Online Encyclopedia

I271 I

Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V20, Page 725 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
Spread the word: del.icio.us del.icio.us it!
I271 I ix 1276 23 ii cs. 1276 12 vii, el. 1276 13 ix 1277 25 xi I281 22 ii 1285 2 iv 1288 15 ii 1294 5 vii 1294 24 xii 1303 22 x 1305 5 vi 1316 7 viii 1334 20 xii 1342 7 v, el. 1352 18 xii 1362 28 x 1370 30 xii 1378 8 iv [1378 20 ix 1394 28 ix 1389 2 Xi 1404 17 x 1406 2 xii 1409 26 vi 1410 17 V 1417 I I xi 1431 3 iii 1447 6 iii 1455 8 iv 1 1458 19 viii 1464 31 viii 11471 9 Viii 1 '484 24 viii '492 II viii 1503 22 ix 1503 I xi 1513 15 iii 1522 9 i 1523 19 xi 1534 13 x 1550 8 ii 1555 9 iv 1555 23 V 1559 25 xii '566 17 i, cs. 1572 26 v 1585 I v, cs. 1590 15 ix; el. 1590 5 xii 1591 29 x, el. 1592 30 i, el. 1605 I iv, el. Nicolaus II. Alexander II. S. Gregorius VII. Victor III. Urbanus II. Paschalis II. Gelasius II. Calixtus II. Honorius II. Innocentius II. Coelestinus II. Lucius II. Eugenius III. Anastasius IV. Hadrianus IV. Alexander III. Lucius III. Urbanus III. Gregorius VIII. Clemens III. Coelestinus III. Innocentius III. Honorius III. Gregorius IX. Coelestinus IV. Innocentius IV. Alexander IV. Urbanus IV. Clemens IV. Gregorius X. Innocentius V. Hadrianus V. Joannes XXI. Nicolaus III. Martinus IV. Honorius IV. Nicolaus IV. t 4 iv, S. Coelestinus V. (f 19 V, 1296) res. '3 xii, Bonifacius VIII. t II x, Benedictus XI. f 7 vii, Clemens V. t 20 iv, Joannes XXII. t 4 xii, Benedictus XII. f 25 iv, Clemens VI. t 6 xii, Innocentius VI. f 12 ix, Urbanus V. t'9 xii, Gregorius XI. f 27 iii, Urbanus VI. t 15 x, Clemens VII. antipapa Aven. f 16 ix, Benedict XIII. (amot 26 vii) 1417 f 23 v, Bonifacius IX. f ' x, Innocentius VII. f 6 xi, Gregorius XII. (t 1419) resignat. 4 vii, Alexander V. t 3 v, Joannes XXIII. (f 22 xi, 1419) amot. 24 v, f 20 ii, t 23 ii, t 24 iii, t 6 viii, f 15 Viii, t 28 Vii, t 12 viii, t 25 Vii, f '8 viii, t'8 x, f 21 ii, t I xii, t 14 ix, f 25 ix, f 10 xi, f 23 iii, t 30 iv, f 18 viii, t 9 xii, f 1 v, j Ioiv, t 27 Viii, t 27 ix, t15x, t 3o xii, f 5 iii, Martinus V. Eugenius IV. Nicolaus V. Calixtus III. Pius II. Paulus II. Sixtus IV. Innocentius VIII. Alexander VI. Pius III. Julius II. Leo X. Hadrianus VI. Clemens VII. Paulus III. Julius III. Marcellus II. Paulus IV. Pius IV. S. Pius V. Gregorius XIII. Sixtus V. Urbanus VII. Gregorius XIV. Innocentius IX. Clemens VIII. Leo XI. Date of Death. 1145 1153 1154 1159 '181 1185 I187 I187 1191 I198 I216 f 27 Vii, 'o61 t 21 iv, 1073 t 25 v, 1085 t 16 ix, I087 t 29 Vii, 1099 f 21 1, '118 t 29 i, 1119 t 13—14 X1i, I 124 f 14 ii, 1'30 24 1x, 1143 t 8 1144 n t 8 vii, t 3 xii, f I ix, f 30 viii, f 25 xi, 20 X, t 17 xii, f iii, f 81, t 16 vii, f 18 iii, 1227 t 21 Vi11, 1241 f 17–18 xi, 1241 t 13 xii, 1254 f 25 V, 1261 t 2 x, 1264 f 29 Xi, '268 I I I 1, 1276 122 Vi, 1276 f 17 viii, 1276 t 16 v, 1277 f 22 Viii, I280 t 28 iii, 1285 f 3 iV, 1287 1292 1534 1549 1555 1555 1559 1565 1572 1585 1590 1590 1591 1605 f 27 iv. 1605 1294 1303 1304 1314 1334 1342 1352 1362 1370 1378 1389 1394 14231 1404 1406 1415 1410 1415 1431 1447 1455 1458 1464 1471 1484 1492 1503 1503 1513 1521 1523 724 pontificates of this period are scarce. Mention, however, must be made of H. Reuter's Geschichte Alexanders III. and der Kirche seiner Zeit (3 vols., Berlin, 1860–1864). Much information on the policy of these popes will be found in the works on the great person-ages of the time: W. Bernhardi, Lothar von Supplinburg (Leipzig, 1879), and Konrad III. (Leipzig, 1883) ; H. Prutz, Kaiser Friedrich I. (3 vols., Danzig, 1871–1874) ; P. Scheffer-Boichorst, Kaiser Fried-. rzchs I. letzter Streit mit der Kurie (Berlin, 1866); Julius Ficker, Reinald von Dassel (Cologne, 185o) ; Th. Toeche, Kaiser Heinrich VI. (Leipzig, 1867) ; J. Jastrow and G. Winter, Deutsche Geschichte im Zeitalter der Hohenstaufen (2 vols., Berlin, 1897–1901); F. von Raumer, Geschichte der Hohenstaufen and ihrer Zeit (5th ed., 6 vols., Leipzig, '878); A. Hausrath, Arnold von Brescia (Leipzig, 1891) ; Dietr. Hirsch, Studien zur Geschichte Konig Ludwigs VII. von Frankreich (Leipzig, 1892); O. Cartellieri, Abt Suger von Saint-Denis (Berlin, 1898); F. Vacandard, Vie de S. Bernard (2 vols., Paris, 1895); J. Thiel, Die politische Thatigkeit des Abtes Bernhard von Clairvaux (Konigsberg, '885); A. Luchaire, Louis VII., Philippe-Auguste, Louis VIII. (vol. iii. pt. i. of Lavisse's Histoire de France) ; H. Bohmer, Kirche and Staat in England and in der Normandie im XL. and XII. Jahrhundert. (Leipzig, 1899); Kate Norgate, England under the Angevin kings (London, 1887) ; and P. Scheffer-Boichorst, " Hat Papst Hadrian IV. zu Gunsten des englischen Konigs ilber Irland verfiigt ? " in Mitteilungendes Instituts fur astern. Geschichtsforschung (supplementary vol. iv., 1893). (c) From 1198 to 1261.—On the pontificate of Innocent III. in general, see F. von Hurter, Geschichte Papst Innocenz III. (3rd and 2nd ed., 4 vols., Hamburg, 1841–1844) ; and A. Luchaire, Innocent III., Rome et l'Italie (2nd ed., Paris, 1905), Innocent 1.11. la croisade des albigeois (Paris, 1905), Innocent III., la papaute et l'empire (Paris, 1906), Innocent III., la question d'orient (Paris, 1906), and Innocent III., les royautes vassales du Saint-Siege (Paris, 1908). Cf. E. Winkelmann, Philipp von Schwaben and Otto IV. von Braunschweig (2 vols., Leipzig, '873–'878); W. Norden, Das Papsttum and Byzanz (Berlin, 1903), a considerable part of which is devoted to Innocent III.; E. Gerland, Geschichte des lateinischen Kaiserreiches von Konstantinopel (Homburg, 1905) ; R. Davidsohn, Philipp II. August von Frankreich and Ingeborg (Stuttgart, 1888) ; R. Schwemer, Innocenz III. and die deutsche Kirche wahrend des Thronstreites von 1198–1208 (Strassburg, 1882) ; Else Gi`_tschow, Innocenz III. and England (Munich, 1904) ; and many other detailed monographs. The pontificate of Honorius III. is dealt with by J. Clausen in his Papst Honorius III. (Bonn, 1895), and his registers have been published by P. Pressutti (3 vols., Rome, 1884 and 1888–1895). On Gregory IX., see J. Felten, Papst Gregor IX. (Freiburg i. Br., '886); P. Balan, Storia di Gregorio IX. e dei suoi tempi (3 vols., Modena, 1872–1873) ; and J. Marx, Die vita Gregorii IX. (Berlin, 1889). The publication of the registers of this pope was begun by L. Auvray in the Bibliotheque des erodes de Rome it d'Athenes (Paris, 1890 et seq.). On Innocent IV., see E. Berger, St Louis et Innocent IV. (Paris, 1893) ; E. Winkelmann, Kaiser Friedrich II. (2 vols., Leipzig, 1889–1897) ; P. Aldinger, Die Neubesetzung der deutschen Bistumer unter Papst Innocenz IV. (Leipzig, 1901) ; and C. Rodenberg, Innocenz IV. and das Konigreich Sizilien (Halle, 1892). The publication of the registers of Innocent IV. was under-taken by Elie Berger (1881 et seq.), and those of Alexander IV. by J. de Loye, A. Coulon and C. Bourel de la Ronciere (1895 et seq.). As the history of the later Hohenstaufens is intimately bound up with that of the contemporary popes, mention must be made of F. W. Schirrmacher, Die letzten Hohenstaufen (Gottingen, 1871); A. Karst, Geschichte Manfreds vom Ende ,Friedrichs II. bis zu seiner Kronung (Berlin, 1897) ; and K. Hampe, Geschichte Konradins von Hohenstaufen (Innsbruck, 1894). (d) From 1261 to 1305.—L. Dorez and J. Guiraud, members of the French school at Rome, began the publication of the registers of Urban IV. (1892 et seq.); E. Jordan, those of Clement IV. (1893 et seq.) ; and J. Guiraud and L. Cadier, those of Gregory X. (1892 et seq.). On Gregory X., see F. Walter, Die Politik der Kurie unter Gregor X. (Berlin, 1894). The pontificate of John XXI. has been dealt with by R. Stapper, Papst Johannes XXI. (Munster i. W., 1898), and that of Nicholas III. by A. Demski, Papst Nikolaus III. (Munster i. W., 1903), in vol. vi. of the Kirchengeschichtliche Studien, ed. by Knopfler, SchrOrs and Sdralek. The publication of the registers of Nicholas III. was undertaken by J. Gay (1898 et seq.). Much information on the policy of these popes will be found in the following: R. Sternfield, Ludwigs des Heiligen Kreuzzug nach Tunis and die Politik Karls I. von Sizilien (Berlin, 1896); Ch. V. Langlois, Le Regne de Philippe III. le Hardi (Paris, 188; L. Leclere, Les Rapports de la papaute et de la France sous Philippe III. (Brussels, 1889) ; C. Minieri-Riccio, Alcuni fatti riguardanti Carlo I. d' Angib . . . (Naples, 1874), and Il Regno di Carlo I. d'Angib, in the Archivio storico italiano (3rd series, vols. xxii., xxiii., xxiv., xxv., xxvi. ; 4th series, vols. ii., iii., iv., v., vii., 1875–1881) ; A. Busson, Die Idee des deutschen Erbreichs and die ersten Habsburger (Vienna, 1878); G. del Giudice, La Famiglia di re Manfredi (Naples, 188o); and H. Otto, Die Beziehungen Rudolfs von Habsburg zu Papst Gregor X. (Innsbruck, 1895). There is a good account of the policy of Martin IV. in O. Cartellieri, Peter von Aragon and die sizilianischen Vesper (Heidelberg, 1904). On Honorius IV., see introduction to the complete edition of his registers by Maurice Prou (1886–1888). E. Langlois has published the registers of Nicholas IV. (1886–1893), and Otto Schiff deals with his pontificate in his Studien iur Geschichte Papst Nikolaus IV. (1897). On Celestine V., see H. Schulz, Peter von Murrhone (Papst Coelestin V.), Berlin, 1894. The publication of the registers of Boniface VIII. was begun by G. Digard, M. Faucon and A. Thomas (1884 et seq.). Of the vast literature on this pontificate we must content ourselves with citing: Heinrich Finke, Aus den Tagen Bonifaz' VIII. (Munster i. W., 1902); Ch. V. Langlois, " St. Louis, Philippe le Bel, Les Derniers capetiens directs " (vol. iii., pt. ii. of Lavisse's Histoire de France) ; Ernest Renan, Etudes sur la politique religieuse du regne de Philippe le Bel (1899) A. Baudsillart, " Des Idees qu'on se faisait au XIVO siecle sur le droit d'intervention du souverain pontife en matiere politique," in the Revue d'histoire et de litterature religieuses (vol. iii., 1898); and R. Holtzmann, Wilhelm von Nogaret (Freiburg i. Br., 1898). The pontificate of Benedict XI. is dealt with by P. Funke in his Papst Benedikt XI. (Munster i. W., 1891). Cf. Ch. Grandjean, " Recherches sur I'administration financiere du pape Benoit XI," in the Melanges d'archeologie et d'histoire (vol. iii., 1883), published by the French School at Rome. Grandjean has published the registers of Benedict XI. (1883 et seq.). Among works of a more general character that throw light on the history of the papacy during the I2th and 13th centuries, the first place must be given to Walter Norden's Das Papsttum and Byzanz. Die Trennung der beiden Meichte and das Problem ihrer Wiedervereinigung bis zum Untergange des byzantinischen Reichs (Berlin, 1903), which contains an account of the question of the East in its relations with the papal policy, from the rise of the schism down to the end of the middle ages. See also Felix Rocquain, La Papaute an moyen dge (Paris, 1881) and La Cow de Rome et l'esprit de ref orme avant Luther (3 vols., Paris, 1893 1897) ; J. B. Sagmuller, Die Thatigkeit and Stellung der Cardinale bis Papst Bonifaz VIII. (Freiburg i. Br., 1896) ; and A. Gottlob, Die papstlichen Kreuzzugssteuern des 13. Jahrhunderts (Heiligenstadt, 1892) and Kreuzablass and Almosenablass (Stuttgart, 1906). (A. Lu.) Period III. 1305–1590.—Baluze, Vitae paparum avenioniensium (1305–1394), 2 t. (Paris, 1693) ; Raynaldus, Annales eccles. ab anno 1198 [to 1565], annotated and added to by J. D. Mansi (15 vols., Lucca, 1747–1756) ; Mansi, Concil. collectio; Theodericus of Niem, De schismate, ed. Erler (1890); Christophe, Histoire de la papaute (1873); Hefele, Conciliengeschichte (Freiburg i. B., 1855, seq.); Hoffer, Die avignonesischen Papste (1871); Creighton, History of the Papacy (1882, seq.) ; L. Pastor, Geschichte der Papste (Freiburg i. B., 1886, se q., Eng. trans. by F. I. Antrobus, 1891, seq.) ; Pastor, Acta pontific. 9(1904) ; N. Valois, La France et le grand schisme, 4 t. (1896, seq.); Haller, Papsttum and Kirchenreform (1903). For the Papacy in connexion with the Renaissance, see E. Miintz, Les Arts (1892) ; Voigt, Wiederbelebung des klassischen Altertums (1893); J. Burkhardt, Cultur der Renaissance in Italien, 2 B. (ed. L. Geiger, (19077)). For the palace at Avignon, see Ehrle, Bibl. rom. pontif. i. To the authorities for the lives of individual popes attached to the biographies under their several headings, and to the articles on the councils of BASEL, CONSTANCE, TRENT, may be added: CLEMENT V.—Boutaric, Philippe le Bel (1861); Konig, Papstl. Kammer unter Clemens V. u. Johann XXfl. (1894) ; Finke, Acta Aragonen. (1908). JoHN XXII.—Bohmer, Regest. Ludwigs des Baiern (1839); Vatikanische Acten (1891); Riezler, Literarische Widersacher (1874); Muller, Kampf Ludwigs mit der Curie (1879–188o) ; Coulon, Lettres secretes de Jean XXII., relat. a la France, i. (1907); Mollat, Lettres commun. de Jean XXIL, i.–iv. (1907). CLEMENT VI.—Werunsky, Kaiser Karl IV., i. (1800), ii. (1882–1886); Papencordt, Cola di Rienzo (1841); Deprez, Lett. closes 1901 seq. INNOCENT VI.—Werunsky, Ital., Politik Innoc. VI. u. Karl IV. (1878); id., Karl IV. ii. (1882–1886), iii. (1892); Cerasoli, Archivio napolit. 22–23; Kirsch, Kollectorien (1892); Daumet, Innocent VI. it Blanche de Bourbon (1899). URBAN V.—Magnan, Urbain V. (1863); Werunsky, Karl IV. iii. (1892); Prou, Relat. pout. aver les rois de France (1888) ; Wurm, Albornoz (1892) ; Kirsch, Riickkehr der Papste Urban V. and Gregor XI. nach Rom (1898); Letacheux, Lettres secretes (1903, seq.). GREGORY XI Mirot, Retour du St Siege d Rome (1899) ; Tommaseo, Lettere di S. Catering (186o) ; M. A. Mignaty, Catherine de Sienne (1886). BONIFACE IX.—Vita, ap. Muratori, Script. iii. 2; Cosmodromium, Gobelini Persona, ed. Jansen (1900); Jansen, Bonifacius IX. u. die deutsche Kirche (1904). INNOCENT VII.—Gregory XII., schismatic popes, council of Constance, &c. Monum. concil. gen. sacr. X V. (1857–1896) ; Alpartilz, Chronica, ed. Ehrle (1906); Pliemetfrieder, Literarische Polemik (1909). MARTIN V.—Vitae, ap. Muratori, iii. 2; Ottenthal, Bullenregister Martins V. u. Eugens IV. (1885). EUGENIUS IV.—Vita, ap. Muratori, Script. iii. 2; Repert. germanic. i. (1897); Mintz, Les Arts (1878–1879); Valois, Pragmatique sanction (1907). NICHOLAS V.—Manetti, Vita Nicolai V., ap. Muratori, Script. iii. 2; Vespasiano da Bisticci, Vite (1839); Georgius (1742); Miintz, Les Arts (1878–1879); Creighton, Papacy ii. (1882). PAUL II.—Ammanati, Epistolae et commentarii (15o6); Gaspar Veronensis, Vita, ap. Marini, Archiatri ii. and Muratori iii. 2 (new ed. by Zippel, 1903) ; Canensius, Vita, ed. Quirini (1740) ; Creighton, Papacy in. (1887); Miintz, Les Arts ii. (1879). SIXTUS IV.—Infessura, Diario, ed. Tommasini (189o) ; Notajo di Nantiporto, Diarii, ap. Muratori, Script. iii. 2; Jacobus Volaterranus, Diarium, ap. Muratori, Script. xxiii.; Schmarzow, Melozzo da Forli (1886); Steinmann, Sixtinische Capelle i. (1901); Schlecht, Andrea Zamometic i. (1893). INNOCENT VIII.—Infessura, c '.p. cit. ; Burchardi, Diarium i.-ii. ed. cit. (also for Alexander VI.); Burchardi, Diarium, ed. Thuasne, i. (1883). JuLlus II.—Brosch, Julius II. u. d. Kirchenstaat (1878) ; Geymuller, Entwurfe fur St Peter (1875-1880) ; Schulte, Maximilian als Candidat fur den papstlichen Stuhl (1906). LEO X.—Hergenrother, Reg. Leonis X. (1884-1891); Jovius, Vita (1548); Roscoe, Leone X., ed. Bossi (1816) ; Janssen, Gesch. d. deutschen Volks i. 18-11. 18 (1897); Schulte, Fugger in Rom (1904); Kalkoff, Luthers romischer Prozess (1906). ADRIAN VI.—Burmann, Adrianus VI. (1727). CLEMENT VII.—Friedensburg, Nuntiaturberichte i. (1892); Ehses, Documente zur Geschichte der Ehescheidung Heinrichs VIII. (1893) ; Ehses, Conc. trident. iv. (1904); Fraikin, Nonciatures de France i. (1906). PAUL I I I.—Friedensburg, Nuntiaturberichte ii. sqq. (1892-1908); Venetianische Depeschen vom Kaiserhof i. (1889); Ehses, Concil. trident. iv. (1904) ; Merkle, Concil. trident. diaria i.; Maurenbrecher, Karl V. (1865) ; de Leva, Carlo V. iii.-v. (1867 seq.) ; Pastor, Reunionsbestrebungen Karls V. (1879); Janssen, Deutsche Geschichte iii. 18. (1899). ULIUS III.—Massarelli, ap. Dollinger, Concil. v. Trient (1876); de Leva, Carlo V. V. (1890). MARCELLUS II.—Pollidorus, Vita (1744). PIUS IV.—Pallavicini, Concilio di Trento (1656); Duruy, Cardinal Carafa (1888); Susta, Curie and Concil. i.-ii. (1904-1909) ; Steinherz, Nuntiaturberichte i. and iii. (1897-1903). PIUS V.—Guglielmotti, Marcantonio Colonna (1862). GREGORY XIII.—Theiner, Annales ecclesiastici (1856) ; Maffei, Annali (1746); Brosch, Kirchenstaat i. (1880); Nuntiaturberichte, ed. Hansen, and Schellhass, i. (1892); Steinhuber, Collegium germanicum i. 2-ii. 2 (1907); Duhr, Jesuiten in Deutschland i. (1907); Astrain, Comp. de Jesus de Espana (3 vols., 1902). SIXTUS V.—Memorie autografe, ed. Cagnoni, Archivio d. Soc. Rom. (1882); Nuntiaturberichte, ed. Gorresgesellschaft, i. seq. (1895); Balzani, in Cambridge Modern' History; Hubner; Sixte-Quinte (1870). (L. DE P.) Periods IV., V., VI. 1590 onwards.—In addition to the general works already mentioned, see M. Brosch, Geschichte des Kirchenstaates (Gotha, 1880—1882), utilizing Venetian archives; L. Ranke, History of the Papacy in the 16th and 17th centuries (184o and frequently) ; A. R. Pennington, Epochs of the Papacy (London, 1881) ; F. Nippold, The Papacy in the Nineteenth Century (New York, 1900); B. Labanca, Il Papato (Torino, 1905), with Italian bibliography; F. Nielsen, The History of the Papacy in the Nineteenth Century (London, 1906), the scholarly and fascinating work of a Danish Lutheran bishop; A. Galton, Church and State in France, 1300-1907 (London, 1907) ; E. Bourgeois and E. Clermont, Rome et Napoleon III. (Paris, 1907), exposing secret negotiations; A. Debidour, L'Eglise catholique et fetal sous la troisieme republique (Paris, 1906-1909), valuable though strongly anti-clerical; R. de Cesare, Roma e lo stato del papa dal ritorno di Pio IX. (2 vols., Rome, 1907) ; in abridged translation, The Last Days of Papal Rome (Boston, 1909). (W. W. R.*)
End of Article: I271 I
[back]
I25
[next]
I292

Additional information and Comments

There are no comments yet for this article.
» Add information or comments to this article.
Please link directly to this article:
Highlight the code below, right click and select "copy." Paste it into a website, email, or other HTML document.