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Originally appearing in Volume V28, Page 936 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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I178 ecclesiastical parishes and districts wholly or in part. It is divided between the dioceses of York, Ripon and Wakefield, with small parts in those of Manchester, Southwell, Durham and Lincoln. York is the seat of the northern archdiocese. History.—The kingdom of Deira (q.v.), which was afterwards to include the whole of the modern Yorkshire, is first known to us in the 6th century, an Anglian tribe having seized the promontory at the mouth of the Humber, named by the invaders Holderness, followed by the gradual subjugation of the whole district now known as the East Riding. The wolds between Weighton and Flamborough Head were then mere sheep-walks, and the earliest settlements were chiefly confined to the rich valley of the lower Derwent, but the district around Weighton became the Deiran sacred ground, and Goodmanham is said to mark the site of a temple. The area computed in the modern West Riding constituted the British kingdom of Elmet, and at this date presented a desolate and unbroken tract of moor-land in the N.; in the central parts about ;Leeds stretched a forest region where the last wolf seen in Yorkshire is said to have been slain by John of Gaunt; while in the S. the forest and fen of Hatfield Chase presented a barrier to invasion broken only by the line of Watling Street, which crossed the Don at Doncaster, the Aire at Castleford and the Wharfe at Tadcaster. The N. continuation of the road from York through Catterick to the Tees opened the way to the fertile plain in the heart of the modern North Riding, the S.E. of which offered an unbroken forest area, later known as the forest of Galtres, which in the middle ages stretched from York N. to Easingwold and Craike and E. to Castle Howard, and as late as the 16th century lay a waste and unfrequented region abounding only in deer. Ella, the first king of Deira, extended his territory N. to the Wear, and his son Edwin completed the conquest of the district which was to become Yorkshire by the subjugation of Elmet, prompted thereto by vengeance on its king, Cerdic, for the murder of his uncle Hereric. Traces of the " burhs " by which Edwin secured his conquests are perhaps visible in the group of earthworks at Barwick and on the site of Cambodunum, but the district long remained scantily populated, and as late as the 17th century deer were said to be as plentiful in Hatfield Chase as " sheep upon a hill," for Prince Henry in 1609 was asserted to have killed 500 in one day's hunting. The defeat of Edwin at Hatfield in 633 was followed by a succession of struggles between Mercia and Northumbria for the supremacy over Deira, during which the boundaries underwent constant changes. After the Danish conquest of Deira, Guthrum in 875 portioned the district among his followers, under whose lordship the English population were for the most part allowed to retain their lands. Cleveland came under Scandinavian influence, and the division into tithings probably originated about this date, the boundaries being arranged to meet at York, which, as the administrative and commercial centre of the district, rapidly increased in importance, and it has been estimated that in A.D. 1000 it had a population of over 30,000.. At the battle of Stamford Bridge in ro66 Harold Hardrada, who had seized York, and Earl Tosti were both defeated and slain by Harold of England. The merciless harrying with which the Conqueror punished resistance to his claims is proved by the reiterated entries of waste land in the Domesday Survey, and for many years all the towns between York and Durham lay uninhabited. In 1138 the forces of David of Scotland were defeated near Northallerton in the Battle of the Standard. In the barons' wars of the reign of Henry II. Thirsk and Malgeard Castles, which had been garrisoned against the king by Roger de Mowbray, were captured and demolished. In the harrying of the northern counties by the forces of Robert Bruce in 1318, Northallerton, Boroughbridge, Scarborough and Skipton were reduced to ashes. In 1322, at the battle of Boroughbridge, the rebel barons were defeated by the forces of Edward II. In 1399 Richard II. was murdered in Pontefract Castle. In 1405 Archbishop Scrope and Thomas Mowbray joined in the insurrection against Henry IV., and led the citizens of York to Skipton Moor, where, after a defeat by the earl of Westmorland; the leaders were beheaded under the walls of York. In 1408 the rebel forces of the earl of Northumberland were defeated by Sir Thomas Rokesby, high sheriff of Yorkshire, at Bramham Moor near Tadcaster. In 1453 a skirmish between the Percies and the Nevilles at Stamford Bridge was the opening event in the struggle between the houses of York and Lancaster; in 1460 the duke of York was defeated and slain at Wake-field; in 1461 the Lancastrians were defeated at Towton. The suppression of the monasteries roused deep resentment in Yorkshire, and the inhabitants flocked to join the Pilgrimage of Grace, Skipton Castle being the only place immediately N. of the Humber which remained loyal to the king. On the outbreak of the Civil War of the 17th century, opinion was divided in York= shire, the chief parliamentary families being the Fairfaxes and the Hothams, while the Puritan clothing-towns of the West Riding also sided with the parliament. Sir William Savile captured Leeds and Wakefield for the king in 1642, and in 1643 Newcastle, having defeated the Fairfaxes at Adwalton Moor, held all Yorkshire except Hull, which the Hothams, moved by jealousy of the Fairfaxes, had already designed to give up. In 1644, however, the Fairfaxes secured the East and West Ridings, while Cromwell's victory at Marston Moor was followed by the capture of York, and in the next year of Pontefract and Scar-borough. On the redistribution of estates after the Norman Conquest, Alan of Brittany, founder of Richmond Castle, received a vast fief which became the honour of Richmond; Ilbert de Laci was rewarded with lands which afterwards constituted the honour of Pontefract. Earl Harold's estate at Coningsburgh passed to William de Warenne, earl of Surrey, together with Sandal Castle, which on the expiration of the Warenne line in the 14th century was bestowed on Edmund Langley, duke of York. Other great Domesday landholders were William de Percy, founder of the abbey of Whitby; Robert de Bruce, ancestor of the royal line of Scotland, the head of whose fief in Cleveland was transferred in the 12th century from Danby Castle to Skelton; Roger de Busli owned a large tract in S. Yorkshire, of which Tickhill was the head; the archbishop of York enjoyed the great lordship of Sherburn, and Howdenshire was a liberty of the bishop of Durham. Among the great lordships of the middle ages for which Yorkshire was distinguished were: Topcliffe, the honour of the Percies; Thirsk, of the Mowbrays; Tanfield, of the Marmions; Skipton, of the Cliffords; Middleham, of the Fitz-Hughes and Nevilles; Helmsley, of the de Roos; Masham and Bolton, of the Scropes; Sheffield, of the Furnivalls and Talbots; Wakefield, of the duke of York. The Fairfaxes were settled in Yorkshire in the 13th century, and in the 16th century Denton became their chief seat. The shire court for Yorkshire was held at York, but extensive privileges were enjoyed by the great landholders. In the 13th century Henry de Lacy, earl of Lincoln, claimed to hold the sheriff's tourn at Bradford and Leeds; his bailiff administered the wapentake of Stainclif in his court at Bacskalf and Slaidburn; and his steward judged cases of felony in his court at Almond-bury. The archbishop of York held the sheriff's tourn at Otley, and had his own coroners at York, Hull, Beverley and Ripon. Endo la Zouche held the sheriff's tourn at Bingley, and Thomas de Furnivall in Hallamshire. The bailiffs of Tickhill Castle also held tourns in place of the sheriff. The bishop of Durham had a court at Hoveden, and the king's bailiffs were excluded from executing their office in his estates of Howdenshire and Allertonshire. The abbot of St Mary's York had his own coroners in the wapentake of Ryedale, and the abbot of Bella Landa in Sutton. The prior of Bradenstoke held a court in his manor of Wales. The archbishop of York, Robert de Pos., and the abbot of St Mary's York judged felonies at their courts in Iolderness. The liberty of Ripon (q.v.), city of Ripon, still constitutes a franchise of the archbishops of York. In the 13th century the diocese of York included in this county the archdeaconry of York, comprising the deaneries of York, Pontefract, Doncaster and Craven; the archdeaconry of Cleveland, comprising the deaneries of Balmer, Cleveland and Ryedale; the archdeaconry of East Riding, comprising the deaneries of Harthill (Hull), Buckrose, Dickering and Holderness; and the archdeaconry of Richmond, comprising the deaneries of Richmond, Catterick, Boroughbridge and Lonsdale. In 1541 the deaneries of Richmond were transferred to Henry VIIL's new diocese of Chester. Ripon was created an episcopal see by act of parliament in 1836, and the deaneries of Craven and Pontefract were formed into the archdeaconry of Craven within its jurisdiction, together with the archdeaconry of Richmond. The archdeaconry of Sheffield was created in 1884 to include the deaneries of Sheffield, Rotherham, Ecclesfield and Wath. In 1888 the area of the diocese of Ripon was reduced by the creation of the see of Wakefield, including the archdeaconry of Halifax with the deaneries of Birstall, Dewsbury, Halifax, Silkstone and Wakefield, and the archdeaconry and deanery of Huddersfield. The diocese of Ripon now includes in this county the arch-deaconries of Craven with three deaneries, Richmond with three deaneries and Ripon with seven deaneries. The diocese of York includes the archdeaconries of York with six deaneries, Sheffield with four deaneries, East Riding with thirteen deaneries and Cleveland with nine deaneries. The great woollen industry of Yorkshire originated soon after the Conquest, and the further development of this and other characteristic industries may be traced in the articles on the various industrial centres. The time of the 'American War marked the gradual absorption by Yorkshire of the clothing trade from the E. counties. Coal appears to have been used in Yorkshire by the Romans, and was dug at Leeds in the 13th century. The early fame of Sheffield as the centre of the cutlery and iron trade is demonstrated by the line in Chaucer, " a Sheffield whitel bore he in his hose." In the 13th century a forge is mentioned at Rosedale, and the canons of Gisburn had tour " fabricae " in blast in Glaisdale in Cleveland. In the 16th century limestone was dug in many parts of Elmet, and Huddlestone, Hesselwood and Tad-caster had famous quarries; Pontefract was famous for its liquorice, Aherford for its pins, Whitby for its jet. Alum was dug at Guisborough, Sandsend, Dunsley and Whitby in the 17th century, and a statute of 1659 forbade the importation of alum from abroad, in order to encourage its cultivation in this country. Bolton market was an important distributive centre for cotton materials in the 17th century, and in 1787 there were eleven cotton mills in the county. Parliamentary Representation.—The county of York was represented by two knights in the parliament of 1295, and the boroughs of Beverley, Hedon, Malton, Pickering, Pontefract, Ripon, Scar-borough, Thirsk, Tickhill, Yarm and York each by two burgesses. Northallerton acquired representation in 1298, Boroughbridge in 1300, Kingston-on-Hull and Ravensburgh in 1304. In most of the boroughs the privilege of representation was allowed to lapse, and from 1328 until 1547 cnly York, Scarborough and Kingston-on-Hull returned members. 1-Iedon, Thirsk, Ripon and Beverley regained the franchise in the 16th century, and Boroughbridge, Knaresborough, Aldborough and Richmond also returned members. Pontefract was represented in 1623, New Malton and Northallerton in 164o. In 1826 two additional knights were returned for the shire of York, and 14 boroughs were represented. Under the Reform Act of 1832 the county returned 6 members in 3 divisions -2 for each riding; Aldborough, Boroughbridge and Hedon were disfranchised; Northallerton and Thirsk lost 1 member each; Bradford, Halifax, Leeds and Sheffield acquired representation by 2 members each, and Wakefield and Whitby by 1 member each. Under the act of 1868 the representation of the West Riding division was increased to 6 members in 3 divisions; Dewsbury and Middlesbrough were enfranchised, returning r member each; Leeds now returned 3 members; Knaresborough, Malton, Richmond and Ripon lost I member each. Beverley was disfranchised in 1870. (For arrangements under the act of 1885 see § Administration.) Antiquities.—Of ancient castles Yorkshire retains many interesting examples. The fine ruins at Knaresborough, Pickering, Pontefract, Richmond, Scarborough and Skipton are described under their respective headings. Barden Tower, picturesquely situated in upper Wharfedale, was built by Henry de Clifford (d. 1523), called the " shepherd lord " from the story that he was brought up as a shepherd. He was a student of astronomy and astrology. Bolton Castle, which rises majestically above Wensleydale, was pronounced by Leland " the fairest in Richmondshire." It is a square building with towers at the corners, erected in the reign of Richard II. by Richard Scrope, chancellor of England. It was occupied by Queen Mary while under the charge of Lord Scrope, was besieged during the civil wars, and rendered untenable in 1647. Of Bowes Castle, in the North Riding near Barnard Castle, there remains only the square keep, supposed to have been built by Alan Niger, 1st earl of Richmond, in the 12th century, but the site was occupied by the Romans. Cawood Castle, on the Ouse near Selby, retains its gate-way tower erected in the reign of Henry VI. The castle, said to have been founded by ./Ethelstan in 62o, was the palace of the archbishops of York, and Wolsey resided in it. Conisborough Castle stands by the Don between Rotherham and Doncaster. Its origin is uncertain, but dates probably from Saxon times. The keep and portions of the walls remain; and the ruin possesses additional interest from its treatment in Scott's Ivanhoe. The ruins of Danis)! Castle, which is supposed to have been built shortly after the Conquest by Robert de Bruce or Brus, are of various dates. Harewood Castle in lower Wharfedale was founded soon after the Conquest, but contains no portions earlier than the reign of Edward III. The keep of Helmsley Castle was built late in the 12th century probably by Robert de Ros, surnamed Fursan; the earthworks are apparently of much earlier date. There are picturesque remains of the quadrangular fortress of Middleham in Wensleydale, built in the 12th century by Robert FitzRanulph, afterwards possessed by the Nevilles, and rendered untenable by order of parliament in 1647. Mulgrave Castle, near the modern residence of the same name in the Whitby district, is said to have been founded two centuries before the Conquest by a Saxon giant named Wade or Wadda. Parts are clearly Norman, but some of the masonry suggests an earlier date. The castle was dismantled after the civil wars. There are slight remain, of the 15th century, of Ravensworth Castle, near Richmond. This was probably an early foundation of the family of Fitz Hugh. Sheriff Hutton Castle, between York and Malton, was the foundation of Bertram de Bulmer in the reign of Stephen; the remains are of the early part of the 15th century, when the property passed to the Nevilles. Spofforth Castle, near Harrogate, was erected by Henry de Percy in 1309. Its ruins range from the period of foundation to the 15th century. Of Tickhill Castle, near Doncaster, built or enlarged by Roger de Busli in the 11th century, there are foundations of the keep and fragments of the walls. Of Whorlton Castle in, Cleveland, the Perpendicular gatehouse is very fine. One side remains of the great quadrangular fortress of Wressell, E. of Selby, built by Thomas Percy, earl of Worcester, in the reign of Richard II. Some of the mansions in the county incorporate remains of ancient strongholds, such as those at Gilling, under the Harnbleton Hills in the North Riding, Ripley near Harrogate, and Skelton in Cleveland. Medieval mansions are numerous, a noteworthy example being the Elizabethan hall of Burton Agnes, in the N. of Holderness. In ecclesiastical architecture Yorkshire is extraordinarily rich. At the time of the Dissolution there were 28 abbeys, 26 priories, 23 nunneries, 30 friaries, 13 cells, 4 commanderics of Knights Hospitallers and 4 preceptories of Knights Templars. The principal monastic ruins are described under separate headings and else-where. These are Bolton Abbey (properly Priory), a foundation of Augustinian canons; Fountains Abbey, a Cistercian foundation, the finest and most complete of the ruined abbeys in England; the Cistercian abbey of Kirkstall near Leeds (q.v.) ; the Cistercian abbey of Rievaulx, and the Benedictine abbey of St Mary, at York. For the plans and buildings of Fountains, Kirkstall and St Mary's, York, see ABBEY. Separate reference is also made to the ruins of Jervaulx (Cistercian) and Coverham (Premonstratensian) in Wensleydale, and to the remains at Bridlington, Guisborough, Malton, Whitby, Easby near Richmond, Kirkham near Malton, Monk Bretton near Barnsley, and Mount Grace near Northallerton. There are fine though scanty remains of Byland Abbey, of Early English date, between Thirsk and Malton; the abbey was founded for Cistercian monks in the 12th century, and was previously established at Old Byland near Rievaulx. There was a house of Premonstratensians at Egglestone above the Tees near Barnard Castle. Other ruins are the Cistercian foundations of the 12th century at Meaux in Holderness, Roche, E. of Rotherham, and Sawley in Ribblesdale; the Benedictine nunneries of Marrick in upper Swaledale, and Rosedale under the high moors of the N.E.; and the Gilbertine house of Watton in Holderness, of the 12th century, converted into a dwelling. Descriptions are given in the articles on the respective cities and towns of the cathedral or minster at York, and of the numerous churches in that city; of the cathedral churches at Ripon and Wakefield; of the minster and the church of St Mary 'at Beverley; and of the fine parish churches at Bradford, Bridlington (the old priory church), Hedon, Hull, Rotherham, Selby. (abbey church), Sheffield and Thirsk. In Holderness are the splendid churches of Howden and Patrington, both in the main Decorated; and the fine late Norman building at Kirkburn. A very perfect though small example of a Norman church is seen at Birkin on the Aire below Pontefract. At Nun Monkton near York is a beautiful Early English church, formerly belonging to a Benedictine nunnery. Goodmanham in the S. Wolds is the scene, in all probability, of the conversion by Paulinus of Edwin of Northumbria in 625, who was afterwards baptized at York. At Kirkdale near Kirkby Moorside in the N. Riding is a singular example of an inscribed sundial of pre-Conquest date. At Lastingham in the same district is a very fine and early Norman crypt. See Victoria County History, Yorkshire: T. Allen, History of the County of Yvrk (3 vols., London, 1828–31) ; T. Baines, York-shire Past and Present, including an account of the woollen trade 936 of Yorkshire by E. Baines (2 vols., London, 1871–77) ; John Burton, Monasticon Eboracense (London, 1758–59) ; W. Smith, Old Yorkshire (London, 1881) ; G. Frank, Ryedale and North Yorkshire Antiquities (York, 1888) ; G. R. Park, Parliamentary Representation of Yorkshire (Hull, 1886); A. D. H. Leadman, Proelia Eboracensia, Battles fought in Yorkshire (London, 1891); T. D. Whitaker, History of Richmondshire (London, 1823), History of Craven (London, 1878), History of Leeds and Elmet (2 vols., Leeds, 1816); J. Wainwright, Yorkshire; Wapentake of Strafford and Tickhill, vol. i. (Sheffield, 1826); W. Grainge, Castles and Abbeys of Yorkshire (York, 1855) ; J. Hunter, South Yorkshire (2 vols., London, 1828–31) ; J. J. Sheahan and T. Whellan, History of the City of York, the Ainsty Wapentake, and the East Riding of York-shire (3 vols., Beverley, 1855–57) ; T. Langdale, Topographical Dictionary of Yorkshire (Northallerton, 1809); G. H. de S. N. Plantagenet Harrison, History of Yorkshire (London, 1879, &C.); see also publications of the Yorkshire Archaeological and Topographical Society.
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