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INDEPENDENT

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Originally appearing in Volume V18, Page 344 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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INDEPENDENT MEXICO] (Dec. 1853), the other by Count Raousset de Boulbon in Sonora (July 1854)—added to the general disorder. The provisional president, General Carrera, proving too Centralist, was replaced by Alvarez (Sept. 24, 1855), two of whose ministers are conspicuous in later history—Ignacio Comonfort, minister of war, and Benito Juarez, minister of finance. Juarez (b. 1806) was of unmixed Indian blood. The son of a Zapotec peasant in a mountain village of Oaxaca, he was employed as a lad by a bookbinder in Oaxaca city, and aided by him to study for the priesthood. He soon turned to the law, though for a time he was teacher of physics in a small local college; eventually went into politics, and did excellent work in 1847 as governor of his native state. Juarez almost immediately secured the enactment of a law (Ley Juarez, Nov. 23, 1855) subjecting the clergy and the army to the jurisdiction of the ordinary courts. " Benefit of clergy " was the curse of Mexico. Officers and soldiers could be tried only by courts-martial, the clergy (including numbers of persons in minor orders, who were practically-laymen) only by ecclesiastical courts. The proposed reform roused the Clericals to resistance. Alvarez gave place (Dec. 8, 1855) to his war minister Comonfort, who represented the less anti-Clerical Liberals. He appointed a commission to consider the question of draining the valley of Mexico, which adopted the plan ultimately carried out in 1890–1900; suppressed a Clerical rising in Puebla (March 1856), which was punished by a considerable confiscation of church property; sanctioned a law releasing church land from mortmain, by providing for its sale, for the benefit, however, of the ecclesiastical owners (called after its author Miguel Lerdo de Tejada, brother of the subsequent president), and a new draft constitution, largely modelled on that of the United States (Feb. 5, 1857). The clergy protested violently, and the Plan of Tacubaya (Dec. 17, 1857), which made Comonfort dictator, provided for the construction of a new constitution under his auspices. He was presently displaced by a thorough reactionary, General Zuloaga, and expelled from Mexico early in 1858; and for three years Mexico was a prey to civil war between two rival governments —the Republicans at Vera Cruz under Juarez, who, as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, succeeded Comonfort; and the reactionaries at the capital. The latter were at first presided over by Zuloaga, who, proving incompetent, was replaced at the end of 1858 by Pezuela, who early in 1859 gave place to Miguel Miramon, a young, able and unscrupulous soldier who was shortly afterwards accepted as " constitutional " president by his party. The Juarists were defeated outside the city of Mexico twice, in October 1858 and on the 11th of April 1859, On the second occasion the whole body of officers, who had surrendered, were shot with Miramon's authority, if not by his express orders, together with several surgeons (including one Englishman, Dr Duval) (the fifty-three " martyrs of Tacubaya "). This atrocity caused great indignation in Mexico and abroad: the reactionists were divided; their financial straits were extreme, as the Juarists held all the chief ports. Juarez was recognized by the United States, and allowed to draw supplies of arms and volunteers thence; and in July 1859 he published laws suppressing the religious orders, nationalizing ecclesiastical property (of the estimated value of $45,000,000), establishing civil marriage and registration, transferring the cemeteries to civil control, and, in short, disestablishing the church. But the apparent hopelessness of any ending to the conflict, together with the frequent outrages of both parties on foreigners, afforded strong reasons for foreign intervention. Early in 1859 President Buchanan had recommended the step to Congress, which did not respond. On the 12th of December 1859 the M`Lean-Juarez treaty was concluded, which gave the United States a sort of disguised protectorate over Mexico, with certain rights of way for railroads over the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and between the Rio Grande and Pacific. The American Senate, however, did not ratify the treaty, and a motion for its reconsideration late in 186o came to nothing, owing to the approach of the War of Secession. When Napoleon III. was in captivity at Ham he dreamed of341 a Central America civilized and opened up to modern enterprise by a transoceanic canal: and the clerical refugees in Paris, among them Labastida, archbishop of Mexico, easily influenced the Empress Eugenie, herself a Spaniard, to interest her husband in the cause of centralized monarchy and the church: it is said that even in 1859 they had thoughts of setting up the Archduke Maximilian as ruler of Mexico. The question of a joint intervention of Great Britain, France, Spain and Prussia was mooted between those powers in i86o. Early in 1859 the outrages on British subjects had Overthrow caused the British minister to break off diplomatic of Miramon, relations. Forced contributions had been levied by 1860. both sides on goods or bullion, being European property, the reactionaries being the worst offenders; and there were numerous cases of murder and robbery of Europeans. At last, on the 17th of November 186o, Miramon, under the plea of necessity, seized $630,000 in specie which had been left under seal at the British Legation and was intended for the bondholders. On the 22nd of December 1860 his forces were routed by the Juarist general Ortega at Arroyozarco, and his government was over-thrown. Juarez entered Mexico City on the nth of January 1861. He soon found that his government was held responsible to Europe for the excesses of its rival as well as its own. Miramon's government had violated the British Legation; the Spanish minister, the papal legate and the representatives of Guatemala and Ecuador were expelled from the country for undue interference on behalf of the reactionaries; the payments of the European British loan were suspended by Juarez's Congress in Interven-July 1861; and various outrages had been committed flop, 1864 on the persons and property of Europeans for which no redress could be obtained. The French charge d'affaires, Dubois de Saligny, who had been sent out in November 186o, urged French intervention, and took up the Jecker claims. Jecker, a Swiss banker settled in Mexico, had lent Miramon's government in 1859 $750,000 (subject, however, to various deductions): in return, Miramon gave him 6 % bonds of the nominal value of $15,000,000 which were ingeniously disguised as a conversion scheme. Jecker had failed early in 186o, Miramon was overthrown a few months later. Jecker's creditors were mostly French, but he still held most of the bonds, and there is reason to believe that he won over Dubois de Saligny by corrupt means to support his claims. Intercepted correspondence (since confirmed from the archives of the Tuileries) showed that the Duc de Morny promised Jecker his patronage in return for 30% of the; profits (De la Gorce, Hist. du Second Empire, IV. c. 1). An imperial decree naturalized Jecker in France, and Napoleon III. took up his claim. A convention between Great Britain, France and Spain for joint interference in Mexico was signed in London on the 31st of October 1861. A separate arrangement of the British claims was negotiated by Juarez, but rejected by the Mexican Congress, November 1861; and the assistance of the United States with a small loan was declined, Mexican territory being demanded as security. On the 14th of December Vera Cruz was occupied by Spanish troops under General Prim; the French fleet and troops arrived soon after, with instructions to seize and hold the Gulf ports and collect the customs for the three Powers till a settlement was effected; Great Britain sent ships, and landed only 700 marines. In view of the unhealthiness of Vera Cruz, the convention of Soledad was concluded with the Mexican government, permitting the foreign troops to advance to Orizaba and incidentally recognizing Mexican independence. But as the French harboured leaders of the Mexican reactionaries, pressed the Jecker claims and showed a disposition to interfere in Mexican domestic politics, which lay beyond the terms of the joint convention, Great Britain and Spain withdrew their forces in March 1862. More troops were sent from France. Their advance was checked by Zaragoza and Porfirio Diaz in the battle of Cinco de Mayo, on the 5th of May 1862; and in September of that. year 30,000 more French troops arrived under General Forey. Wintering at Orizaba, they recommenced their advance Benito Juarez. Miramon. (Feb. 17, 1863), besieged and reduced Puebla, and entered Mexico City on the 7th of June. A provisional government of Mexicans, French nominated directly or indirectly by Dubois de Expedition, Saligny, adopted monarchy, offered the crown to 1862-63. Maximilian of Austria, brother of the Emperor Francis Joseph, and should he refuse, left its disposal to Napoleon III. Maximilian, after some difficulty as to renouncing his right of succession to the throne of Austria, accepted the crown Maximilian subject to the approval of the Mexican people, and Emperor, reached Mexico city on the 1 zth of June 1864. Juarez 1864. meanwhile had set up his capital, first in San Luis Potosi, then in Chihuahua. The new empire was unstable from the first. Before Maximilian arrived the provisional government had refused to cancel the sales of confiscated Church lands, as the clericals demanded. When he came, a host of new difficulties arose. A new loan, nominally of about eight millions sterling, but yielding little more than four, owing to discount and commission, was raised in Europe, but no funds were really available for its service. Maximilian carried the elaborate etiquette of the court of Vienna to Mexico, but favouring toleration of Protestantism, and the supremacy of the Crown over the Church, he was too liberal for the clericals who had set him up. As a foreigner he was unpopular, and the regiments of Austrians and Belgians which were to serve as the nucleus of his own army were more so. His reforms, excellent on paper, could not be carried out, for the trained bureaucracy necessary did not exist. For a time he nominally held sway over about two-thirds of the country—roughly, from lat. 18° to 23°, thus excluding the extreme north and south. Oaxaca city, under Porfirio Diaz,' capitulated to Bazaine—who had superseded the too pro-clerical Forey in October 1864—in February 1865, and by the autumn of that year the condition of the Juarists in the north seemed desperate. But the towns asked for permanent French garrisons, which were refused, as weakening their own power of self-defense. Instead, the country was traversed by flying columns, and the guerillas dealt with by a French service of " contre-guerilla," who fought with much the same savagery as their foes. Directly the French troops had passed, Republican bands sprang up, and the non-combatant Mexicans, to save themselves, could only profess neutrality. Yet on the 3rd of October 1865, Maximilian, misled by a false report that Juarez had left the country, issued a decree declaring the Juarists guerillas, who, whenever captured, were to be tried by court-martial and shot. Mexican generals on both sides had done as much. But Maximilian's decree prepared his own fate. The American Civil War ended in the spring of 1865, and a strong popular feeling was at once manifested in favour of asserting the Monroe doctrine against Maximilian's government. In the summer there were threatening movements of United Maximilian States troops towards the Rio Grande; early in 1866 deserted by Napoleon III. announced his intention of withdrawing France. his forces; in response to a note of Seward, the United States secretary of state, of the 12th of February 1866, he was induced to promise their return by three instalments—in November 1866, March and November 1867. Maximilian now turned for support to the Mexican clericals; meditated abdication, but was dissuaded by his wife Charlotte, the daughter of Leopold I. of Belgium (and " the better man of the two," as he had once jestingly said), who went to intercede for him with the emperor of the French. Finding him obdurate, she went on to appeal to the pope; while at Rome she went mad (end of September 1866). Maximilian had meanwhile drawn nearer to the clericals and farther from the French, and, to protect French interests, Napoleon III. had decided to send out General Castelnau to supersede Bazaine, arrange for the withdrawal of the French forces in one body, and restore the Republic under Ortega, who had quarrelled with Juarez, and was therefore, of all republicans, least unacceptable to the clericals. But fearing the prospect, they induced Maximilian, who had retired to Orizaba for his ' Diaz refused parole, and was confined at Puebla for some months, but made his escape, and was soon in the field again. health, to remain. He yielded on condition that a congress of all parties should be summoned to decide the fate of the empire. Hereupon he returned to the capital; the Juarist dominion extended 'rapidly; the French troops left (in one body) on the 5th of February 1867, and shortly after Maximilian took command of the army at Queretaro. Here, with Miramon, he was besieged by the Juarists under Escobedo, and the garrison, when about to make a last attempt to break out, was betrayed 2 by Colonel Lopez to the besiegers (May 15, 1867). Execution of Maximilian, with the Mexican generals Miramon and Maximilian, Mejia, was tried by court-martial, and, refusing (or 1867. neglecting) to avail himself of various opportunities of escape, was convicted on charges which may be summarized as rebellion, murder and brigandage, on the 14th of June, and shot, with Miramon and Mejia, on the 19th of June 1867, despite many protests from European governments and prominent individuals, including Garibaldi and Victor Hugo. (An effort to save him made by the U.S. Government was frustrated by the dilatoriness of the U.S. Minister accredited to Juarez's Government.) After considerable difficulty with the Republican Government, his body was brought to Europe. Meanwhile Porfirio Diaz had captured Puebla (April 2) and besieged Mexico City, which fell on the 21st of June. The last anti-Juarist stronghold (Inayarit) submitted on the zoth of July 1867. A good deal of discontent existed Juarez President. among the republican rank and file, and Juarez's election in October to the presidency was opposed by Diaz's friends, but without success. But so soon as Juarez was elected, insurrections broke out, and brigandage prevailed throughout the following year. There were unsuccessful insurrections also in 1869 (clerical) and 187o (republican), but an amnesty, passed on the 13th of October 187o, helped to restore peace; trouble again arose, however, at the 1871 election, at which the candidates were Juarez, Sebastian Lerdo de Tejada and Diaz. Juarez's continued re-election was regarded as unconstitutional, and no party obtaining a clear majority, the matter was thrown into Congress, which elected him. Diaz's supporters refused to recognize him, and a revolution broke out, which went on sporadically till Juarez's death on the 18th of July Death of 1872. Sebastian Lerdo de Tejada, as president of Juarez, the Supreme Court, succeeded him, and amnestied 1872. the rebels, but made no further concessions. In the next year, however, laws were passed repeating in a stronger form the attacks of 18J7 on the supremacy of the Church, and prohibiting monastic life. The first day of 1873 was marked by the opening of the Vera Cruz & Mexico railway. Protestant Adminismissions established themselves (with some opposi- tration of tion) in the country, and diplomatic relations were Lerdo de renewed with France and Spain (1874). But towards 7'e)ada. the close of Lerdo de Tejada's term he was suspected of aiming at a dictatorship, and Diaz, whom he had proscribed, made preparations for a rising, then retiring to Texas. At the beginning of 1876 the revolution broke out in Oaxaca with the plan of Tuxtepec, which was adopted by Diaz, and proclaimed as the plan of Palo Blanco (March 21). Diaz's attempt to raise the north, however, failed, and, trying to reach Vera Cruz by sea, he was recognized on the steamer, and recaptured while attempting a four-mile swim ashore. The purser, however, made it appear that he had again jumped overboard, concealed him for some days—generally inside one of the saloon sofas—and helped him to get ashore in disguise at Vera Cruz. He then escaped to Oaxaca and raised a force. Lerdo was declared re-elected, but was overthrown by Diaz after the battle of Tecoac (Nov. 16, 1876) and forced into exile (Jan. 1877), and Diaz was declared ,president on the 2nd of May porflrio 1877. A law forbidding the re-election of a presi- dent till four years had elapsed from his retirement President, from office was passed in the autumn of that year. 1877. 2 Lopez said he acted as Maximilian's agent, but his story rested on an alleged letter from Maximilian which was discredited as a forgery. The evidence of his treason was published in El National of Mexico, Sept. u, 1887. Diaz's first presidency (1870–1880) was marked by some unsuccessful attempts at revolution notably by Escobedo from Texas in 1878, and by a more serious conspiracy in 1879. Diplomatic relations were resumed with Spain, Germany, Italy and some South American states (1877), and France (188o). There were some frontier difficulties with the United States, and with Guatemala, which revived a claim dropped since 1858 to a portion of the state of Chiapas; and there was considerable internal progress, aided by a too liberal policy of subsidies to railways and even to lines of steamships. The boundary questions were settled under President Gonzalez (1880-1884); relations with Great Britain were renewed in 1884. The claims of the railways, however, necessitated retrenchment on official salaries, and the president's plan for conversion of the debt roused unexpected and successful opposition in an ordinarily subservient Congress. At the end of 1884 Porfirio Diaz was again elected president, and was continually re-elected, the constitution being modified expressly to allow him to continue in office. The history of Mexico from 1884 to 1910 was almost void of political strife. President Diaz's policy was to keep down disorder with a strong hand; to enforce the law; to Mexico foster railway development and economic progress; under Diaz. to develop native manufactures by protective tariffs; to introduce new industries, e.g. the production of silk and wine, of coca and quinine; to promote forestry; to improve elementary and higher education—for all which purposes the Ministerio del Fomento is a potent engine; to encourage colonization; and, above all, to place the national credit on a sound basis. The first step in this process was a settlement of the Financial British debt by direct arrangement with the bondreorganiza- holders. In 1890 the Spanish bondholders' claims tion. were satisfactorily arranged also. In 1891 the tariff was made more protectionist. In 1893 the depreciation of silver necessitated stringent retrenchment; but the budget balanced for the first time during many years, the floating debt was converted, and a loan raised for the completion of the Tehuantepec Railway. After 1896 substantial annual surpluses were spent in reducing taxation and in the extinction of debt. In 1895 the 6% external debt was converted into a 5% debt, the bonds of which remained at a premium for 1902; in 1896 the alcabalas or interstate customs and municipal octrois were abolished, and replaced in part by direct taxation and increased stamp duties. The institution by Diaz of the guardias rurales, a mounted gendarmerie composed of the class who in former days drifted Pacification into revolution and brigandage, was a potent means of the of maintaining order, and the extension of railways country. and telegraphs enabled the government to cope at once with any disturbance. The old local revolutions practically disappeared. In 1886–1887 there were some disturbances in Coahuila, New Leon, Sinaloa and Tamaulipas; subsequently hardly anything was heard of such disorders except on the Texan frontier, where in 1890 Francisco Ruiz Sandoval and in 1891 Catarino Garza made incursions into Mexico. Occasionally the Church gave trouble—the presence of foreign priests was complained of; attempts to evade the law prohibiting conventual life were detected and foiled (1891, 1894); and there were Indian risings, repressed sometimes with great severity, among the Mayas of Yucatan, whose last stronghold was taken in 1891, and the Yaquis of Sonora (1899–1900). Under federal and democratic forms, Diaz exercised a strictly centralized and personal rule. He was invited to approve the candidates proposed for state governorships; in all law cases affecting the Government or political matters the judges asked his opinion; he drafted bills, and discussed their text with individual members and committees of congress. Similarly, the state legislatures, as well as the judges and municipal officers, were actually or virtually selected by the state governors, who were practically agents of the president. Now and then the old passions broke out: in September 1898 an absurd attempt to assassinate President Diaz was made by a countryman named Arroyo, but discontent with Diaz's rule was apparently confinedto a small minority.' In 1909 indeed there were some disquieting symptoms. Owing to Diaz's age the vice-presidency had been revived in 1904, and Don Ramon Corral elected to it; but at the elections of 1909 a movement arose in favour of replacing him by General Bernardo Reyes, Governor of Nuevo Leon, but he was disposed of by an official commission to study the military systems of Europe. It was, therefore, regarded as certain that, should President Diaz die in office, Senor Corral would succeed him without serious difficulty. In foreign affairs the rule of Diaz was uneventful. There were transient disputes with the United States (1886, 1888). In 1888–1890 and 1894–1895 a boundary dispute with Guatemala became serious. But Guatemala gave way at the threat of war (Jan. 1895) and a new treaty was made (April 1, 1895). Again in 1907 there was some friction owing to the murder of a Guatemalan ex-president by a compatriot in Mexico: later in the year, however, the Mexican government was active in stopping a war between its Central American neighbours. In the difficulty between England and the United States over the Venezuelan boundary (Dec. 1895) Mexico expressed strong adherence to the Monroe doctrine in the abstract, and suggested that its maintenance should not be left wholly to the United States, but should be undertaken by all American Powers. The first Pan-American congress met in Mexico City in 19or, and the country was represented at the second, held in Rio Janeiro in 1906. Mexico also took part in establishing the permanent Central American Court of Arbitration, inaugurated on the 25th of May 1908 at Cartago, Costa Rica, under the Washington treaties of December 1907, and showed readiness to associate herself with the Government of her great northern neighbour in preserving peace among the Central American States. On the 17th of October 1909 President Taft and President Diaz exchanged visits at the frontier at El Paso, Texas. In brief, under President Diaz's rule the history of Mexico is mainly economic. In the six financial years 1893–1894 to 1899–1900 inclusive the yield of the import duties increased by upwards of 8o%; the revenue from Eco gross. nomic Pro stamps over 6o%, though the duties were reduced; the postal revenue from 1895–1896 to 1899–1900 rose 6o%; the telegraph revenue over 75%. Again, in 1898–1899 the total ordinary revenue of the state was £6,013,921; in 1906–1907 it had increased to £11,428,612, or by more than 90%, and though 1907–1908 was a year of depression its total revenue (£11,177,186) exceeded that of any year save its immediate predecessor. The great drainage scheme which completed the works of the 17th century by taking out the surplus waters of the southern lakes of the valley of Mexico was devised in 1856, begun under Maximilian, proceeded with intermittently till 1885, then taken up with improved plans, practically completed by 1896, and inaugurated in 1900;2 the harbour of Vera Cruz was finished in 1902; the Tehuantepec railway, likely to prove a formidable rival to any interoceanic canal, was opened on the 24th of January 1906. All three were the work of an English firm of contractors, the head of which was Sir Weetman Pearson. American, and later Canadian, capital and enterprise have also been very largely concerned in the development of the country; and its progress was not permanently interfered with by the great earthquakes of April 1907 and July 19o9 at Acapulco, and the floods in August 1909 at Monterey. In 1891 elementary education was reorganized, and made compulsory, secular and gratuitous. Great attention has been paid to higher education, and—at least in the hospitals—to modern sanitation and hygiene. ' Don Augustin Iturbide, grandson of the emperor, godson and (perhaps) at one time the destined heir of Maximilian, was turned out of the army and imprisoned in 1890 for abusing President Diaz. 2 For a full account of the works see J. B. Body in Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, cxliii. 286, sqq. Foreign Affairs. (Texas), and vol. xvii. (New Mexico, &c.). Mention may also be made of Gaston Routier's Histoire de Mexique (1895). Standard Mexican authorities are: C. M. de Bustamante, Quadro historico de la revolution mexicana, 6 vols. (Mexico, 1832—1846) ; Lucas Alaman, Historia de Mexico (Mexico, 1849—1852); N. de Zamacois, Historia de Mexico desde sus tiempos mas remotos hasta nostras dias, 19 vols. (Barcelona, 1876—1882) ; J. E. Hernandez y Davalos, Coleccion de documentos para la historia de la Independencia (Mexico, 6 vols). A huge and informative illustrated work, edited by Justo Sierra (3 vols. large 4to), sumptuously produced and badly translated, is Mexico, its Social Evolution (Barcelona, 1900—1904) ; a useful and handy chronicle is Nicolas Leon's Compendio de la historic general de Mexico hasta el ano de r9oo (Mexico and Madrid, 1902). For the colonial period, Alexander v. Humboldt, Essai politique sur la royaume de la Nouvelle Espagne (Paris, 1811, 2 vols., and atlas; also an English translation). For the war with the United States see R. S. Ripley, The War with Mexico (New York, 1849) ; E. D. Mans-field, The Mexican War (New York, 1849); and Winfield Scott's Memoirs. For Maximilian, the Blue-books on Mexican affairs contained in Accounts and Papers (presented to parliament), vol. lxv. 1862, and vol. 1xiv. 1863, are valuable; E. de Keratry, La Creance Jecker; l'empereur Maximilien, son elevation et sa chute (translated into English by Venables) ; La Contre-guerilla francaise au Mexique, are specially noteworthy; Prince Felix Salm-Salm's Diary gives valuable information as to Maximilian's decline and fall. Also Dela Gorce, Histoire du second empire, vols. iv. v.; J. F. Domenech, L'Empire mexicain (Mexico, 1866), and Le Mexique tel qu'il est (Paris, 1867) ; Daran, El General Miguel Miramon (in French) (Rome, 1886) ; Schmidt von Tavera, Gesch. d. Regierung d. Kaisers Maximilian I. (Vienna, 1903). Ulick Ralph Burke's Life of Benito Juarez (London, 1894) is of considerable value and interest. For the period since 1887 information in English must be sought chiefly in magazine articles: Matias Romero, " The Garza Raid and its Lessons," North American Review (Sept. 1892) ; Don Agustin Iturbide, " Mexico under Diaz," ibid. (June 1894) ; Romero, " The Philosophy of Mexican Revolutions," ibid. (Jan. 1896) ; and C. F. Lummis, " The Awakening of a Nation " (New York, 1898, previously in Harper's Magazine), are valuable as giving information (especially the last named) and points of view. Van Dyke, " Politics in Mexico," Harper's Magazine (1885), vol. lxxi., gives particulars of the opposition to Gonzalez's debt conversion scheme of 1884. President Diaz's message of November 1896, giving an account of his stewardship from 1884 to that year, has been translated into French (Rapport du General Porfirio Diaz a ses compatriotes sur les actes de son administration, &c.), edited by Auguste Genin (Paris, 1897). The early constitutions of the Republic have been published (in Spanish) in three volumes; a study of that of 1857 by B. Moses (of the University of California) is in the Annals of the American Academy of Political Science, II. i. 1891. Various books, chiefly American, have been written on Mexico of late years from a tourist's standpoint. Mrs Alec Tweedie's Mexico as I saw it (London, 1901) and Life of Porfirio Diaz (1906) contain valuable information personally obtained from good authorities in Mexico. See also Percy F. Martin, Mexico of the Twentieth Century, 2 vols. (London, 1907) ; and C. R. Enock, Mexico (1909). (J. S. MA.)
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