become sullied naturally, and in addition, owing to the opening out of the locks of wool, dirt which was not " got at " in the scouring now works out and further sullies the slivers. It is consequently necessary to 1 of two scouring tanks with immersing rollers, drying cylinders, a gill-box and oiling motion. The slivers on emerging from this machine A, A is the large comb circle and B, B' the two small comb circles. The slivers are delivered by the mechanism C to the feed boxes D, being thrown across the pins of the large and small circles at position E. A stroke at F suitably directs the fringes of fibre as the circles separate and the combed fibres are taken hold of by drawing-off rollers G and G' and combined to form the " top." The brushes H, H and the noil knives I clear the small circles of the " noil." The feed knife J in conjunction with the inclined planes at K are instrumental in feeding a previously directed length of sliver over the two circles as they practically touch one another at the point E, and so the process is continued. should be clean, fairly straight and in good condition for combing. Their condition may be further improved by passing them through one or two more gill-boxes, prior to combing, to ensure straightness of fibre and even distribution of the lubricant. Prior to the mechanical era wool was combed immediately after scouring; there was no preparatory process. As a matter of fact the first combing process took the place of the processes Combiug. just described and was termed "straightening," the " combing proper " following. Prior to the invention of a really satisfactory mechanical comb, between 185o and 186o, the combing operation was the limitation of the worsted trade. English wools could be satisfactorily combed by hand, and perhaps the results of combing botany or fne wools by hand were satisfactory so far as quality of result was concerned, but the cost was largely prohibitive. The history of the colonial wool trade is inextricably bound up with the combing industry. How eventually botany wools were combed by machinery and how the wool industry was thereby revolutionized can only be briefly referred to here. About 1779 Dr Edmund Cart- wright invented two distinct types of combs, the vertical and the honzontal circular. The former type was developed on the conti- nent by Heilmann and others, and has only within the last five years taken its rightful place as a successful short wool comb in this country. The latter type was worked upon by Donisthorpe, Noble, Lister, the Hoidens and others, and largely through the " driving " force of Lister (later Lord Masham) was made a truly practical success about the year 185o. Latter-day combs of this type may be readily grouped under three heads. The Lister or " nip " comb is specially suitable for long wools and mohair and alpaca. The Holden or square-motion comb is specially suited for short and very good quality wools. The last type, the Noble, is the most popular of all and, by a change of large'and small circles, may be adapted to the combing of long, medium or short wools. As the great bulk of cross- bred and a considerable proportion of botany wool is combed upon the Noble comb a brief description is here called for. The object of all wool combing is to straighten the long fibres and to comb out from the slivers treated all the fibres under a certain length, leaving the long fibres or " top " to form the sliver which is eventually spun into the worsted yarn. The Noble comb, which so effectually accom- plishes this, consists in the main of a large revolving circle A inside which revolve two smaller circles B, B' as shown in fig. 12, each of which touches the larger comb circle at one point only. At this point the slivers of wool to be carded are firmly dabbed into the pins of both the large and small circles. As the circles continue to revolve A, A' are the back-rollers in a drawing box of which A is positively driven and A' driven by friction which may be varied at will. Carriers B, B', B" simply control the fibres of which the sliver is composed during drafting. The front rollers C, C'—of which C is positively driven and C' driven by friction—running at a greater speed than A, A' draft or elongate the slivers as required: The carriers B, B', B" should be speeded to run at a suitable rate to assist the drafting operation, more by support than by direct aid. Rollers A, A' must hold the sliver, hence they are fluted. Rollers C, C' must pull the sliver somewhat severely, hence roller C' is covered with leather. The yarn delivered by the front rollers is slightly twisted and wound into a double-headed bobbin of convenient size on the " flyer-system." they naturally begin to separate, combing the wool fibres between them, the short fibres or " noil " being retained in the teeth of both small and large circles, the long fibres hanging on the inside of the large circle and on the outside of the small circle. A stroker or air blast at F now directs these long fibres into the vertical rollers, G and G', shown here in plan, which draw them out, thus separating them from the short fibres. There are at least four pairs of drawing-off rollers in a comb, and the fibres drawn off by each—be it noted continuously—are united to form a sliver which is passed through a revolving funnel into a can. The short fibres, or " noil," are lifted out of the pins of the small circle by "noil knives." The continuous slivers, the ends of which remain in the pins of the large circle after the drawing-off rollers have been passed, are now lifted up until these ends are above the pins, at the same time an additional length of sliver being drawn into the comb, so that, as they reach the second small circle, they are ready to be again dabbed into the pins of both circles and the combing operation repeated. Thus the combing on a Noble comb is absolutely continuous. All the movements of this machine—with the exception of the dabbing-brush motion—are circular, so that mechanically it is an almost perfect machine. As illustrating the extent of the combing industry, it is interesting to note that even the making of dabbing-brushes is a separate and by no means unimportant trade. After combing it is usual to pass the " top " through two gill-boxes termed " finishers." The last of these boxes, and often the first, delivers the " top " in the form of a ball, thus it is often spoken of as a " balling gill-box." This stage marks one of the great divisions of the worsted trade, the comber taking the wool up to this point, but now handing it forward in the shape of top to the " worsted spinner," who draws and spins the slivers into the most desirable worsted yarns. English tops are usually prepared for spinning by seven or eight operations. Three of these operations are effected in gill-boxes of a somewhat similar type to the preparing-box, only lighter Drawing. in build. The remaining four are drawing-boxes, i.e. as shown in figs. 13 and 14, they consist of back and front rollers with small carrying-rollers—not gills—to support the wool in between. Thus an English set of drawing usually consists of a single-can gill-box, a double-can gill-box, a two-spindle gill-box, a four-spindle drawing-box, a four-spindle weigh-box, a six-spindle drawing-box, two six-spindle finishers and three thirty-spindle rovers. About fifteen flyer frames of 16o spindles each will be required to follow this set, although the balance varies partly in accordance with the counts spun to, in this case 1/32's English being the standard. The object of drawing is to obtain firstly a level sliver from which an even thread may be spun, and secondly to reduce the comparatively thick top down to a relatively thin roving from which the required count of yarn may be spun. Of course parallelism of fibres must be retained throughout, so far as possible. To accomplish these objects doubling and drafting is resorted to. Thus the ends put up at the back of the above boxes will be 6, 6, 4, 4, 3, 3, 2 respectively, while the drafts may be 5, 6, 8, 8, 6, 9, 9 approximately. As the drafts markedly preponderate over the doublings, so in exactly this proportion will the sliver be reduced in thickness. The flyer spinning frame is very similar to the drawing frame, consisting of back rollers, carriers and front rollers, with the necessary Sp?nning. spindle and flyer to put twist into the yarn and to wind it upon the bobbin. From the two-spindle gill-box to the spinning frame the spindle, bobbin and flyer combination is em- ployed with the object just mentioned. From fig. 15 the action of this combination will be clearly understood. Drafting takes place as usual between the back and front rollers, the carriers controlling the yarn between the two. On emerging from the front rollers the yarn usually passes through an eyelet, to centre it over the centre of the spindle; it then takes a turn or two round the flyer leg, through the twizzle or eyelet on the flyer and on to the bobbin F. The flyer may be freely rotated by means of the wharl J and through the spindle G upon the top of which it is screwed. The bobbin fits loosely over the spindle and rests upon the lifter plate I ; this latter, being controlled by the lifter mechanism, slowly raises and lowers the bobbin during the " spin ;' past the fixed plane of delivery of the yarn, i.e. the eyelet of the revolving flyer. Now, if for one moment it be considered that the bobbin may not revolve on the spindle but may be the operation of carding. On first thought it might be imagined that carding would result in broken fibres and a poor yield of top. That this is not so is evident from the fact that there carding of is a tendency to card wools from 7 to to in. long, this medium tendency being due to the relative cheapness of carding m d short as compared with preparing. If long wools were fed directly wools for on to a swift, no doubt serious breakage of fibre would worsted occur, but it is customary to place before the first swift yarns. of a worsted card a series of four opening rollers and dividers—with their accompanying " burring rollers "—to open out the wool gradually, so that when it eventually reaches the first swift it is so opened out that further opening out instead of breakage occurs. Some carders use a breast or small swift in place of those opening rollers—mostly on account of economy. The swift is usually surmounted with four workers and strippers and is very similar to the woollen carder, save that the workers and doff er are larger, thereby effecting more of a combing action and working economically by reason of the greater wearing surface brought into play. As botany wool is usually brought directly from the wash bowl to the feed sheet of the card, it is usual to clothe the first cylinders with galvanized wire clothing. After the carding the wool is back-washed and gilled—on similar lines to English wool—and then is ready for combing. The largest combers of botany wools, Messrs Isaac Holden & Co., Combing employ the square-motion comb, in fact this comb is em known in the trade as the Holden comb. Other combers, amnd fldivan however, almost without exception employ the Noble wools. comb with a fine " set over," i.e. fine spinning of the comb circles After combing, the tops are "'finished " by being passed Flyer Spindle. C, C' are the front rollers of a drawing or spinning frame, delivering the sliver to a centring board D, containing an eye for each sliver, from which the sliver passes to the flyer E and finally to the bobbin F, which rests on the lifter-plate I and is traversed up and down by this plate according to the lengthof bobbinemployed. The flyer E is screwed on to the spindle G which is suitably held by the sheath, bolster, &c., shown at H, and in the footstep at K. The spindle is turned by a tape passing round the wharl J and thence to an ordinary tin-drum. FIG. 16.-Spindle Cone Drawing-Box. slid up and down by the lifter motion, then, if the front rollers deliver through two finisher-boxes, the last of which " balls " the tops ready the necessary yarn, the flyer will wrap it in successive layers upon for marketing. the bobbin—but no twist will be inserted. On the other hand, if the Short wools are drawn and spun on very similar lines to the longer bobbin is perfectly free upon the spindle and the front rollers cease wools, save that the boxes are more in number arid are in some cases delivering yarn, then the flyer, by means of the yarn, will pull the lighter in build. The boxes usually employed in a botany Drawing bobbin round at the same speed as it goes itself, and the yarn will be set are as follows: two double-head can gill-boxes, two twisted but not wound upon the bobbin. By obtaining an action in two-spindle gill-boxes, a four-spindle drawing-box, a six- "d, spnning. between these two extremes both twisting and winding on to the spindle weigh-box, an eight-spindle drawing-box,twoeight- bobbin is effected. The speed of the bobbin is suitably retarded by spindle finishing-boxes, two twenty-four-spindle second finishers, washers placed between it and the lifter plate, so that it just drags three thirty-two-spindle dandy reducers, ten thirty-two-spindle dandy sufficiently to wind up the yarn " paid out " by the front rollers. rovers, with ten two-hundred-spindle cap spinners to follow. The turns per inch are in proportion to the yarn delivered and the The doublings as a rule are about 7, 6, 6, 6, 5, 5, 5, 4, 4, 2 and the revolutions of the flyer. Thus if, while I in. of yarn is delivered, the drafts 5, 6, 6, 7, 7, 7, 8, 8, 8 at the respective boxes, an endeavour as a flyer revolves twelve times the turns per inch will be approximately rule being made to obtain a roving of which 4o yds. =2 drams, as this twelve. This in brief is the theory of the spindle, flyer and bobbin is the most convenient size for being spun into fine botany count of action. yarn. Wools not more than 7 in. long are usually prepared for combing by Following the lead of the cotton trade endeavours have been made to positively control the driving and speed of both flyer and bobbin in all the drawing frames of such sets as that described above. Such control is usually effected by a pair of cones, from which this system has taken its name, viz. " cone " drawing. In fig. 16 a usual type of cone drawing-box is illustrated. The chief advantages of this system seem to be the possibilities of employing larger bobbins, and thus obtaining greater production, the consumption of relatively less power, and more particularly the production of a softer sliver with less twist, partaking more of the character of a French roving. Spinning is usually effected upon the cap frame (see fig. 17)—a frame in which the bobbin, resting upon a fixed spindle, is itself driven at say 5000 revolutions per minute to put in the twist, while the friction of the yarn on the cap which covers the bobbin enables the bobbin to wind up upon itself the yarn as delivered by the front rollers. The weakness and the strength of the cap frame is that to make reasonably hard bobbins the bobbins must be driven at a high speed. The French are noted for a special system of worsted spinning, which, pro-French • ducing soft botany yarns of a drawing marked type, is worthy of and more than passing comment. spinning. The preparation is very similar to the preparation of botany yarns for the English system save that as a rule the order of the operations are carding, gilling, combing, back-washing and finishing. The characteristic features of the method lie in the subsequent drawing and spinning. The drawing-box as shown in fig. 18 consists of back rollers, porcupine or revolving gill, front rollers, rubbers and winding-up arrangement. Thus there is no twist inserted, the slivers being treated softly and openly right away through the processes. A set of this type usually consists of two gill-boxes preparing for combing, comb, back-washing machine and two finishing gill-boxes, first drawing frame, second drawing frame, the slubbing frame, the roving frame and the self-acting mule. After leaving the last box as a fine soft pith-like sliver, spinning is effected upon the worsted mule. The main differences between the worsted and the woollen mule are firstly, the worsted mule is fitted with preliminary drafting rollers, and secondly, there is little or no spindle draft. As the mule is an intermittent worker it is natural to contrast it with the cap frame, which runs continuously. What the real advantage is it is difficult to say, but the mule-spun worsted yarn trade is becoming yearly of more importance, and it is pleasing to note that English spinners are at last doing a fair share of this business. Upon whichever system the yarns have been spun it will frequently be necessary Doubling, to twofold them and some-twisting, times to three- and fourfold etc. them. Again the fashion some- times runs upon fancy twists, and then it is necessary to be able to produce the various styles of cloud, loop, curl, knop, &c., yarns. Twofolding is done upon the flyer, cap and ring frames. The main difference between the cap and the ring frame is that in the latter a small bent piece of wire, termed a traveller, revolved round a ring by the pull of the spindle through the yarn, serves as the retarder to enable the bobbin to wind the yarn, delivered by the front rollers on to itself (see fig. 19). Fancy twisters are almost universally on the nag systein. Yarns are placed on the market in eight forms, viz. in hank, on spools, on paper tubes, on bobbins, on cops, in cheeses, in the warp Yarns. ball form and dressed upon the loom beam. Thus the manufacturer can order the yarn which he requires in the form best suited to his purpose. Although in some few cases special means must be employed for the weaving of woollens, worsteds and stuff goods, still the main weaving. principles are the same for all classes of goods (see WEAV- ING). Attention may here be concentrated on the characteristic principles of woollen and worsted manufacture. The characteristic feature of wool and of wool yarns and cloths is the quality of " felting." This quality has always been made use of in woollen cloths, but in worsted cloths, until compara- Finishing tively recently, it has been largely ignored. To-day, processes. however, cloths are made, ranging from the truest woollen to the typical worsted, of which it would be impossible to indicate the type of yarn employed without very careful analysis. As it is obviously impossible to give here every variety of finish G A, A', delivery rollers which control the slivers during the drafting operation. B is the porcupine (or circular gill) and C are the front drafting rollers. D is the funnel through which the slivers pass to the consolidating rubbers E, E, F is a second funnel and G is the condensed sliver wound up at a uniform rate on the roller H. employed, the two typical styles for woollen and worsted cloths are dealt with in detail, and further to elucidate the matter the finishing of a Bradford " stuff " or " lustre " piece is also given in outline. The fabric on leaving the loom is first mended and then scoured. The operation of scouring is effected in a " dolly," and must thoroughly clear the piece so that it is free to take the woollen desired finish. The piece is now soaped and " milled," i.e. cloth felted. Milling may be effected either in the stocks or in finishing. the milling machine. The stocks, the main features of which are huge hammers which are caused to fall or are driven positively into the cloth, exert a bursting action eliminating the thread structure. The milling machine acts more by compression, arrangements being made to compress the cloth in length or breadth at will. After milling scouring follows to clear the cloth thoroughly of the milling agents previous to the finishing proper. The cloth is now taken in a damp state to the tentering machine and, being hooked upon a frame running into a heated chamber, is stretched in width and dried in this condition. Raising follows, this being effected by subjecting the surface of the fabric to the action of " teazles " fixed on a large revolving cylinder, the whole machine being termed a " gig." After raising the fabric is "cropped " by being passed over a blade near which revolving knives work, on the principle of a lawn-mower, shearing and levelling the piece. Sometimes fabrics are raised wet, especially if a velvet finish is required. Brushing follows to clear the piece of all stray fibres. The fabric is now ready for " crabbing," which consists in winding it tightly on to a perforated roller through which steam may be blown or upon which the piece may be boiled. The pieces are then rewound and the operation repeated at least once, to obtain even distribution of finish. Being now ready for pressing, the fabric is cuttled, usually with press papers between each cuttle, and placed in the hydraulic C, C' are the front rollers of a cap spinning frame delivering the yarn through the centring board D under the edge of the cap E to the bobbin F, which rests upon the tube and wharlG, which in turn rest upon the lifter-rail I, which effects the necessary traversing. The spindle H is simply screwed into the frame-work, and does not revolve, but simply acts as a support for the cap and as a centre of motion for the tube and bobbin. Plan A is the spindle suitably shaped to re. ceive the bobbin at B, with a wharl for turning at C, running in the specially designed receptacle D, which may be screwed firmly into the spindle rail. The traveller E is drawn round the ring F by the spindle acting through the yarn as shown in the plan. The spindle is a fixture and the ring-rail is traversed to distribute the yarn on the bobbin. press either hot or cold. After pressing dry steaming is frequently necessary to take away cakiness and a certain false lustre which some-times develops. Final cuttling completes the finishing operations. Worsted cloth finishing is very similar to woollen cloth finishing save that some of the operations are less severe. Mending, scouring, worsted milling and tentering are similar. The raising as a rule is cloth effected by brushing, although it is by no means unfinishing. common to raise worsteds on the gig. Cropping, crabbing, pressing and steaming are the same as for woollen fabrics. Of course the real difference between the woollen and the worsted cloth is due to the selection of the right material, to correct roving, spinning and fabric structure: finishing simply comes as a " developer " in the case of the woollen fabric, while in the case of the typical worsted fabric it simply serves as a " clearer," the cloth really being made in the loom. A woollen cloth as it leaves the loom is unsightly and in a sense may be said to be made in the finishing, although it is truer to say " developed " in the finishing: in the case of the worsted cloth it is altogether otherwise. A cotton warp, lustre weft style, is treated altogether differently from either of the foregoing. It is first crabbed, then steamed, then Lustre scoured and dried, then singed by being passed over a finishing. red-hot copper plate or through gas jets, then scoured again, and if necessary dyed. It is then washed, dried, then tentered and finally pressed. Of course these operations are applied with discrimination to the varied styles of goods made in the Bradford district. Thus,for instance, the finishing of an " Italian " may be considerably varied from the foregoing, being more complex, while other styles, such as plain all-wool goods, are treated very simply. It will be gathered from the foregoing remarks that the varieties of wool textures are many and very different in character. This is varietiea perhaps realized best by contrasting a heavy melton cloth ofwoollens weighing say 24-30 oz. e yard. None theeless mohair texture remarkable and weighing say 2-3 3 oz. per Y worsteds. is the difference in appearance of varieties of wool textures. A rough Harris tweed, for example, contrasts strangely with a smooth fine wool Italian. Of course these differences are not created in any one process or merely by the selection of the raw material or yarn. Every process of manufacture must be directed to attain the desired end, and it is well to realize that huge businesses have been built up upon what, by the outsider, would only be regarded as unimportant details. The principal styles of woollen cloth are tweeds, meltons, Venetians, beavers, doeskins, buckskins, cassimeres and diagonals. The largest class is the tweed, as this ranges from very expensive coatings and trouserings to the cheap styles made of the re-manufactured materials. Tweeds for ladies' wear also form a large class. The principal styles of worsted cloths are coatings and trouserings, delaines, voiles, merinos, cashmeres, lastings, crepe-de-chines, amazons, Orleans, lustres of various types (plain and figured), alpacas, Italians, moreens, &c., &c. Many of these are made entirely of worsted yarns, but others are compound so far as material or yarn is concerned. Thus amazons are made from mule-spun worsted warp and a woollen weft. Lustres are made from fine hard spun cotton warp and English or mohair weft, and so on. Perhaps the most interesting point to note is the skill developed by English de-signers during recent years. Fifty years ago the continental designer ruled the market. To-day the English designer can at least claim an equality with and in some respects is already considered as superior to his continental rival. Prior to the development of native ingenuity and skill Englandwas remarkable as a wool-growing country, most of the wool being shipped to the continent, so that it may be said that the wool of England met the skill of southern Europe in Flanders,which wool taps, thus became the great textile centre so far as wool was yarns and concerned. With the development of native skill under fabrics. the fostering care of several of the English monarchs--notably Edward III. and James I.-it was but natural to expect that endeavours would be made to manufacture English wool at home and export the woven cloth. With the remarkable colonial developments of the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, in conjunction with the invention of the spinning frame and power-loom, this expectation was most fully realized, at least so far as ordinary wearing fabrics were concerned. Latterly, however, with the development of skill in newly developed countries, the tendency has been to partially revert to the old conditions. Thus in 185o Bradford's chief export was cloth, in 1875 the yarn trade had markedly developed, in 1900 the top trade was well established, and to-day Bradford has a large wool export trade. Fabrics are made for the home and general export trade; yarns are exported mostly to the continent; tops and wool mostly to the United States of America. The following tables give a useful idea of (a) the sources of supply of the raw material, wool, also of the changes which have taken place in the trade since 1800; (b) the changes in monetary Statistics. value of the chief sorts of wool during recent years; (c) the number of factories and of persons employed in the textile industries during the past half-century; (d) growth of the export trade in woollens and worsteds of the United Kingdom during the past century. For further details see Hooper's admirable tables now issued by the Bradford Chamber of Commerce. Prior to the development of the factory system and the remarkable development in textile appliances at the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th centuries, the textile industries were scattered attires of all over the country, only in some few cases more or less industry. accidental centralizing occurring. To-day it may be said that the wool industry is centralized where the coal supply of south Yorkshire meets the wool supply of north Yorkshire, i.e. rn the Bradford and Leeds districts, though much of the wool dealt with in this district is imported and consequently can only be said to follow the trend already established. Of course there are wool manufacturing districts other than those mentioned. Scotland is noted for its Scotch tweeds manufactured in the Hawick and Galashiels district, the West of England still makes some magnificent all-wool cloths; Norwich guards a remnant of its once flourishing worsted industry and Leicester has developed a remarkable hosiery trade. Again, firms whose existence is due to individual enterprise are still studded up and down the country, and manage to compete fairly well with the main manufacturing districts. Since about 1856, however, there can be no doubt that the English wool trade has been centring snore and more round Bradford, while the remanufactured materials and the blanket trade is centred round Batley and Dewsbury. Wales retains only a fragment of its once large flannel trade, this trade now being located in Yorkshire, with the exception of one or two individual firms elsewhere. The carpet trade is centred in Halifax, Kidderminster and Glasgow. Whether further centralization may be looked for is questionable. Specialization undoubtedly favours Bradford, as there the wool, top, yarn and fabric branches of the industry are individually developed to great advantage; but the development of means of communication and some such factor as electric or water power may radically disturb the present balance of the industry. (A. F. B.) Imports of Wool into the United Kingdom from the Principal Countries, Foreign and Colonial. Country. 1800. 1820. 1840. 186o. 1880. 1900. 1905. 1907. New South Wales Bales .. .. 248,408 240,922 308,628 Queensland S . 658 213 25,820 46,092 224,777 ) 124,401 148,059 130,128 Victorian 78,186 306,817 255,131 261,724 330,326 Tasmanian . .. 18o 11,721 16,731 23,653 18,225 13,770 22,147 South Australian .. .. 3,484 23,554 109,917 50,720 76,469 89,637 West Australian .. .. .. 1,992 9,211 26,317 44,623 41,467 New Zealand .. .. 17,870 189,441 395,693 394,390 442,973 Cape and Natal. .. 29 3,477 55,711 190,614 102,268 192,210 259,691 Total Colonial . Bales 658 422 44,502 240,136 1,054,430 1,221,163 1,327,167 1,624,997 East Indian and Persian . .. .. 7,611 62,226 112,716 142,518 153,841 159,818 Chinese .. 119 1,672 4,151 7,284 15,060 German 1,170 14,609 63,278 19,681 28,119 9,126 6,636 11,533 Spanish 30,318 17,681 5,273 4,199 14,603 896 1,732 4,077 Portuguese 9,622 475 1,569 24,503 14,356 5,242 11,018 10,214 Russian 25 150 11,776 22,150 45,417 28,018 7,404 15,889 Turkish, Egyptian and North African 76 380 5,492 17,545 49,853 39,108 43,104 51,725 Peruvian and Chilean .. 25 40,004 69,068 52,876 70,423 55,163 53,493 Buenos Aires and Montevidean .. .. 5,058 9,852 22,077 52,839 70,348 Falkland Islands and Punta Arenas .. .. .. 4,700 28,784 34,903 53,249 Italian and Trieste 84 334 4,055 719 2,565 2,768 3,889 2,761 Sundry 487 1,479 2,519 15,172 35,973 37,150 46,485 43,176 Goat's Wool 11,915 57,449 69,445 101,712 109,077 Total Bales 42,440 35,555 186,079 492,491 1,484,581 1,680,869 1,853,177 2,225,417 r, ..~ Material. 1874.1 1880. 1885. 1890. 1895. 1900. 1901 2 1902.2 1905. I d. d. d. d. d. d. d. d. d. Port Philip-Greasy 14a 132 10 to 81 112 92 13 131 Adelaide-Greasy . 112 101 61 7 51 7i 61 8z 9 Cape-Greasy 164 125 9 91 7 94 7 91 10 Buenos Aires-Greasy . 72 74 42 51 41 44 41 51 6 British Wool . 22 164 92 to 92 72 61'b 6 111 Alpaca . 33-35 13-154 122-142 22-141 142-27 16-13 122-16 154-192 152-17$ Mohair . 35-45 27-35-21 14-19 18-134 I4-3o 202-17 19-17 15 132-16 1 Year of the highest values of wools ever reached within recent times. 2 Years of the lowest values of wools ever reached within recent times. Summary of Woollen and Worsted Factories and of Persons employed in the same in the United Kingdom. 1867. 1874. 1885. 1889. 1901. 1904. Factories 2,649 2,617 2,751 2,517 • • 2,382 Rag grinding machines . .. .. .. .. .. 900 Woollen carding sets 6,700 Worsted combing machines . 1,038 1,276 .. . .. 2,924 Spinning spindles . 6,455,879 5,449,495 5,375,102 5,604,535 • • 5,625,477 Doubling spindles . 519,629 558,914 769,492 969,812 .. 1,059,049 Power looms . 118,875 140,274 139,902 131,506 . 104,514 Children (half timers) 33,054 38,416 24,636 22,940 7,475 Persons working full time- 94,838 106,005 112,935 120,441 102,876 Males Females . 134,368 135,712 145,684 158,175 149,558 Summary of Exports of Wool, Wool Waste, Noils, Tops, Yarns and Fabrics from the United Kingdom. 1840. 1882. 1890. 1900. 1907. lb lb lb lb lb British Wool 5,000,000 13,800,000 19,500,000 24,900,000 34,500,000 Foreign and Colonial 2,000,000 264,100,000 342,200,000 197,500,000 314,200,000 Waste . . . .. .. 2,397,600 1,593,100 8,937,100 Noils 10,234,700 7,897,400 12,689,700 Tops .. 9,016,000 28,031,200 35,580,000 Worsted Yarn . .. 29,840,300 39,510,100 56,075,900 55,521,700 Mohair, &c., Yarn . .. 8,752,200 12,959,600 10,397,700 17,782,800 Woollen Yarn . .. 1,992,400 1,572,700 1,088,300 2,576,100 Cloths . .. £18,768,634 £20,418,482 £15,682,154 £22,153,680 Apparel .. £1,380,000 £1,700,000 £1,700,000 £2,550,546
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