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I122

Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V05, Page 212 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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I122. William de Corbeuil (Cur- bcllio), 1123 to 1136. Theobald, 1139 to 1161. Thomas Becket,1162 to 1170. Richard, 1174 to 1184. Baldwin, 1185 to 1190. Reginald Fitz-Jocelyn, 1191. Hubert Walter, 1193 to 1205. Stephen Langton, 1207 to 1228. Richard Wethershed, 1229 to 1231. Edmund Rich (deAbbendon) 1234 to 1240. Boniface of Savoy, 1241 to 1270. Robert Kilwardby, 1273 to 1278. John Peckham, 1279 to 1292. Robert Winchelsea, 1293 to Walter Reynolds, 1313 to 1327. Simon de Meopham, 1328 to 1333. John Stratford, 1333 to 1348. John de Ufford, 1348 to 1349. Thomas Bradwardin, 1349. Simon Islip, 1349 to 1366. Simon Langham, 1366 to 1368. William Whittlesea, 1368 to 1374. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 59. 93. 94. 95. 96. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 91. 70. 71. when he saw the fair-faced children of the Angles who had been brought to Rome, and termed them " not Angles but angels." There were lesser houses of many religious orders in Canterbury, but only two, those of the Dominicans near St Peter's church in St Peter's Street, and the Franciscans, also in St Peter's Street, have left notable remains. The Dominican refectory is used as a chapel. Among the many churches, St Martin's, Longport, is of the first interest. This was the scene of the earliest work of Augustine in Canterbury, and had seen Christian service before his arrival. Its walls contain Roman masonry, but whether it is in part a genuine remnant of a Romano-British Christian church is open to doubt. There are Norman, Early English and later portions; and the font may be in part pre-Norman, and is indeed associated by tradition with the baptism of 1Ethelberht himself. St Mildred's church exhibits Early English and Perpendicular work, and the use of Roman material is again visible here. St Paul's is of Early English origin; St Dunstan's, St Peter's and Holy Cross are mainly Decorated and Perpendicular. The village of Harbledown, on the hill west of Canterbury on the London road, from the neighbourhood of which a beautiful view over the city is obtained, has many associations with the ecclesiastical life of Canterbury. It is mentioned by Chaucer in his pilgrimage under the name, appropriate to its site, of " Bob up and down." The almshouses, which occupy the site of Lanfranc's hospital for lepers, include an ancient hall and a chapel in which the west door and northern nave arcade are Norman, and are doubtless part of Lanfranc's buildings. The neighbouring parish church is in great part rebuilt. Among the numerous charitable institutions in Canter-bury there are several which may be called the descendants of medieval ecclesiastical foundations. City Buildings, &c.—The old city walls may be traced, and the public walk called the Dane John (derived probably from donjon) follows the summit of a high artificial mound within the lines. The cathedral is finely seen from this point. Only the massive turreted west gate, of the later part of the 14th century, remains out of the former six city gates. The site of the castle is not far from the Dane John, and enough remains of the Norman keep to show its strength and great size. Among other buildings and institutions there may be mentioned the guildhall in High Street, of the early part of the 18th century; the museum, which includes a fine collection of local, including many Roman, relics; and the school of art, under municipal management, but founded by the painter T. Sidney Cooper (d. 1902), who was a resident at Harbledown. A modern statue of a muse commemorates the poet Christopher Marlowe (1564-1593), a native of the city; and a pillar indicates the place where a number of persons were burnt at the stake in the reign of Mary. The King's school, occupying buildings adjacent to the cathedral, developed out of the early teaching furnished by the monastery. It was refounded by Henry VIII. in 1541 (whence its name), and is managed on the lines of ordinary public schools. It has about 250 boys; and there is besides a junior or preparatory school. The school is still connected with the ecclesiastical foundation, the dean and chapter being its governors. A noted occasion of festivity in Cante-bury is the Canterbury cricket-week, when the Kent county cricket eleven engages in matches with other first-class teams, and many visitors are attracted to the city. Canterbury has a considerable agriculture trade, breweries, tanneries, brickworks and other manufactures. The parliamentary borough returns one member. The city is governed by a mayor, 6 aldermen and 18 councillors. Area, 3955 acres. History of the City.—The existence of a Romano-British town on the site of Canterbury has already been indicated. It was named Durovernum, and was a flourishing county town on the road from the Kentish ports to London. Mosaic pavements and other remains have been found in considerable abundance. The city, known by the Saxons as Cantwaraburh, the town of the men of Kent, was the metropolis of IEthelberht's kingdom. At the time of the Domesday survey Canterbury formed part of the royal demesne and was governed by a portreeve as it had beenbefore the Conquest. In the 13th and 14th centuries, two bailiffs presided over the burghmote, assisted by a larger and smaller council. Henry II., by an undated charter, confirmed former privileges and granted to the citizens that no one should implead them outside the city walls and that the pleas of the crown should be decided according to the customs of the city. In 1256 Henry III. granted them the city at an annual fee farm of £6o, also the right of electing their bailiffs. Confirmations of former charters with additional liberties were granted by later sovereigns, and Henry VI. incorporated Canterbury, which he called " one of our most ancient cities," under the style of the mayor and commonalty, the mayor to be elected by the burgesses. James I. in 1609 confirmed these privileges, giving the burgesses the right to be called a body corporate and to elect twelve alder-men and a common council of twenty-four. Charles II., after calling in the charters of corporations, granted a confirmation in 1684. Canterbury was first represented in parliament in 1283, and it continued to return two members until 1885, when the number was reduced to one. A fair was granted by Henry VI. to the citizens to be held in the city or suburbs on the 4th of August and the two days following; other fairs were in the hands of the monasteries; the corn and cattle markets and a general market have been held by prescription from time immemorial. Canterbury was a great centre of the silk-weaving trade in the 17th century, large numbers of Walloons, driven by persecution to England, having settled there in the reign of Elizabeth. In 1676 Charles II. granted a charter of incorporation to the Walloon congregation under style of the master, wardens and fellowship of weavers in the city of Canterbury. The market for the sale of corn and hops was regulated by a local act in 18o,. See A. P. Stanley, Historical Memorials of Canterbury (London, 1855) ; J. Brent, Canterbury in the Olden Time (Canterbury, 1879) ; J. W. Legg and W. H. St J. Hope, Inventories of Christchurch, Canterbury (London, 1902) ; Victoria County History, Kent. .
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