INCENSE ,' the perfume (fumigation) arising from certain resins and
See also:gum-resins, barks, woods, dried
See also:flowers, fruits and seeds, when burnt, and also the substances so burnt . In its literal meaning the word " incense " is one with the word " perfume," the aroma given off with the
See also:smoke (per fumum') of any odoriferous substance when burnt . But, in use, while the meaning of the word " perfume " has been extended so as to include everything sweet in smell, from smoking incense to the invisible fresh fragrance of fruits and exquisite
See also:scent of flowers, that of the word " incense," in all the
See also:languages of
See also:Europe in which it occurs. has, by an opposite
See also:process of
See also:limitation, been gradually restricted almost exclusively to
See also:frankincense (see FRANKINCENSE) . Frankincense has always been obtainable in Europe in greater quantity than any other of the aromatics imported from the East; it has therefore gradually come to be the only incense used in the religious
See also:rites and domestic fumigations of many countries of the West, and at last to be properly regarded as the only " true " or " genuine " (i.e."
See also:franc") incense (see Littre's Fr . Dict. and
See also:Skeat's Etym .
See also:Diet. of Engl . Lang.).3 The following is probably an exhaustive
See also:list of the substances available for incense or perfume mentioned in the
See also:Hebrew Scriptures:—Algum or almug
See also:wood (almug in r
See also:Kings x . 11, 12;
See also:algum Incensum (or Incensum thuris) from incendere; Ital. and
See also:Port. incense; Span. incienso; Fr. encens . The substantive occurs in an inscription of the Arvalian brotherhood (Marini, Gli Atti e Monumenti de' fratelli Arvali, p . 639),but is frequent only in ecclesiastical Latin . Compare the classical suffimentum and suffitus from suffio . For " incense " Ulfila (Luke i .
10, t I) has retained theGreek Ouµiap.a (thymiama) ; all the Teutonic names (Ger . Weihrauch; Old Saxon Wiroc; Icel . Reykelsi;
See also:Dan . Rogelse) seem to belong to the Christian
See also:period (
See also:Grimm, Deutsche Mythologie, i . 5o) . 2 The etymological
See also:affinities of OGw, Duos, thus, fuffio, funus, and the Sans. dhuma are well known . See Max
See also:Muller, Chips, i . 99 . 3 Classical Latin has but one word (thus or tus) for all sorts of incense . Libanus, for frankincense, occurs only in the Vulgate . Even the " ground frankincense " or " ground
See also:pine " (Ajuga chamaepitys) was known to the Romans as Tus terrae (Pliny), although they called some plant, from its smelling like frankincense, Libanotis, and a kind of Thasian
See also:wine, also from its fragrance, Libanios . The Latino-barbaric word Olibanum (quasi Oleum Libani), the
See also:common name for frankincense in modern commerce, is used in a bull of
See also:Pope Benedict IX .
(1033) . It may here be remarked that the name "
See also:European frankincense " is applied to Pinus Taeda, and to the resinous exudation ("
See also:Burgundy pitch ") of the
See also:Norwegian spruce firs (Abies excelsa) . The " incense
See also:tree " of
See also:America is the Inca guianensis, and the " incense wood " of the same continent I. heplaphylla . in 2 Chron. ii . 8, and ix. to, ri), generally identified with
See also:sandal-wood (Santalum
See also:album), a native of
See also:Malabar and Malaya; aloes, or lign aloes (Heb. ahalim, ahalbth), produced by the Aloexylon Agallochum (Loureiro), a native of
See also:China, and Aquilaria Agallocha (Roxburgh), a native of India beyond the
See also:balm (Heb. tsori), the oleo-
See also:resin of Balsamodendron opobalsamum and B. gileadense;
See also:bdellium (Heb. bdolah), the resin produced by Balsamodendron roxburghii, B . Mukul and B. pubescens, all natives of Upper India (Lassen, however, identifies bdolah with
See also:musk) ; calamus (Heb. kaneh; sweet calamus, keneh bosem, Ex.
See also:xxx . 23; Ezek.
See also:xxvii . 19; sweet
See also:cane, kaneh hattob, Jer. vi . 20; Isa. xliii . 24), identified by
See also:Royle with the Andropogon Calamus aromaticus or roosa grass of India; cassia (Heb. kiddah) the Cinnamomum Cassia of China;
See also:cinnamon (Heb. kinnamon), the Cinnamomum zeylanicum of the Somali
See also:country, but cultivated largely in
See also:Ceylon, where also it runs
See also:wild, and in
See also:Java; costus (Heb. ketzioth), the
See also:root of the Aucklandia Costus (Falconer), native of
See also:Kashmir; frankincense (Heb. lebonah), the gum-resin of Boswellia Frereana and B . Bhau-Dajiana of the Somali country, and of B . Carterii of the Somali country and the opposite
See also:coast of
See also:Arabia (see " The Genus Boswellia " by
See also:George Birdwood, Transactions of the Linnean Society, xxi .
1871)galbanum (Heb. helbenah), yielded by Opoidia galbanifera (Royle) of Khorassan, and Galbanum officinale (Don) of
See also:Syria and other Ferulas; ladanum (Heb. lot, translated "
See also:myrrh " in Gen.
See also:xxxvii . 25, xliii. ii), the resinous exudation of Cistus creticus, C. ladaniferus and other
See also:species of "
See also:rose " or " rose of
See also:Sharon "; myrrh (Heb. mor), the gum-resin of the Balsamodendron Myrrha of the Somali country and opposite
See also:shore of Arabia; onycha (Heb. sheheleth), the celebrated odoriferous
See also:shell of the ancients, the operculum or "
See also:nail " of a species of Strombus or " wing shell," formerly well known in Europe under the name of Blatta byzantina; it is still imported into Bombay to
See also:burn with frankincense and other incense to bring out their odours more strongly;
See also:saffron (Heb. karkom), the stigmata of
See also:Crocus satiz.'us, a native originally of Kashmir;
See also:spikenard (Heb. nerd), the root of the Nardostachys Jatamansi of
See also:Nepal and
See also:Bhutan; stacte (Heb. nataf), generally referred to the Styrax officinalis of the
See also:Levant, but Hanbury has shown that no stacte or storax is now derived from S. officinalis, and that all that is found in modern commerce is the product of the
See also:Liquidambar orientalis of Cyprus and Anatolia . Besides these aromatic substances named in the Bible, the following must also be enumerated on account of their common use as incense in the East;
See also:benzoin or gum benjamin, first mentioned among Western writers by
See also:Ibn Batuta (1325—1349) under the name of lubdn d' Jaz-i (i.e. olibanum of Java), corrupted in the parlance of Europe into benjamin and benzoin; camphor, produced by Cinnamomum Camphora, the " camphor
See also:laurel " of China and
See also:Japan, and by Dryobalanops aromatica, a native of the
See also:Archipelago, and widely used as incense throughout the East, particularly in China;
See also:elemi, the resin of an unknown tree of the Philippine Islands, the elemi of old writers being the resin of Boswellia Frereana; gum-
See also:dragon or dragon's
See also:blood, obtained from Calamus Draco, one of the ratan palms of the Indian Archipelago,
See also:Dracaena Draco, a liliaceous plant of the Canary
See also:Island, and Pterocarpus Draco, a leguminous tree of the island of Socotra; rose-malloes, a corruption of the Javanese rasamala, or liquid storax, the resinous exudation of Liquidambar Altingia, a native of the Indian Archipelago (an
See also:American Liquidambar also produces a rose-malloes-like exudation) ;
See also:anise, the starlike fruit of the Illicum anisatum of Yunan and south-western China, burnt as incense in the temples of Japan; sweet
See also:flag, the root of Acorus Calamus, the bath of the
See also:Hindus, much used for incense in India . An aromatic
See also:earth, found on the coast of Cutch, is used as incense in the temples of western India . The animal excreta, musk and
See also:civet, also enter into the composition of modern European pastils and clous fumants .
See also:Balsam of Tolu, produced by Myroxylon toluiferum, a native of
See also:Venezuela and New Granada; balsam of
See also:Peru, derived from Myroxylon Pereirae, a native of
See also:San Salvador in Central America; Mexican and Brazilian elemi, produced by various species of Icica or " incense trees," and the liquid exudation of an American species of Liquidambar, are all used as incense in America . Hanbury quotes a
See also:faculty granted by Pope
See also:Pius V . (
See also:August 2, 1571) to the bishops of the West Indies permitting the substitution of balsam of Peru for the balsam of the East in the preparation of the
See also:chrism to be used by the Catholic
See also:Church in America . The Sangre del drago of the Mexicans is a resin resembling dragon's blood obtained from a euphorbiaceous tree, Croton Draco . Probably nowhere can the actual
See also:historical progress from the'
See also:primitive use of animal sacrifices to the later refinement of burning incense be more clearly traced than in the pages of the Old Testament, where no mention of the latter rite occurs before the period of the
See also:Mosaic legislation; but in the monuments of
See also:Egypt the authentic traces of the use of incense that still exist carry us back to a much earlier date . From Meroe to
See also:Memphis the commonest subject carved or painted in the interiors of the temples is that of some contemporary Phrah or
See also:Pharaoh worshipping the presiding deity with oblations ofgold and
See also:silver vessels,
See also:vestments, gems, the firstlings of the
See also:flock and
See also:herd, cakes, fruits, flowers, wine,
See also:anointing oil and incense . Generally he holds in one
See also:hand the censer, and with the other casts the pastils or osselets of incense into it: some-times he offers incense in one hand and makes the
See also:libation of wine with the other .
One of the best known of these representations is that carved on the memorial
See also:stone placed by Tethmosis (Thothmes) IV . (1533 B.L.) on the
See also:breast of the Sphinx at Gizeh.1 The tablet represents Tethmosis before his
See also:guardian deity, the
See also:god Re, pouring a libation of wine on one side and offering incense on the other . The ancient Egyptians used various substances as incense . They worshipped Re at sunrise with resin, at
See also:day with myrrh and at sunset with an elaborate confection called kuphi, compounded of no fewer than sixteen ingredients, among which were
See also:honey, wine, raisins, resin, myrrh and sweet calamus . While it was being mixed,
See also:holy writings were read to those engaged in the operation . According to Plutarch, apart from its mystic virtues arising from the magical combination of 4X4, its sweet odour had a benign physiological effect on those who offered it .2 The censer used was a hemispherical
See also:cup or bowl of
See also:bronze, supported by a long handle, fashioned at one end like an open hand, in which the bowl was, as it were, held, while the other end within which the pastils of incense were kept was shaped into the
See also:head crowned with a disk, as the
See also:symbol of Re .3 In embalming their dead the Egyptians filled the cavity of the belly with every sort of spicery except frankincense (Herod. ii . 86), for it was regarded as specially consecrated to the worship of the gods . In the burnt-offerings of male kine to
See also:Isis, the carcase of the
See also:steer, after evisceration, was filled with
See also:bread, honey, raisins,
See also:figs, frankincense, myrrh and other aromatics, and thus stuffed was roasted, being basted all the while by pouring over it large quantities of sweet oil, and then eaten with
See also:great festivity . How important the
See also:consumption of frankincense in the worship of the gods became in Egypt is shown by two of its monuments, both of the greatest
See also:interest and value for the
See also:light they throw on the early
See also:history of the commerce of the Indian Ocean . One is an inscription in the rocky valley of Hammamat, through which the
See also:desert road from the Red
See also:Sea to the valley of Egypt opens on the
See also:fields and palm groves of the
See also:river Nile neat
See also:Coptos . It was cut on the rocks by an
See also:Egyptian nobleman named Hannu, who states that he was sent by Pharaoh Sankhkere, Menthotp IV., with a force gathered out of the Thebaid, from Coptos to the Red Sea, there to take command of a
See also:naval expedition to the Holy
See also:Land of Punt (Puoni), " to bring back odoriferous gums." Punt is identified with the Somali country, now known to be the native country of the trees that yield the bulk of the frankincense of commerce . The other bears the record of a second expedition to the same land of Punt, under-taken by command of
See also:Queen Hatshepsut, 1600- B.c .
It is pre-served in the vividly chiselled and richly coloured decorations portraying the history of the reign of this famous Pharaoh on the walls of the "Stage
See also:Temple " at
See also:Thebes . The temple is now in ruins, but the entire series of gorgeous pictures recording the expedition to " the balsam land of Punt," from its leaving to its returning to Thebes, still remains intact and undefaced.4 These are the only authenticated instances of the export of incense trees from the Somali country until Colonel Playf air, then
See also:agent at
See also:Aden, in 1862—1864, collected and sent to Bombay the specimens from which Sir George Birdwood pre-pared his descriptions of them for the Linnean Society in 1868 .
See also:King Antigonus is said to have had a branch of the true
See also:frank-incense tree sent to him . -
See also:Homer tells us that the Egyptians of his
See also:time were emphatic-ally a nation of druggists (Od. iv . 229, 230) . This characteristic, in which, as in many others, they so remarkably resemble the t
See also:Brugsch, Egypt under the Pharaohs, i . 77-81, 414-419 . 2 Plutarch, De Iside et Osiride, c . 52 . In Parthey's edition (Berlin, 185o) other recipes for the manufacture of kuphi, by Galen and Dioscorides, are given; also some results of the editor's own experiments . 3
See also:Wilkinson, Ancient Egyptians, i . 493; ii .
49, 398-400, 414-416 . Brugsch, Egypt under the Pharaohs. i . 303-312 . Hindus, the Egyptians have maintained to the
See also:present day; and, although they have changed their religion, the use of incense among them continues to be as
See also:familiar and formal as ever, The
See also:kohl or black powder with which the modern, like the ancient, Egyptian ladies paint their languishing eyelids, is nothing but the smeeth of charred frankincense, or other odoriferous resin brought with frankincense, and phials of
See also:water, from the well of Zem-zem, by the pilgrims returning from
See also:Mecca . They also melt frankincense as a depilatory, and smear their hands with a
See also:paste into the composition of which frankincense enters, for the purpose of communicating to them an attractive perfume .
See also:Herodotus (iv . 75) describes a similar artifice as practised by the
See also:women of
See also:Scythia (compare also
See also:Judith x . 3, 4) . In
See also:weather the Egyptians warm their rooms by placing in them a brazier, " chafing-dish," or "
See also:standing-dish," filled with
See also:charcoal, whereon incense is burnt; and in hot weather they refresh them by occasionally swinging a hand censer by a chain through them—frankincense, benzoin and
See also:aloe wood being chiefly used for the purpose.' In the authorized version of the Bible, the word "incense " translates two wholly distinct Hebrew words . In various passages in the latter portion of Isaiah (xl.–lxvi.), in
See also:Jeremiah and in
See also:Chronicles, it represents the Hebrew lebonah, more usually rendered " frankincense "; elsewhere the
See also:original word is ketoreth (Ex. xxx . 8, 9; Lev. x . 1; Num. vii .
14, &c.), a derivative of the verb kilter (Pi.) or hiktir (Hiph.), which verb is used, not only in Ex. xxx . 7, but also in Lev. i. g, iii . 11, ix . 13, and many other passages, to denote the process by which the " savour ofsatisfaction" in any burnt-offering, whether of flesh or of incense, is produced . Sometimes in the authorized version (as in 1 Kings iii . 3; 1 Sam. ii . 28) it is made to mean explicitly the burning of incense with only doubtful propriety . The expression " incense (ketoreth) of rains " in Ps. lxvi . 15 and the allusion in Ps. cxli . 2 ought both to be understood, most probably, of ordinary burnt-offerings.2 The " incense " (ketoreth), or " incense of sweet scents " (ketoreth sammim), called, in Ex. xxx . 35, " a confection after the
See also:art of the apothecary," or rather " a perfume after the art of the perfumer," which was to be regarded as most holy, and the imitation of which was prohibited under the severest penalties, was compounded of four " sweet scents " (sammim),3 namely stacte (nataph), onycha (sheheleth), galbanum (helbenah) and " pure " or " fine " frankincense (lebonah zaccah), pounded together in equal proportions, with (perhaps) an admixture of
See also:salt (memullah).' It was then to be "put before the testimony" in the "
See also:tent of
See also:meeting." It was burnt on the
See also:altar of incense by the
See also:priest every
See also:morning when the lamps were trimmed in the Holy Place, and every evening when they were lighted or " set up " (Ex. xxx . 7, 8) .
A handful of it was also burnt once a
See also:year in the Holy of Holies by the high priest on a
See also:pan of burning coals taken from the altar of burnt-offering (Lev. xvi . 12, 13) . Pure frankincense (lebonah) formed
See also:part of the
See also:meat-offering (Lev. ii . 16, vi . 15), and was also presented along with the shew bread (Lev.
See also:xxiv . 7) every
See also:Sabbath day (probably on two
See also:golden saucers; see Jos .
See also:Ant. iii. ro, 7) . The religious significance of the use of incense, or at least of its use in the Holy of Holies, is distinctly set forth in Lev. xvi . 12, 13 . The Jews were also in the
See also:habit of using odoriferous substances in connexion with the funeral obsequies of distinguished persons (see 2 Chron. xvi . 14, XXI . 19; Jer. xxxiv .
5) . InAmos vi. ro " he that burneth him " probably means " he that burns per-fumes in his
See also:honour." References to the dome§tic use of incense occur in Cant. iii . 6; Prov. xxvii . 9; cf. vii . 17 . The "
See also:marbles " of
See also:Nineveh furnish frequent examples of the offering of incense to the sun-
See also:gad and his
See also:consort (2 Kings ' See Lane, Mod . Egyptians, pp . 34, 41, 139, 187, 438 (ed,.r86o) . 2 See \Vellhausen, Gesch . Israels, i . 70 sqq., who from philological and other data infers the
See also:late date of the introduction of incense into the Jewish ritual . ' According to Philo (
See also:Opera, i .
504, ed . Mangey), they symbolized respectively water, earth, air and
See also:fire . Other accounts of its composition,
See also:drawn from Rabbinical
See also:sources, will he found in various
See also:works on Jewish antiquities; see, for example, Roland, An1iq . Sacr.
See also:vet . Hebr. pp . 39-41 (1712).
See also:xxiii . 5) . The kings of
See also:united in themselves the royal and priestly offices, and on the monuments they erected they are generally represented as offering incense and pouring out wine to the Tree of
See also:Life . They probably carried the incense in the sacred bag so frequently seen in their hands and in those also of the common priests . According to Herodotus (i . 183), frankincense to the amount of l000 talents'
See also:weight was offered every year, during the feast of
See also:Bel, on the great altar of his temple in
See also:Babylon . The monuments of
See also:Persepolis and the coins of the Sassanians show that the religious use of incense was as common in ancient
See also:Persia as in Babylonia and Assyria .
Five times a day the priests of the Persians (Zoroastrians) burnt incense on their sacred fire altars . In the Avesta (Vendidad, Fargard xix . 24, 40), the incense they used is named vohu gaono . It has been identified with benzoin, but was probably frankincense . Herodotus (iii . 99) states that the
See also:Arabs brought every year to Darius as tribute r000 talents of frankincense . The Parsecs still preserve in western India the. pure tradition of the ritual of incense as followed by their
See also:race from probably the most ancient times . The Ramayana and Mahabharala afford evidence of the employment of incense by the Hindus, in the worship of the gods and the burning of the dead, from the remotest antiquity . Its use was obviously continued by the Buddhists during the prevalence of their religion in India, for it is still used by them in Nepal,
See also:Tibet, Ceylon,
See also:Burma, China and Japan . These countries all received
See also:Buddhism from India, and a large proportion of the
See also:porcelain and earthenware articles imported from China and japan into Europe consists of innumerable forms of censers . The
See also:Jains all over India burn sticks of incense before their Jina . The commonest incense in ancient India was probably frankincense .
The Indian frankincense tree, Boswellia thurifera,
See also:Colebrooke (which certainly includes B. glabra, Roxburgh), is a doubtful native of India . It is found chiefly where the Buddhist religion prevailed in ancient times, in Bihar and along the
See also:foot of the Himalayas and in western India, where it particularly flourishes in the neighbourhood of the Buddhist caves at
See also:Ajanta . It is quite possible therefore that, in the course of their widely extended commerce during the one thousand years of their ascendancy, the Buddhists imported the true frankincense trees from Africa and Arabia into India, and that the accepted Indian species are merely varieties of them . Now, however, the incense in commonest use in India is benzoin . But the consumption of all manner of odoriferous resins, gum resins, roots, woods, dried leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds in India, in social as well as religious observances, is enormous . The grateful perfumed powder abir or randa is composed either of
See also:mango bark or deodar wood, camphor and aniseed, or of
See also:sandalwood or wood aloes, and zerumbet, zedoary, rose flowers, camphor and civet . The incense sticks and pastils known all over India under the names of ud-buti (" benzoin-light ") or aggar-ki-buti (" wood aloes light ") are composed of benzoin, wood aloes, sandal-wood, rock
See also:lichen, patchouli, rose-malloes, talispat (the
See also:leaf of Flacourtia Cataphracta of Roxburgh),
See also:mastic and
See also:sugar-candy or gum . The' abb. and aggir butis made at the
See also:Mahommedan city of
See also:Bijapur in the Mahratta country are celebrated all over western India . The Indian Mussulmans indeed were rapidly degenerating into a mere
See also:sect of Hindus before the Wahabi revival, and the more
See also:recent political propaganda in support of the false
See also:caliphate of the sultans of
See also:Turkey; and we therefore find the religious use of incense among them more general than among the Mahommedans of any other country . They use it at the Ceremonies of circumcision,
See also:bismillah (teaching the
See also:child " the name of God "1, virginity and
See also:marriage . At marriage they burn benzoin with nim seeds (Melia Azadirachta, Roxburgh) to keep off evil
See also:spirits, and prepare the
See also:bride-cakes by putting a quantity of benzoin between layers of wheaten dough, closed all
See also:round, and frying them in clarified
See also:butter . For days the bride is fed on little else .
In their funeral ceremonies, the moment the spirit has fled incense is burnt before the
See also:corpse until it is carried out to be buried . The begging fakirs also go about with a lighted stick of incense in one hand, and holding out with the other an incense-holder (literally, "incense chariot "), into which the coins of the pious are thrown . Large " incense trees " resembling our
See also:Christmas trees, formed of incense-sticks and pastils and osselets, and alight all over, are
See also:borne by the Shiah Mussulmans in the solennial procession of the Mohurrum, in
See also:commemoration of the martyrdom of the sons of
See also:Ali . The worship of the tulsi plant, or holy
See also:basil (Ocymum sanctum, Don), by the Hindus is popularly explained by its consecration to Vishnu and
See also:Krishna . It grows on the four-horned altar before the
See also:house, or in a pot placed in one of the front windows, and is worshipped every morning by all the
See also:female members of every
See also:household . It is possible that its adoration has survived from the times when the Hindus buried their dead in their houses, beneath the
See also:hearth . When they came into a hot
See also:climate the fire of the sacrifices and domestic
See also:cookery was removed out of the house; but the dead were probably still for a while buried in or near it, and the tulsi was planted over their
See also:graves, at once for the salubrious fragrance it diffuses and to represent the burning of incense on the altar of the family
See also:Lar . The rich land round about the holy city of
See also:Pandharpur, sacred to Vithoba the
See also:national Mahratta
See also:form of (Krishna)-Vishnu, is wholly restricted to the cultivation of the tulsi plant . As to the Bvea mentioned in Homer (Il. ix . 499, and elsewhere) and in
See also:Hesiod (Works and Days, 338), there is some uncertainty whether they were incense offerings at all, and if so, whether they were ever offered alone, and not always in conjunction with animal sacrifices . That the domestic use, however, of the fragrant wood Biiov (the Arbor vitae or Callitris quadrivalvis of botanists, the source of the resin
See also:sandarach) was known in the Homeric age, is shown by the case of
See also:Calypso (Od. v . 6o), and the very similarity of the word Bbov to Biros may be taken as almost conclusively proving that by that time the same wood was also employed for religious purposes .
It is not probable that the sweet-smelling gums and resins of the countries of the Indian Ocean began to be introduced into
See also:Greece before the 8th or 7th century s.e., and doubtless X0
See also:alias or Xi,8avar6s first became an article of extensive commerce only after the Mediterranean
See also:trade with the East had been opened up by the Egyptian king
See also:Psammetichus (c . 664—610 B.C.) . The new
See also:Oriental word is frequently employed by Herodotus; and there are abundant references to the use of the thing among the writers of the golden age of
See also:Attic literature (see, for example, Aristophanes, Plat . 1114; Frogs, 871, 888; Clouds, 426; Wasps, 96 . 861) . Frankincense, however, though the most common, never became the only kind of incense offered to the gods among the Greeks . Thus the Orphic
See also:hymns are careful to specify, in connexion with the several deities celebrated, a great variety of substances appropriate to the service of each; in the case of many of these the selection seems to have been determined not at all by their fragrance but by some occult considerations which it is now difficult to divine . Among the Romans the use of religious fumigations long preceded the introduction of
See also:foreign substances for the purpose (see, for example, Ovid, Fast. i . 337 seq., " Et non exiguo laurus adusta sono ") . Latterly the use of frankincense (" mascula thura," Virg .
See also:Eel. viii . 65) became very prevalent, not only in religious ceremonials, but also on various state occasions, such as in triumphs (Ovid, Trist. iv .
2, 4), and also in connexion with certain occurrences of domestic life . In private it was daily offered by the devout to the Lar familiaris (Plaut . Aulul. prof . 23); and in public sacrifices it was not only sprinkled on the head of the victim by the
See also:pontifex before its slaughter, and afterwards mingled with its blood, but was also thrown upon the flames over which it was roasted . No perfectly satisfactory traces can be found of the use of incense in the ritual of the Christian Church during the first four centuries.' It obviously was not contemplated by the ' This guarded statement still holds
See also:good . Compare Duchesne, Christian Worship (Eng. trans., 1904), ch. ii., " The Mass in the East," v . " The Books of the Latin Rite," and xii . "The Dedication of Churches."author of the
See also:epistle to the
See also:Hebrews; its use was foreign to the synagogue services on which, and not on those of the temple, the worship of the primitive Christians is well known to have been originally modelled; and its associations with
See also:heathen solemnities, and with the evil repute of those who were known as thurificati," would still further militate against its employment . Various authors of the ante-Nicene period have expressed them-selves as distinctly unfavourable to its religious, though not of course to its domestic, use . Thus TertulIian, while (De
See also:Coe . Mil. ro) ready to acknowledge its utility in counteracting unpleasant smells ( " si me odor alicujus loci offenderit, Arabiae aliquid incendo "), is careful to say that he scorns to offer it as an accompaniment to his heartfelt prayers (Apol . 30; cf .
See also:Athenagoras also (Legat . 13) gives distinct expression to his sense of the needlessness of any such ritual (" the Creator and
See also:Father of the universe does not require blood, nor smoke, nor even the sweet smell of flowers and incense "); and Arnobius (Adv . Gent. vii . 26) seeks to justify the Christian neglect of it by the fact, for which he vouches, that among the Romans them-selves incense was unknown in the time of Numa, while the Etruscans had always continued to be strangers to it . Cyril of Jerusalem, Augustine and the Apostolic Constitutions make no reference to any such feature either in the public or private worship of the Christians of that time . The earliest mention, it would seem, occurs in the Apostolic Canons (can . 3), where the Bvµlapa is spoken of as one of the requisites of the eucharistic service . It is easy to perceive how it should inevitably have come in along with the whole circle of ideas involved in such words as " temple," " altar," " priest," which about this time came to be so generally applied in ecclesiastical connexions .
See also:Evagrius (vi . 21) mentions the
See also:gift of a Buµta-ri7pwv by the
See also:Chosroes of Persia to the church of Jerusalem; and all the Oriental liturgies of this period provide
See also:special prayers for the thurification of the eucharistic elements . The
See also:oldest Ordo
See also:Romanus, which perhaps takes us back to within a century of
See also:Gregory the Great, enjoins that in. pontifical masses a sub-deacon, with a golden censer, shall go before the
See also:bishop as he leaves the secretarium for the
See also:choir, and two, with censers; before the deacon gospeller as he proceeds with the
See also:gospel to the
See also:ambo .
And less than two centuries afterwards we read an
See also:order in one of the capitularies of
See also:Hincmar of Reims, to the effect that every priest ought to be provided with a censer and incense . That in this portion of their ritual, however, the Christians of that period were not universally conscious of its
See also:direct descent from Mosaic institutions may be inferred perhaps from the " benediction of the incense " used in the days of Charlemagne, which runs as follows: " May the
See also:Lord bless this incense to the extinction of every noxious smell, and kindle it to the odour of its sweetness." Even
See also:Thomas Aquinas (p. iii. qu . 83, art . 5) gives prominence to this idea . The character and order of these historical notices of incense would certainly, were there nothing else to be considered, justify the conclusion hitherto generally adopted, that its use was wholly unknown in the worship of the Christian Church before the 5th century . On the other hand, we know that in the first Christian services held in the catacombs under the city of Rome, incense was burnt as a sanitary fumigation at least .
See also:Tertullian also distinctly alludes to the use of aromatics in Christian
See also:burial: " the
See also:Sabaeans will testify that more of their merchandise, and that more costly, is lavished on the burial of Christians, than in burning incense to the gods." And the whole
See also:argument from
See also:analogy is in favour of the presumption of the ceremonial use of incense by the Christians from the first . It is natural that little should be said of so obvious a practice until the
See also:fuller development of ritual in a later age . The slighting references to it by the Christian fathers are no more an argument against its existence in the primitive church than the similar denunciations by the Jewish prophets of burnt-offerings and sacrifices are any
See also:proof that there were no such rites as the offering of incense, and of the blood of bulls and
See also:fat of rams, in the worship of the temple at Jerusalem . There could be no real offence to Christians in the burning of incense .
See also:Malachi (i . 1 r) had already foretold the time when among the Gentiles, in every place, by royal proclamation in the name of
See also:Edward VI .
It was the precursor of thePrayer
See also:Book, and supplemented the accustomed Latin service by additions in
See also:English to provide for the communion of the
See also:people in both kinds . But it was expressly stated in a rubric that the old service of the mass was to proceed without variation of any rite or ceremony until after the priest had received the
See also:sacrament, that is, until long after the last of the three occasions for the use of incense explained above . But on
See also:Whitsunday 1549 the first Prayer Book of Edward VI. came into use under an
See also:Act of Parliament (2 and 3 Ed . VI. ch . 1, the first Act of Uniformity) which required its exclusive use in public worship so as to supersede all other forms of service . Another Act, 3 and 4 Ed . VI. ch. ro, required the old service books to be delivered up to be destroyed . The first Prayer Book does not contain any direction to use or any mention of incense . It has been and still is a keenly controverted question whether incense did or did not continue to be in ceremonial use under the first Prayer Book or during the
See also:rest of Edward VI.'s reign . No evidence has hitherto been discovered which justifies us in answering this question in the affirmative . The second Prayer Book of Edward VI . (1552), published under the authority of the second Act of Uniformity (5 and 6 Ed .
VI. ch . 1), contains no reference to incense . Edward VI. died on the 6th
See also:July 1553 . Queen Mary by
See also:statute (1 Mary, sess . 2, ch . 2) abolished the Prayer Book, repealed the Acts of Uniformity and restored " divine service and administration of sacraments as were most commonly used in England in the last year of
See also:Henry VIII." The ceremonial use of incense thus became again an undoubted part of the communion service in the Church of England . A proclamation issued (
See also:December 6, 1553) directed the church-wardens to obtain the proper ornaments for the churches; and the bishops (at any
See also:rate Bishop
See also:Bonner, see Visitation Articles 1554, Cardwell's Doc .
See also:Ann. i . 149-153) in their visitations inquired whether censers had been furnished for use . Mary died on the 17th of
See also:November 1558 . On the 24th of
See also:June 1559 the second Prayer Book of Edward VI . (with a few alterations having no reference to incense) was again established, under the authority of the third Act of Uniformity (1 Eliz. ch .
2), as the exclusive service book for public service . There is no evidence of the ceremonial use of incense under
See also:Elizabeth's Prayer Book, or under the present Prayer Book of 1662 (established by the
See also:fourth Act of Uniformity, 13 and 14
See also:Charles II. ch . 4) until the
See also:middle of the 19th century; and there is no doubt that as a ceremony of divine worship, whether at the Holy Communion or at other services, it was entirely disused . There are, however, a good many in-stances recorded of what has been called a fumigatory use of frankincense in churches, by which it was sought to purify the air, in times of public sickness, or to dispel the foulness caused by large congregations, or poisonous gases arising from
See also:ill-constructed vaults under the church
See also:floor . It seems also to have been used for the purpose of creating an agreeable perfume on great occasions, e.g. the great ecclesiastical feasts . But this use of incense must be carefully distinguished from its ceremonial use . It was utilitarian and not symbolical, and from the nature of the purpose in view must have taken place before, rather than during, service . Of the same character is the use of incense carried in a perfuming pan before the
See also:sovereign at his
See also:coronation in the procession from
See also:Hall to the Abbey . This observance was maintained from
See also:James IL's coronation to that of George III . In the general revival of church ceremonial which accompanied and followed the
See also:Movement incense was not forgotten, and its ceremonial use in the pre-Reformation` method has been adopted in a few extreme churches since 185o . Its use has been condemned as an illegal ceremony by the ecclesiastical courts . In 1868 Sir Robert Phillimore (Dean of the
See also:Arches) pronounced the ceremonial use of incense to be illegal in the suit of
See also:Martin v .
Mackonochie (2 A. and E . L.R . 116) . The case was carried to the PrivyCouncil on
See also:appeal, but there was no appeal on the question of incense . Again, in 187o, the ceremonial use of incense was condemned by Sir Robert Phillimore in the suit of
See also:Sumner v . 1Vix (3 A. and E . L.R . 58) . incense should be offered to God . Gold, with myrrh and frank-incense were offered by the Persian Magi to the
See also:infant Jesus at his
See also:birth; and in
See also:Revelation viii . 3, 4, the image of the offering of incense with the prayers of the
See also:saints, before the
See also:throne of God, is not without its significance . If also the passage in
See also:Ambrose of Milan (on Luke i .
II), where he speaks of " us " as " adolentes altaria " is to be translated " incensing the altars," and taken literally, it is a testimony to the use of incense by the Christian Church in, at least, the 4th century . But the earliest
See also:express mention of the censing of the altar by Christian priests is in " the works," first quoted in the 6th century, attributed to " Dionysius the Areopagite," the contemporary of St Paul (Acts xvii . 34) . The
See also:Missal of the
See also:Roman Church now enjoins incensation before the introit, at the gospel and again at the
See also:offertory, and at the
See also:elevation, in every high mass; the use of incense also occurs at the exposition of the sacrament, at consecrations of churches and the like, in processions, in the
See also:office for the burial of the dead and at the
See also:exhibition of
See also:relics . On high festivals the altar is censed at vespers and lauds . In the Church of England the use of incense was gradually abandoned after the reign of Edward VI., until the ritualistic revival of the present day . Its use, however, has never been abolished by
See also:law . A " Form for the Consecration of a Censer " occurs in
See also:Sancroft's Form of Dedication and Consecration of a Church or
See also:Chapel (1685) . In various works of reference (as, for example, in Notes and Queries, 3rd
See also:ser. vol. viii. p . II) numerous sporadic cases are mentioned in which incense appears to have been burnt in churches; the evidence, however, does not go so far as to show that it was used during divine service, least of all that it was used during the communion office . At the coronation of George III., one of the king's grooms appeared " in a
See also:dress, holding a perfuming pan, burning perfumes, as at previous coronations." In 1899, on the appeal of the Rev . H .
See also:Westall, St
See also:London, and the Rev . E . Ram, St
See also:John's, Norwich, against the use of incense in the Church of England, the archbishops of Canterbury (Dr Temple) and
See also:York (Dr Maclagan) supported the appeal . Their decision was reviewed by Chancellor L . T .
See also:Dibdin in the loth edition of the
See also:Encyclopaedia Britannica, and the exposition given by Sir
See also:Lewis Dibdin of the whole question of the use of incense in the Church of England may here be interpolated . (G . B.) Incense in the Church of England.—Mr Scudamore (Notitia Eucharistica, 2nd ed. pp . 141-142) thus describes the method and extent of the employment of incense at the mass
See also:prior to the Reformation: " According to the use of Sarum (and
See also:Bangor) the priest, after being himself censed by the deacon, censed the altar before the Introit began . The York rubric directed him to do it immediately after the first saying of the Introit, which in England was thrice said . The
See also:Hereford missal gives no direction for censing the altar at that time . The middle of the altar was censed, according to Sarum, Bangor and Hereford, before the
See also:reading of the Gospel .
According to Sarum and Bangor, the
See also:thurible, as well as the
See also:lights, attended the Gospel to the
See also:lectern . Perhaps the York rubric implies that this was done when it orders (which the others do not) the thurible to be carried round the choir with the Gospel while the Creed was being sung . In the Sarum and Bangor, the priest censed the oblations after offering them; then the space between himself and the altar . He was then, at Sarum, censed by the deacon, and an
See also:acolyte censed the choir; at Bangor the Sinistrum
See also:Cornu of the altar and the relics were censed instead . York and Hereford ordered no censing at the offertory . There is reason to think that, notwithstanding the order for the use of incense at every celebration, it was in practice burnt only on high festivals, and then only in rich churches, down to the period of the Reformation . In most parishes its costliness alone would preclude its daily use, while the want of an assistant
See also:minister would be a very common reason for omitting the rite almost every-where . Incense was not burnt in private masses, so that the
See also:clergy were accustomed to celebrations without it,- and would naturally forego it on any plausible ground." The ritual of the mass remained unchanged until the
See also:death of Henry VIII . (
See also:Jan . 28, 1547) . In
See also:March 1J48 the Order of the Communion was published and commanded to he used Notwithstanding these decisions, it was insisted by those who defended the revival of the ceremonial use of incense that it was a legal
See also:custom of the Church of England . The question was once more elaborately argued in May 1899 before an informal tribunal consisting of the archbishop of Canterbury (Dr .
Temple) and the archbishop of York (Dr . Maclagan), at
See also:Lambeth Palace . On the 31st of July 1899 the archbishops decided that the liturgical use of incense was illegal . The Lambeth "opinion," as it was called, failed to convince the clergy against whom it was directed any better than the judgments of the ecclesiastical courts, but at first a considerable degree of obedience to the archbishops' view was shown . Various expedients were adopted, as, e.g., the use of incense just before the beginning of service, by which it was sought to retain incense without infringing the law as laid down by the archbishops . There remained, nevertheless, a tendency on the part of the clergy who used incense, or desired to do so, to revert to the position they occupied before the Lambeth hearing—that is, to insist on the ceremonial use of incense as a part of the Catholic practice of the Church of England which it is the
See also:duty of the clergy to maintain, notwithstanding the decisions of ecclesiastical
See also:judges or the opinions or arch-bishops to the contrary . (L . T . D.) Manufacture.—For the manufacture of the incense now used in the Christian churches of Europe there is no fixed
See also:rule . The hooks of ritual are agreed that Ex. xxx . 34 should be taken as a
See also:guide as much as possible . It is recommended that frank-incense should enter as largely as possible into its composition, and that if inferior materials be employed at all they should not be allowed to preponderate .
In Rome olibanum alone is employed; in other places benzoin, storax, lign, aloes, cascarilla bark, cinnamon,
See also:cloves and musk are all said to be occasionally used . In the
See also:Russian Church, benzoin is chiefly employed . The Armenian
See also:liturgy, in its benediction of the incense, speaks of " this perfume prepared from myrrh and cinnamon." The preparation of pastils of incense has probably come down in a continuous tradition from ancient Egypt, Babylonia and
See also:Phoenicia . Cyprus was for centuries famous for their manufacture, and they were still known in the middle ages by the '
See also:ames of pastils or osselets of Cyprus .
See also:Maimonides, in his More Nevochim, states that the use of incense in the worship of the Jews originated as a corrective ,t the disagreeable odours arising from the slaughter and burning of the animals offered in sacrifice . There can be no doubt that its use throughout the East is based on sanitary considerations; and in Europe even, in the time when the dead were buried in the churches, it was recognized that the burning of incense served essentially to preserve their salubrity . But evidently the idea that the odour of a burnt-offering (cf. the K14,017s Otis ai;rpi7 of Odyss. xii . 369) is grateful to the deity, being indeed the most essential part of the sacrifice, or at least the vehicle by which alone it can successfully be conveyed to its destination, is also a very early one, if not absolutely primitive; and survivals of it are possibly to be met with even among the most highly cultured peoples where the purely symbolical nature of all religious ritual is most clearly understood and maintained . Some such idea plainly underlies the familiar phrase " a sweet savour," more literally "a savour of satisfaction," whereby an acceptable offering by fire is so often denoted in the Bible (Gen. viii . 21 Lev. i . 9, et passim; cf . Eph. v .
2) . It is easy to imagine how, as men
See also:grew in sensuous appreciation of pleasant perfumes, and in empirical knowledge of the sources from which these could be derived, this advance would naturally express itself, not only in their domestic habits, but also in the details of their 'eligious ceremonial, so that the custom of adding some kind of incense to their animal sacrifices, and at length that of offering t pure and
See also:simple, would inevitably arise . Ultimately, with the development of the spiritual discernment of men, the " offering of incense " became a mere symbolical phrase for prayer (see Rev. v . 8, viii . 3, 4) .
See also:Clement of Alexandria expresses this in his well-known words: " The true altar of incense is the just soul, and the perfume from it is holy prayer." (So also
See also:Origen, Cont . Cris. viii . 17, 20.) The ancients were familiar with XI V . 12the sanitary efficacy of fumigations . The energy with which Ulysses, after the slaughter of the suitors, calls to Euryclea for " fire and
See also:sulphur " to purge (literally " fumigate ") the dining-hall from the pollution of their blood (Od. xxii . 481, 482) would startle those who imagine that sanitation is a peculiarly modern science . There is not the slightest doubt that the censing of things and persons was first practised as an act of
See also:purification, and thus became symbolical of consecration, and finally of the sanctification of the soul .
The Egyptians understood the use of incense as symbolical of the purification of the soul by prayer . Catholic writers generally treat it as typifying contrition, thepreaching of the Gospel, the prayers of the faithful and the virtues of the saints . (G .
INCENDIARISM (Lat. incendere, to set on fire, burn)...
INCEST (Lat. incestus, unchaste)
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